Research into older people’s relocations to independent dwellings has largely remained separate from research into moves to institutions. Yet, both types of moves could be a response to health problems and to a certain extent they could be substitutes for each other. Using Litwak and Longino’s model of moves of older people, this study assesses the extent to which three commonly used health measures (limitations in activities of daily living [ADL], self-rated health, and the prevalence of [limiting] chronic conditions) predict older people’s moves to subsidized care institutions and elsewhere, in one multinomial logistic regression model. The data were derived from the POLS survey for the Netherlands ( N = 8306) enriched with administrative data on subsequent moves. In line with Litwak and Longino’s model, the findings indicate that older people’s moves to institutions were more likely among those with more severe health problems, whereas moves elsewhere were more likely among those with moderate health problems. Among the three investigated health measures, limitations in ADL had the strongest predictive value, and was the only one for which the difference in effect between relocations to care institutions and relocations elsewhere was statistically significant.
This paper deals with the idea of converting retirement benefit into a life care annuity with graded benefits using a pre-existing public pay-as-you-go pension scheme. Based on accurate biometric data from Australia and the US, the paper shows that using gender-neutral annuity factors to compute the initial benefit involves a large increase in ex-ante gender redistribution compared to a system without long-term coverage. In spite of the very different biometric data, the results are surprisingly similar for both countries. To disentangle the hidden redistribution, a methodology based on conversion (actuarial) factors is used. The value of the actuarial factor relies on a multistate framework in which transitions are modeled from the initial health state to the absorbing state. We also look at what might happen if an annuitant’s initial heath state is not able when they become a beneficiary.
A substantial part of the older population in Germany already has a so-called migration background, but clearly in the next years and decades the rate will increase. Thus, the crucial questions are as follows: How are the older migrants in Germany faring? How are their living situations? What differences exist between migrants and native Germans as well as between members of different migrant groups and different migrant generations? This paper starts with a short overview about the migration history from and to Germany since 1950 and the most important facts of the socio-demographic characteristics of older migrants in Germany. After that, some theoretical considerations about the relation of migration and aging are drawn. Finally, the living situations of older migrants in regard to 1) employment and economic situation, 2) regional distribution and accommodation, 3) marital status, household structure, and intergenerational family relations, as well as 4) health and subjective well-being are examined. The paper ends with a short summary and a reflection on the need for further research.
This month saw the launch in Paris of the latest collection edited by the sociologist, Anne-Marie Guillemard. Professor Guillemard is now Professor Emeritus of Sociology at the Faculty of Social and Human Sciences, University of Paris Descartes Sorbonne, following a long and distinguished career researching and writing on the sociology of ageing and the life course. She was awarded the Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur in 2002. Her latest collection Allongement de la vie: Quels défis ? Quelles politiques? (Lengthening of life: What challenges? Which policies?) is published by La Découverte (2017) and edited jointly with Elena Mascova.
The paper argues that the existing literature, based on the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) data, on how working conditions impact on early retirement preferences/plans is hampered by the fact that the approach adopted to capture individuals’ early retirement plans fails to acknowledge that these preferences/plans are defined by reference to the rules that regulate the entitlement to pension benefits. In doing so, these studies risk overestimating the impact of working conditions on early retirement plans. We put forward a more accurate way of capturing individuals’ early retirement preferences/plans, which consists in using information on the age at which respondents plan to start collecting the basic pension benefits, and then computing whether the respondent plans to retire before the official age of retirement in his country of residence. Using SHARE microdata, wave 4, we show that individuals exposed to an imbalance between effort and rewards at work (Siegriest Journal Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 1(1), 27–41, 1996 ) are more likely to plan to take-up early retirement. We also show that the effect of poor working conditions is smaller than one would find using the previous approach to the measurement of early retirement preferences/plans.
