Here we sketch the rudiments of what constitutes a smart city which we define as a city in which ICT is merged with traditional infrastructures, coordinated and integrated using new digital technologies. We first sketch our vision defining seven goals which concern: developing a new understanding of urban problems; effective and feasible ways to coordinate urban technologies; models and methods for using urban data across spatial and temporal scales; developing new technologies for communication and dissemination; developing new forms of urban governance and organisation; defining critical problems relating to cities, transport, and energy; and identifying risk, uncertainty, and hazards in the smart city. To this, we add six research challenges: to relate the infrastructure of smart cities to their operational functioning and planning through management, control and optimisation; to explore the notion of the city as a laboratory for innovation; to provide portfolios of urban simulation which inform future designs; to develop technologies that ensure equity, fairness and realise a better quality of city life; to develop technologies that ensure informed participation and create shared knowledge for democratic city governance; and to ensure greater and more effective mobility and access to opportunities for urban populations. We begin by defining the state of the art, explaining the science of smart cities. We define six scenarios based on new cities badging themselves as smart, older cities regenerating themselves as smart, the development of science parks, tech cities, and technopoles focused on high technologies, the development of urban services using contemporary ICT, the use of ICT to develop new urban intelligence functions, and the development of online and mobile forms of participation. Seven project areas are then proposed: Integrated Databases for the Smart City, Sensing, Networking and the Impact of New Social Media, Modelling Network Performance, Mobility and Travel Behaviour, Modelling Urban Land Use, Transport and Economic Interactions, Modelling Urban Transactional Activities in Labour and Housing Markets, Decision Support as Urban Intelligence, Participatory Governance and Planning Structures for the Smart City. Finally we anticipate the paradigm shifts that will occur in this research and define a series of key demonstrators which we believe are important to progressing a science of smart cities.
In this paper, we discuss self-excited and hidden attractors for systems of differential equations. We considered the example of a Lorenz-like system derived from the well-known Glukhovsky-Dolghansky and Rabinovich systems, to demonstrate the analysis of self-excited and hidden attractors and their characteristics. We applied the fishing principle to demonstrate the existence of a homoclinic orbit, proved the dissipativity and completeness of the system, and found absorbing and positively invariant sets. We have shown that this system has a self-excited attractor and a hidden attractor for certain parameters. The upper estimates of the Lyapunov dimension of self-excited and hidden attractors were obtained analytically.
In the last two decades recurrence plots (RPs)were introduced in many different scientific disciplines. It turned out how powerful this method is. After introducing approaches of quantification of RPs and by the study of relationships between RPs and fundamental properties of dynamical systems, this method attracted even more attention. After 20 years of RPs it is time to summarise this development in a historical context.
We review theoretical models of individual motility as well as collective dynamics and pattern formation of active particles. We focus on simple models of active dynamics with a particular emphasis on nonlinear and stochastic dynamics of such self-propelled entities in the framework of statistical mechanics. Examples of such active units in complex physico-chemical and biological systems are chemically powered nano-rods, localized patterns in reaction-diffusion system, motile cells or macroscopic animals. Based on the description of individual motion of point-like active particles by stochastic differential equations, we discuss different velocity-dependent friction functions, the impact of various types of fluctuations and calculate characteristic observables such as stationary velocity distributions or diffusion coefficients. Finally, we consider not only the free and confined individual active dynamics but also different types of interaction between active particles. The resulting collective dynamical behavior of large assemblies and aggregates of active units is discussed and an overview over some recent results on spatiotemporal pattern formation in such systems is given.
This introductory article presents the special Discussion and Debate volume “From black swans to dragon-kings, is there life beyond power laws?” We summarize and put in perspective the contributions into three main themes: (i) mechanisms for dragon-kings, (ii) detection of dragon-kings and statistical tests and (iii) empirical evidence in a large variety of natural and social systems. Overall, we are pleased to witness significant advances both in the introduction and clarification of underlying mechanisms and in the development of novel efficient tests that demonstrate clear evidence for the presence of dragon-kings in many systems. However, this positive view should be balanced by the fact that this remains a very delicate and difficult field, if only due to the scarcity of data as well as the extraordinary important implications with respect to hazard assessment, risk control and predictability.
