Abstract• Introduction• Imaging interface and catalyst geometry• A model for interface geometry• Connecting geometry to crystal phase• Conclusions• Methods• References• Acknowledgements• Author information• Extended data figures and tables• Supplementary information
Controlled formation of non-equilibrium crystal structures is one of the most important challenges in crystal growth. Catalytically grown nanowires are ideal systems for studying the fundamental physics of phase selection, and could lead to new electronic applications based on the engineering of crystal phases. Here we image gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanowires during growth as they switch between phases as a result of varying growth conditions. We find clear differences between the growth dynamics of the phases, including differences in interface morphology, step flow and catalyst geometry. We explain these differences, and the phase selection, using a model that relates the catalyst volume, the contact angle at the trijunction (the point at which solid, liquid and vapour meet) and the nucleation site of each new layer of GaAs. This model allows us to predict the conditions under which each phase should be observed, and use these predictions to design GaAs heterostructures. These results could apply to phase selection in other nanowire systems.
A highly efficient thin-film luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) utilizing two π-conjugated polymers as antennae for small amounts of the valued perylene bisimide Lumogen F Red 305 is presented. The LSC exhibits high photoluminescence quantum yield, low reabsorption, and relatively low refractive indices for waveguide matching. A Monte Carlo simulation predicts the LSC to possess exceptionally high optical efficiencies on large scales.
Two benzoylpyridine-carbazole based fluorescence materials DCBPy and DTCBPy, bearing two carbazolyl and 4-(t-butyl)carbazolyl groups, respectively, at the meta and ortho carbons of the benzoyl ring, were synthesized. These molecules show very small ΔEST of 0.03 and 0.04 eV and transient PL characteristics indicating that they are thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials. In addition, they show extremely different photoluminescent quantum yields in solution and in the solid state: in cyclohexane the value are 14 and 36%, but in the thin films, the value increase to 88.0 and 91.4%, respectively. The OLEDs using DCBPy and DTCBPy as dopants emit blue and green light with EQEs of 24.0 and 27.2%, respectively, and with low efficiency roll-off at practical brightness level. The crystal structure of DTCBPy reveals a substantial interaction between the ortho donor (carbazolyl) and acceptor (4-pyridylcarbonyl) unit. This interaction between donor and acceptor substituents likely play a key role to achieve very small ΔEST with high photoluminescence quantum yield.
Fast radio bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measure (that is, the integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections9. The apparent non-repeating nature of these bursts has led to the suggestion that they originate in cataclysmic events10. Here we report observations of ten additional bursts from the direction of the fast radio burst FRB 121102. These bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst4. This unambiguously identifies FRB 121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB 121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and which vary on timescales of minutes or less. Although there may be multiple physical origins for the population of fast radio bursts, these repeat bursts with high dispersion measure and variable spectra specifically seen from the direction of FRB 121102 support an origin in a young, highly magnetized, extragalactic neutron star11, 12.
A double B←N bridged bipyridyl (BNBP) is a novel electron-deficient building block for polymer electron acceptors in all-polymer solar cells. The B←N bridging units endow BNBP with fixed planar configuration and low-lying LUMO/HOMO energy levels. As a result, the polymer based on BNBP units (P-BNBP-T) exhibits high electron mobility, low-lying LUMO/HOMO energy levels, and strong absorbance in the visible region, which is desirable for polymer electron acceptors. Preliminary all-polymer solar cell (all-PSC) devices with P-BNBP-T as the electron acceptor and PTB7 as the electron donor exhibit a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.38 %, which is among the highest values of all-PSCs with PTB7 as the electron donor.