Despite overwhelming evidence to the contrary, many people still question the extent to which population ageing and the ageing-driven ending of growth will unfold more or less as projected. This is particularly so in New Zealand, where the population is still relatively youthful due to near-replacement fertility and many years of high per capita net migration gains. As elsewhere, however, the picture differs markedly at subnational level, with the populations of one-quarter of the nation’s 67 territorial authority areas (TAs) already (in 2017) having more than 20% aged 65+ years. Accompanying this trend, one-third of the nation’s TAs declined in population between 1996 and 2013, primarily because of net migration loss at young adult ages, but in the process accelerating their structural ageing. Taking a subnational approach, this paper explores the dynamics of population ageing across New Zealand’s TAs. We demonstrate that structural ageing is accelerating and that even excessively high levels of net international migration gain cannot be expected to appreciably reduce future structural ageing. We also show that over the period 2013–43 the majority of declining TAs will move from the old form of decline, caused by net migration loss exceeding natural increase, to a new form caused by the combined effects of net migration loss and natural decrease. The findings reinforce our central argument that the phenomenon of population ageing and the ageing-driven end of growth will not ‘go away’ and has urgent implications for matters such as rate-based local government infrastructure funding.
High rates of migration coupled with low formal social protection provisions may place many members of the elderly Georgian population in precarious living conditions that promote vulnerability and limit well-being achievement. This potential connection has been poorly explored in past literature, however, suggesting a need to better assess how the migration of an adult child may influence the multidimensional well-being of the elderly in Georgia. Using a novel dataset comprising 2202 elderly individuals across all regions of Georgia (excepting the territories of Abkhazia and South Ossetia), this paper proposes a multidimensional well-being index that has been specifically designed to encompass the unique resources and constraints faced by elderly individuals in different age cohorts. Following the construction of a multidimensional well-being index—comprised of domains including physical health and independence, housing well-being, social well-being, and emotional well-being—the outcomes of elderly individuals are compared by age and the presence/absence of adult children due to migration. Findings suggest that the migration status of an elderly person’s adult children is related to the attainment of well-being. Elderly individuals with a migrant child are more likely to attain well-being in physical health as well as in the overall multidimensional well-being index.
We evaluate the sustainability of the public transfer systems in 24 EU countries using a new cohort-specific indicator, the Human Capital Investment Gap (HKIG). The indicator measures for a certain cohort the difference between the public benefits in old age and the public contributions of the child generation. Calculating the HKIG for the cohort born in 1950, we show that in none of the analyzed countries the contributions of the child generation will be sufficient to finance the old age benefits of the 1950 cohort, given the age- and employment-specific transfer pattern observed in 2010. This result holds for most of the countries even when assuming very optimistic employment scenarios. The decomposition of the HKIG into its components indicates that the cross-country differences in the HKIG are mainly driven by the level of public contributions and benefits, while retirement age and employment rates play a comparably minor role.
The United Nations (2015) has recognised that the numbers of older people are growing rapidly, and has estimated that over two billion people will be aged 60 years and over by the year 2050, which will account for 22% (or one out of five) of the world’s population, compared to 10% in 2000. As a result of this population explosion it is anticipated that senior tourism will become an evolving and changing market segment. However, very little attention has been given in the literature to the impact of travel behaviour on the well-being of senior tourists and has received insufficient attention in the ageing research agenda. This has resulted in many travel businesses operating with a lack of understanding of the characteristics and concerns of senior travellers, and the different ways that they consume tourism. This article provides an analysis of the literature on the socio-demographics of seniors and their increased desire to participate in new and different tourism experiences; discusses different trends in their leisure behaviour, and draws implications for tourism providers. The literature presented in this review was identified through multiple sources including the use of a range of tourism databases and tracking citations from the research literature. This review has a twofold aim: to provide a deeper understanding of the senior market segment in regard to their expectations, needs and wants when travelling; and an examination of the benefits obtained from leisure travelling which has been linked to concepts such as active ageing and wellbeing. Findings generated by this approach will help create innovative ways for tourism providers to address some of the future trends identified in the research literature.