Studying systems with hidden attractors is new attractive research direction because of its practical and threoretical importance. A novel system with an exponential nonlinear term, which can exhibit hidden attractors, is proposed in this work. Although new system possesses no equilibrium points, it displays rich dynamical behaviors, like chaos. By calculating Lyapunov exponents and bifurcation diagram, the dynamical behaviors of such system are discovered. Moreover, two important features of a chaotic system, the possibility of synchronization and the feasibility of the theoretical model, are also presented by introducing an adaptive synchronization scheme and designing a digital hardware platform-based emulator.
This paper proposes a eight-term 3-D polynomial chaotic system with three quadratic nonlinearities and describes its properties. The maximal Lyapunov exponent (MLE) of the proposed 3-D chaotic system is obtained as L 1 = 6.5294. Next, new results are derived for the global chaos synchronization of the identical eight-term 3-D chaotic systems with unknown system parameters using adaptive control. Lyapunov stability theory has been applied for establishing the adaptive synchronization results. Numerical simulations are shown using MATLAB to describe the main results derived in this paper.
This paper presents a 5-D hyperchaotic Rikitake dynamo system with three positive Lyapunov exponents which is derived by adding two state feedback controls to the famous 3-D Rikitake two-disk dynamo system. It is noted that the proposed hyperchaotic system has no equilibrium points and hence it exhibits hidden attractors. In addition, the qualitative properties, as well as the adaptive synchronization of the hyperchaotic Rikitake dynamo system with unknown system parameters, are discussed in details. The main results are proved using Lyapunov stability theory and numerical simulations are shown using MATLAB. Moreover, an electronic circuit realization in SPICE has been detailed to confirm the feasibility of the theoretical 5-D hyperchaotic Rikitake dynamo model.
Hidden attractors represent a new interesting topic in the chaos literature. These attractors have a basin of attraction that does not intersect with small neighborhoods of any equilibrium points. Oscillations in dynamical systems can be easily localized numerically if initial conditions from its open neighborhood lead to a long-time oscillation. This paper reviews several types of new rare chaotic flows with hidden attractors. These flows are divided into to three main groups: rare flows with no equilibrium, rare flows with a line of equilibrium points, and rare flows with a stable equilibrium. In addition we describe a novel system containing hidden attractors.
Hidden attractors have a basin of attraction which is not connected with unstable equilibrium. Certain systems with hidden attractor show multistability for a range of parameter. Multistability or coexistence of different attractors in nonlinear systems often creates inconvenience and therefore, needs to be avoided to obtain a desired specific output from the system. We discuss the control of multistability in the hidden attractor through the scheme of linear augmentation, that can drive the multistable system to a monostable state. With the proper choice of control parameters a shift from multistability to monostability can be achieved. This transition from multiple attractors to a single attractor is confirmed by calculating the basin size as a measure. When a nonlinear system with hidden attractors is coupled with a linear system, two important transitions are observed with the increase of coupling strength: transition from multistability to monostability and then stabilization of newly created equilibrium point via suppression of oscillations.
Chaotic dynamical systems that are symmetric provide the possibility of multistability as well as an independent amplitude control parameter.The Rössler system is used as a candidate for demonstrating the symmetry construction since it is an asymmetric system with a single-scroll attractor. Through the design of symmetric Rössler systems, a symmetric pair of coexisting strange attractors are produced, along with the desired partial or total amplitude control.
We review chimera patterns, which consist of coexisting spatial domains of coherent (synchronized) and incoherent (desynchronized) dynamics in networks of identical oscillators. We focus on chimera states involving amplitude as well as phase dynamics, complex topologies like small-world or hierarchical (fractal), noise, and delay. We show that a plethora of novel chimera patterns arise if one goes beyond the Kuramoto phase oscillator model. For the FitzHugh-Nagumo system, the Van der Pol oscillator, and the Stuart-Landau oscillator with symmetry-breaking coupling various multi-chimera patterns including amplitude chimeras and chimera death occur. To test the robustness of chimera patterns with respect to changes in the structure of the network, regular rings with coupling range R, small-world, and fractal topologies are studied. We also address the robustness of amplitude chimera states in the presence of noise. If delay is added, the lifetime of transient chimeras can be drastically increased.
Recently, the search for topological states of matter has turned to non-Hermitian systems, which exhibit a rich variety of unique properties without Hermitian counterparts. Lattices modeled through non-Hermitian Hamiltonians appear in the context of photonic systems, where one needs to account for gain and loss, circuits of resonators, and also when modeling the lifetime due to interactions in condensed matter systems. Here we provide a brief overview of this rapidly growing subject, the search for topological states and a bulk-boundary correspondence in non-Hermitian systems.
