Quality of life (QoL) is an important index that allows health practitioners to understand the overall health status of an individual. One commonly used reliable and valid QoL instrument with parallel items on parent and child questionnaires, the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Version 4.0 (PedsQL), has been being developed since 1997. However, the use of parent- and child-reported PedsQL is still under development. Using multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) analyses and absolute agreement analyses across parent and child questionnaires can further help health practitioners understand the construct of PedsQL, and the feasibility of PedsQL in clinical. We analyzed the questionnaires of 254 parent–child dyads. MTMM through confirmatory factor analyses and percent of smallest real difference (SRD%) were used for analyzing. Our results supported the construct validity of the PedsQL. Four traits (physical, emotional, social, and school) and two methods (parent-proxy reports and child self-reports) were distinguished by MTMM. Moreover, the results of absolute agreements suggested that parent-rated and child-rated PedsQL are close (SRD% = 17.88–30.55 %); thus, a parent-rated PedsQL can be a secondary outcome representing a child’s health. We conclude that the PedsQL is useful for measuring children’s QoL, and has helpful clinical implications.
The Social Emotional Health Survey (SEHS) was developed with the aim of assessing core cognitive dispositions associated with adolescents’ positive psychosocial development. Using a new sample, the present study sought to extend previous SEHS research by coadministering it with the Behavioral Emotional Screening System (BESS). The sample included 2,240 students in Grades 9-12 from two comprehensive high schools located in a major west coast USA city. A majority of the students were of Latino/a heritage (72 %) and had experienced disadvantaged economic circumstances (80 % at school 1 and 68 % at school 2). Confirmatory factor analyses supported the original SEHS factor structure composed of the first-order constructs of belief-in-self, belief-in-others, emotional competence, and engaged living, which parsimoniously mapped on to a second-order “covitality” factor. Complete factorial invariance was found across four groups formed by crossing gender (male, female) and age (ages 13–15, ages 16–18). Latent means analysis found several small to moderate effects size differences, primarily for the belief-in-self and belief-in-others first-order latent traits. A SEM analysis found that the SEHS measurement model, including covitality was a significant negative predictor of psychological distress as measured by the BESS and was positively associated with students’ end-of-semester grade point average. The discussion focuses on implications for conceptualizing the core psychological components of adolescents’ positive quality of life and how schools can use the SEHS as part of a whole-school procedure to screen for students’ complete mental health.
textabstractThe aim of this study was to obtain a greater insight into the association between vacations and happiness. We examined whether vacationers differ in happiness, compared to those not going on holiday, and if a holiday trip boosts post-trip happiness. These questions were addressed in a pre-test/post-test design study among 1,530 Dutch individuals. 974 vacationers answered questions about their happiness before and after a holiday trip. Vacationers reported a higher degree of pre-trip happiness, compared to non-vacationers, possibly because they are anticipating their holiday. Only a very relaxed holiday trip boosts vacationers' happiness further after return. Generally, there is no difference between vacationers' and non-vacationers' post-trip happiness. The findings are explained in the light of set-point theory, need theory and comparison theory.
The present longitudinal study explored the development of personal well-being in university students over 4 years. Personal well-being was indexed by multiple indicators including life satisfaction, positive youth development qualities, and university engagement. A sample of 434 students enrolled in the new 4-year undergraduate program in one university in Hong Kong was successfully followed up for 4 years since they started their university study in 2012–2013 academic year. Students completed an online survey on a yearly basis and four waves of data were collected. Results revealed significant changes in most well-being indicators over time with three main observations. First, students’ life satisfaction remained at a stable level during 4 years. Second, most students’ self-reported positive youth development competencies followed a U-shaped developmental trajectory, which was characterised by a dip in the second year and a continuous rebound in the third year and fourth year. Third, students’ university engagement in different aspects showed significant increments in the third and fourth year of university study. The findings underscore the disparate developmental patterns of different aspects of student well-being during university study. This suggests that there is a need to take into account students’ developmental characteristics and related challenges in different stages of university life when develop and implement programs in university to promote student well-being.
The aim of the present study was to explore and describe the goals and motivations underlying them for adults living in rural African contexts using an inductive approach. Seventy participants (n=25 males, n=45 females) between 43 and 89years (mean age 60.85years) were selected from a total of N=537 residing in the rural Ganyesa and Tlakgameng communities in South Africa. Participants were asked to indicate the three most important goals in their present lives and then provide reasons why each of these goals was important to them. Themes emerging from the data analysis referred to financial security, meeting social needs, environmental considerations, generative caring, and relational goals. Goal motivations were not mere intrinsic processes aimed at personal need satisfaction, but had a strong interdependent focus embedded in existing relational ties. Based on the findings we conceptualise an integration of key constructs found in diverse perspectives used in goal research and emphasise the unique role of contextual factors in the understanding of goals and motivations underlying them. These findings highlight important considerations in the enhancement of the quality of life of rural residents of Ganyesa and Tlakgameng.
This study documents for the first time the correlation between livability and subjective well-being (SWB) across European cities. Livability is measured with the popular Mercer Quality of Living Survey and correlates considerably with SWB, measured as place and life satisfactions. There are outliers, for instance: the unlivable but happy Belfast (fool's paradise) and the livable, but unhappy Paris (fool's hell). In addition, we find geographic patterns: while the Mercer index ranks higher Western cities, subjective well-being is higher in Northern cities. Smaller cities score higher on both livability and SWB, confirming thus the urban sociological theory of urban malaise while contradicting urban economic theory of city triumph.