The ageing population has led to increasing concerns about pensions and their future sustainability. Much of the dominant policy discourse around ageing and pension provision over the last decade has focussed on postponing retirement and prolonging employment. These measures are central to productive notions of ‘active ageing’. Initially the paper briefly sets out the pension developments in the UK. Then it introduces active ageing and active ageing policy, exploring its implications for UK pension provision. It demonstrates that a more comprehensive active ageing framework, which incorporates a life-course perspective, has the potential to assist the UK to respond to the challenges of an ageing population. In doing so it needs to highlight older people as an economic and social resource, and reduce barriers to older people’s participation in society.
Russia has had a high elderly share of its population like the OECD countries, but has had a more turbulent history over the past 100 years, which has caused fluctuations in the capabilities of those turning 60 (measured by education and training, income, enabling environment, medical care, and health status). This article analyses the life experiences and capabilities of five Russian birth cohorts turning 60 over the period 1990–2020. It presents relevant concepts, reviews past research, and evaluates the importance of health factors (health environment, health-related behaviours, medical care, health status) in determining the activities and contributions of older people in Russia. A Human Capabilities of the Elderly in Russia Index (HCERI) with 22 indicators is developed. Russian data are used in the calculation of the HCERI for the cohorts turning 60 in 1990, 1995, 2000, 2010 and 2020. The article then presents evaluations of the experiences and changes in capabilities for each of the five selected cohorts of the elderly in four periods of life: Childhood (1–15 years), Young Adult (16–49), Mature Adult (50–59), and Early Elderly (60–69). The implications of changes in the characteristics of the elderly for Russian government policies are discussed.
The world is ageing – both at an individual and population level – and this ageing produces challenges and opportunities for governments and citizens across the globe (Leeson and Harper, 2006, 2007a, b and c, 2008). In addition, the world is also becoming increasingly urbanised with more and more people living in urban settings. In 1950, 70% of people globally lived in rural settlements and just 30% in urban settlements. By 2014, 54% of the world’s population lived in urban settings and the urban population of the world is expected to continue to grow, so that by 2050, 66% of the world’s almost 10 billion inhabitants will be urban dwellers (United Nations 2014). As far as individual ageing is concerned, globally, life expectancies at birth have increased from 47 years in the mid-twentieth century to around 71 years today, and are expected to rise to around 78 years by the mid-twenty-first century. As far as population ageing is concerned, the proportion of the world’s population aged 60 years and over has increased from 200 million and 8% of world population in the mid-twentieth century to almost 1 billion and 12%, and by 2050, it is expected to reach 21% and around 2.1 billion people (United Nations 2017). This ageing is, however, not uniform across the world, nor is it uniform across regions of the world or even within countries of the world, and the individual experience of ageing as well as the societal response to ageing are diverse, giving rise to striking inequalities in many cases. Nor is urbanisation uniform across the world. In 2014, the most urbanized regions were North America (82% living in urban areas), Latin America and the Caribbean (80%), and Europe (73%), while Africa and Asia still just remained mostly rural, with 40 and 48% of their respective populations living in urban areas. All regions of the world will continue to urbanize with the most rural regions of Africa and Asia urbanizing faster than elsewhere – their urban populations reaching 56 and 64% of their total populations, respectively, by 2050. Although the share of the global population living in rural areas has declined, the absolute size of the global rural community has grown and is expected to peak in the near future (United Nations 2014). Currently, the global rural community amounts to almost 3.4 billion people. This is expected to decline to 3.2 billion people by the middle of the twenty-first century. In addition to being the least urbanised continents of the world, Africa and Asia are also home to almost 90% of the world’s total rural dwellers but as far as individual countries are concerned, India has the largest rural population (857 million), followed by China (635 million). The global urban community has increased in size almost five-fold from 746 million in 1950 to 3.9 billion in 2014. Asia has modest levels of urbanization as a region, but it is home to 53% of the world’s urban community. This compares with Europe’s 14% and Latin America and the Caribbean’s 13%. Population growth and urbanization are predicted to continue into the twenty-first century, bringing an additional 2.5 billion people to the world’s urban community by 2050, with nearly 90% of this concentrated in Asia and Africa. Strikingly, three countries alone – namely India, China and Nigeria – are together predicted to account for 37% of this projected growth in the world’s urban community between 2014 and 2050, with India adding 404 million urban dwellers, China 292 million and Nigeria 212 million. From 1950 to 1987, global population doubled from 2.5 to 5 billion and by 2050 it is expected to have almost doubled again to 9.8 billion (United Nations 2017). In 1950, 55% (1.4 billion people) of the world’s population lived in Asia, 22% (549 million people) in Europe, 9% (229 million people) in Africa, around 7% (approximately 170 million people) in both Northern America and Latin America and the Caribbean and less than 1% (13 million people) in Oceania. By 2015, the world order in terms of population had changed. The largest proportion - 60% – still lives in Asia (4.4 billion), but Africa with 16% (1.2 billion) is the now the second most populous region of the world, followed by Europe (10% and 741 million), Latin America and the Caribbean (almost 9% and 632 million), with the remaining 5% in Northern America (356 million) and Oceania (40 million).