Memristor and time–delay are potential candidates for constructing new systems with complex dynamics and special features. A novel time–delay system with a presence of memristive device is proposed in this work. It is worth noting that this memristive time–delay system can generate chaotic attractors although it possesses no equilibrium points. In addition, a circuitry implementation of such time–delay system has been introduced to show its feasibility.
Many transition-metal oxides show very large (“colossal”) magnitudes of the dielectric constant and thus have immense potential for applications in modern microelectronics and for the development of new capacitance-based energy-storage devices. In the present work, we thoroughly discuss the mechanisms that can lead to colossal values of the dielectric constant, especially emphasising effects generated by external and internal interfaces, including electronic phase separation. In addition, we provide a detailed overview and discussion of the dielectric properties of CaCu3Ti4O12 and related systems, which is today’s most investigated material with colossal dielectric constant. Also a variety of further transition-metal oxides with large dielectric constants are treated in detail, among them the system La2−xSrxNiO4 where electronic phase separation may play a role in the generation of a colossal dielectric constant.
Recently, fractional calculus has attracted much attention since it plays an important role in many fields of science and engineering. Especially, the study on stability of fractional differential equations appears to be very important. In this paper, a brief overview on the recent stability results of fractional differential equations and the analytical methods used are provided. These equations include linear fractional differential equations, nonlinear fractional differential equations, fractional differential equations with time-delay. Some conclusions for stability are similar to that of classical integer-order differential equations. However, not all of the stability conditions are parallel to the corresponding classical integer-order differential equations because of non-locality and weak singularities of fractional calculus. Some results and remarks are also included.
The purpose of this article is to provide practical introduction into numerical modeling of ultrashort optical pulses in extreme nonlinear regimes. The theoretic background section covers derivation of modern pulse propagation models starting from Maxwell's equations, and includes both envelope-based models and carrier-resolving propagation equations. We then continue with a detailed description of implementation in software of Nonlinear Envelope Equations as an example of a mixed approach which combines finite-difference and spectral techniques. Fully spectral numerical solution methods for the Unidirectional Pulse Propagation Equation are discussed next. The modeling part of this guide concludes with a brief introduction into efficient implementations of nonlinear medium responses. Finally, we include several worked-out simulation examples. These are mini-projects designed to highlight numerical and modeling issues, and to teach numerical-experiment practices. They are also meant to illustrate, first and foremost for a non-specialist, how tools discussed in this guide can be applied in practical numerical modeling.
We review recent developments in the theory of interacting quantum many-particle systems that are not in equilibrium. We focus mainly on the nonequilibrium generalizations of the flow equation approach and of dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). In the nonequilibrium flow equation approach one first diagonalizes the Hamiltonian iteratively, performs the time evolution in this diagonal basis, and then transforms back to the original basis, thereby avoiding a direct perturbation expansion with errors that grow linearly in time. In nonequilibrium DMFT, on the other hand, the Hubbard model can be mapped onto a time-dependent self-consistent single-site problem. We discuss results from the flow equation approach for nonlinear transport in the Kondo model, and further applications of this method to the relaxation behavior in the ferromagnetic Kondo model and the Hubbard model after an interaction quench. For the interaction quench in the Hubbard model, we have also obtained numerical DMFT results using quantum Monte Carlo simulations. In agreement with the flow equation approach they show that for weak coupling the system relaxes to a “prethermalized” intermediate state instead of rapid thermalization. We discuss the description of nonthermal steady states with generalized Gibbs ensembles.
The purpose of this paper is twofold: from one side we provide a general survey to the viscoelastic models constructed via fractional calculus and from the other side we intend to analyze the basic fractional models as far as their creep, relaxation and viscosity properties are considered. The basic models are those that generalize via derivatives of fractional order the classical mechanical models characterized by two, three and four parameters, that we refer to as Kelvin–Voigt, Maxwell, Zener, anti–Zener and Burgers. For each fractional model we provide plots of the creep compliance, relaxation modulus and effective viscosity in non dimensional form in terms of a suitable time scale for different values of the order of fractional derivative. We also discuss the role of the order of fractional derivative in modifying the properties of the classical models.