该研究旨在探讨腰果坚果对2型糖尿病亚洲印度人血糖，体重，血压和血脂的影响。在一项平行的随机对照试验中，300名成人患有T2DM [平均值±SD年龄：51±9.3岁;体重指数（BMI； kg / m2）：26.0±3.4； 55％的男性]被随机分配接受意见，以遵循标准的糖尿病饮食（对照）或类似的建议加30克腰果/ d（干预）12周。与对照组相比，干预组的参加者的收缩压从基线到12周的降幅更大（-4.9±13.7，相比-1.7±11.6 mm Hg; P = 0.04），血浆HDL胆固醇水平升高更多（+1.7±5.6与+ 0.1±4.6mg / dL相比; P = 0.01）。各组之间在体重，BMI，血脂和血糖变量方面没有差异。等离子体油酸浓度和坚果，油酸和单不饱和脂肪酸的自我报告饮食摄入量表明，与坚果消费量相当。印度人用T2DM补充腰果可以降低收缩压和增加HDL胆固醇浓度，对体重，血糖或其他脂质变量没有有害影响。该研究在CTRI / 2017/07/009022在印度的临床试验注册处登记。
Poor weight management, inadequate dietary calcium, and excessive caffeine intake is a growing concern among young adults. This study assessed dietary calcium, caffeine intake and body mass index (BMI) on bone mineral density (BMD) of females freshmen.
Participants included freshmen females (18-21 years) from a mid-western university, free from smoking or dietary supplement use. Two validated and reliable food frequency questionnaires assessed calcium and caffeine consumption. BMD was measured using quantitative ultrasound; Omnipath ® axial transmission technology (Sunlight Omnisense 7000S/8000S) where T-scores of the distal radius were collected. BMIs were calculated using anthropometrics (i.e. height and weight). All variables were statically analyzed using SPSS 20.0.
From a pool of 200 participants, 191 successfully completed the study. A majority (95%; n= 181) were Caucasians, reflective of the university’s student population. Only 12% (n=23) exhibited excellent dietary calcium intakes indicative of ≥ 3 servings/day with 64% having a mean intake of 68 mg/day of caffeine. A one-way analysis of variance revealed there was a significant negative relationship between BMI and BMD (t=5.39, p<0.001), indicating those with higher BMI had lower BMD. No significant relationship existed between dietary calcium and caffeine intake on BMD.
Although dietary calcium and caffeine intake did not affect BMD of young women, BMD was lower among individuals with higher BMI. Given that college students are close to reaching the critical period in development of peak bone mass, continued innovative educational strategies to increase consumption of dietary calcium among freshmen college females is warranted.