《Nature,2月2日,Outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection is linked to MAIT cell activation and cytotoxicity》

  • 来源专题:COVID-19科研动态监测
  • 编译者: zhangmin
  • 发布时间:2021-02-25
  • Outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection is linked to MAIT cell activation and cytotoxicity
    Héloïse Flament, Matthieu Rouland, […]Agnès Lehuen
    Nature Immunology volume 22, pages322–335(2021

    Abstract
    Immune system dysfunction is paramount in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity and fatality rate. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like T cells involved in mucosal immunity and protection against viral infections. Here, we studied the immune cell landscape, with emphasis on MAIT cells, in cohorts totaling 208 patients with various stages of disease. MAIT cell frequency is strongly reduced in blood. They display a strong activated and cytotoxic phenotype that is more pronounced in lungs. Blood MAIT cell alterations positively correlate with the activation of other innate cells, proinflammatory cytokines, notably interleukin (IL)-18, and with the severity and mortality of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. We also identified a monocyte/macrophage interferon (IFN)-α–IL-18 cytokine shift and the ability of infected macrophages to induce the cytotoxicity of MAIT cells in an MR1-dependent manner. Together, our results suggest that altered MAIT cell functions due to IFN-α–IL-18 imbalance contribute to disease severity, and their therapeutic manipulation may prevent deleterious inflammation in COVID-19 aggravation.

相关报告
  • 《Cell,2月2日,Maturation and persistence of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 memory B cell response》

    • 来源专题:COVID-19科研动态监测
    • 编译者:zhangmin
    • 发布时间:2021-02-25
    • Maturation and persistence of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 memory B cell response Aurélien Sokal 18 Pascal Chappert 18 Giovanna Barba-Spaeth 19 Jean-Claude Weill 17 Claude-Agnès Reynaud 17 Matthieu Mahévas 17, 20 Show all authors Show footnotes Published:February 02, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.01.050 Summary Memory B cells play a fundamental role in host defenses against viruses, but to date, their role has been relatively unsettled in the context of SARS-CoV-2. We report here a longitudinal single-cell and repertoire profiling of the B cell response up to 6 months in mild and severe COVID-19 patients. Distinct SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific activated B cell clones fueled an early antibody-secreting cell burst as well as a durable synchronous germinal center response. While highly mutated memory B cells, including pre-existing cross-reactive seasonal Betacoronavirus-specific clones, were recruited early in the response, neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 RBD-specific clones accumulated with time and largely contributed to the late, remarkably stable, memory B cell pool. Highlighting germinal center maturation, these cells displayed clear accumulation of somatic mutations in their variable region genes over time. Overall, these findings demonstrate that an antigen-driven activation persisted and matured up to 6 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection and may provide long-term protection.
  • 《MedRixv,2月27日,Application and optimization of RT-PCR in diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection》

    • 来源专题:COVID-19科研动态监测
    • 编译者:zhangmin
    • 发布时间:2020-02-28
    • Application and optimization of RT-PCR in diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection Guanmin Jiang, Xiaoshuai Renc, Yan Liu, Hongtao Chen, Wei Liu, Zhaowang Guo, Yaqin Zhang, Chaoqun Chen, Jianhui Zhou, Qiang Xiao, Hong Shan doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.02.25.20027755 Abstract Background: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a global threat to public health. Aiming to construct an efficient screening pattern, we comprehensively evaluated the performances of RT-PCR and chest CT in diagnosing COVID-19. Methods: The records including demographics, RT-PCR, and CT from 87 confirmed COVID-19 cases and 481 exclusion cases were collected. The diagnostic accuracy of the pharyngeal swab RT-PCR, CT, combination with the second pharyngeal swab RT-PCR or with CT were evaluated individually. Besides, all the stool RT-PCR results were plotted by time to explore the value of stool RT-PCR. *注,本文为预印本论文手稿,是未经同行评审的初步报告,其观点仅供科研同行交流,并不是结论性内容,请使用者谨慎使用.