《A New Molecular Design Based on Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence for Highly Efficient Organic Light Emitting Diodes》
Two benzoylpyridine-carbazole based fluorescence materials DCBPy and DTCBPy, bearing two carbazolyl and 4-(t-butyl)carbazolyl groups, respectively, at the meta and ortho carbons of the benzoyl ring, were synthesized. These molecules show very small ΔEST of 0.03 and 0.04 eV and transient PL characteristics indicating that they are thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials. In addition, they show extremely different photoluminescent quantum yields in solution and in the solid state: in cyclohexane the value are 14 and 36%, but in the thin films, the value increase to 88.0 and 91.4%, respectively. The OLEDs using DCBPy and DTCBPy as dopants emit blue and green light with EQEs of 24.0 and 27.2%, respectively, and with low efficiency roll-off at practical brightness level. The crystal structure of DTCBPy reveals a substantial interaction between the ortho donor (carbazolyl) and acceptor (4-pyridylcarbonyl) unit. This interaction between donor and acceptor substituents likely play a key role to achieve very small ΔEST with high photoluminescence quantum yield.
Highly efficient, simplified, solution-processed thermally activated delayed-fluorescence organic light-emitting diodes can be realized by using pure-organic thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitters and a multifunctional buffer hole-injection layer, in which high EQE (≈24%) and current efficiency (≈73 cd A−1) are demonstrated. High-efficiency fluorescence red-emitting and blue-emitting devices can also be fabricated in this manner.
The electron positive boron atom usually does not contribute to the frontier orbitals for several lower-lying electronic transitions, and thus is ideal to serve as a hub for the spiro linker of light-emitting molecules, such that the electron donor (HOMO) and acceptor (LUMO) moieties can be spatially separated with orthogonal orientation. On this basis, we prepared a series of novel boron complexes bearing electron deficient pyridyl pyrrolide and electron donating phenylcarbazolyl fragments or triphenylamine. The new boron complexes show strong solvent-polarity dependent charge-transfer emission accompanied by a small, non-negligible normal emission. The slim orbital overlap between HOMO and LUMO and hence the lack of electron correlation lead to a significant reduction of the energy gap between the lowest lying singlet and triplet excited states (ΔET-S) and thereby the generation of thermally activated delay fluorescence (TADF).