《Accurate measurement of phase equilibria and dissociation enthalpies of HFC-134a hydrates in the presence of NaCl for potential application in desalination》
Phase equilibria, structure identification, and dissociation enthalpies of HFC-134a hydrates in the presence of NaCl are investigated for potential application in desalination. To verify the influence of NaCl on the thermodynamic hydrate stability of the HFC-134a hydrate, the three-phase (hydrate (H) - liquid water (L W ) - vapor (V)) equilibria of the HFC-134a+NaCl (0, 3.5, and 8.0 wt%)+water systems are measured by both a conventional isochoric (pVT) method and a stepwise differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) method. Both pVT and DSC methods demonstrate reliable and consistent hydrate phase equilibrium points of the HFC-134a hydrates in the presence of NaCl. The HFC-134a hydrate is identified as sII via powder X-ray diffraction. The dissociation enthalpies (ΔH d ) of the HFC-134a hydrates in the presence of NaCl are also measured with a high pressure micro-differential scanning calorimeter. The salinity results in significant thermodynamic inhibition of the HFC-134a hydrates, whereas it has little effect on the dissociation enthalpy of the HFC-134a hydrates. The experimental results obtained in this study can be utilized as foundational data for the hydrate-based desalination process.
Scientists returned from a 15?day research expedition in the northern Gulf of Mexico with the best high-resolution seismic data and imagery ever obtained of sediments with high gas hydrate saturations.
The expedition and the data and imagery collected resulted from long-standing cooperation between the U.S. Department of the Interior's U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This collaboration aims to advance scientific understanding of gas hydrates, an important potential future energy resource.
Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records
Huijun Chen, PhD * Juanjuan Guo, MS * Chen Wang, PhD * Fan Luo, PhD Xuechen Yu, MD Prof Wei Zhang, PhD et al.
Published:February 12, 2020DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30360-3
Previous studies on the pneumonia outbreak caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were based on information from the general population. Limited data are available for pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in pregnancy and the intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection.
Clinical records, laboratory results, and chest CT scans were retrospectively reviewed for nine pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia (ie, with maternal throat swab samples that were positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) who were admitted to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China, from Jan 20 to Jan 31, 2020. Evidence of intrauterine vertical transmission was assessed by testing for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in amniotic fluid, cord blood, and neonatal throat swab samples. Breastmilk samples were also collected and tested from patients after the first lactation.