Using data from the fifth wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, this study investigates the association between food insecurity (FI) and several demographic and socioeconomic characteristics in a sample of individuals aged 50 and over in 15 European countries. On average, approximately 12% of individuals that eat meat/fish/poultry or fruit/vegetables less than 3 times per week cannot afford to eat these food items more often. Our Heckman probit analysis reveals that being employed, having higher levels of education and household income are associated with a lower probability of being unable to afford meat/fish/poultry or fruit/vegetables on a regular basis. Pronounced country-specific heterogeneity is also observed in food unaffordability: relative to Germany, the Eastern and Southern European countries, particularly the Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Italy, and Spain, are more vulnerable to food unaffordability. Nonlinear decompositional results show that household income and being employed are the two main contributors to the food unaffordability gap between high FI and low FI prevalence among European countries.
The issues of older adults outliving family members and living alone with no family support or existing social networks raise concerns on the health and wellbeing needs of this particular population group. This article explores the concept of orphaned older adults within the healthcare context through an integrative review of literature. The review utilized online health databases and online publishing platforms for grey literature. Eight articles focusing on elder orphans within the healthcare literature were included in this review. Four emerging themes were identified: characteristics of the older adult orphan; healthcare and clinical oversight; older adult orphans’ support services; and ‘older adult orphan’ as an advocacy healthcare terminology. Elder orphans are vulnerable older adults who may have current stable health status, yet are at risk of health-related issues which could hinder their decision making ability in the future. The conceptualization of becoming orphaned in advanced age opens an important dialogue in the healthcare sector and encourages attention from health professionals to consider and to be more aware of this vulnerable population group among older people. It is important that the use of this otherwise non-clinical term defining orphancy in older age or even those at risk be more visible and accepted, for the purpose of clinical assessment and coordination of care for both acute and long-term/community settings. Health professionals and clinicians act as advocates when screening and assessment for older adult orphans are undertaken at all levels and across healthcare settings.
It is known that older persons from many countries often enjoy living abroad for weeks or months of the year, often to avoid periods of harsh weather at home. However, there has been little attempt to synthesize existing knowledge of this practice, often called retirement migration. Scoping reviews are a widely accepted form of research synthesis. In this article we present the findings of a scoping review that asks: what is known about the factors motivating short-term international retirement migration? Using the guidance of a reference librarian, we searched 17 databases to identify pertinent academic articles. We read 110 articles in full, following an initial abstract review stage, ultimately including 44 in the review. The included articles primarily reported on studies that were qualitative in nature and heavily focused on the lived experiences of short-term international retirement migrants. Four synthesis themes summarize existing knowledge about the factors that motivate this transnational mobility: (1) the destination (e.g., climate, natural and cultural environment); (2) the people (e.g., social networks, language); (3) the cost (e.g., cost of living abroad, affordability of health care and housing); and (4) the movement (e.g., ease of travel, visa and residency requirements). Research to date mainly focuses on short-term international retirement migrant destinations in affluent countries or destinations chosen by seasonal migrants from relatively wealthy Global North nations. Based on these findings we identify several pressing research gaps and directions for future research.