Psychiatric disorders are highly heritable, and in many individuals likely arise from the combined effects of genes and the environment. A substantial body of evidence points toward DISC1 being one of the genes that influence risk of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, and functional studies of DISC1 consequently have the potential to reveal much about the pathways that lead to major mental illness. Here, we review the evidence that DISC1 influences disease risk through effects upon multiple critical pathways in the developing and adult brain.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) regulate gene expression in eukaryotes. Plant miRNAs modulate their targets mainly via messenger RNA (mRNA) cleavage. Small RNA (sRNA) targets have been extensively investigated in Arabidopsis using computational prediction, experimental validation, and degradome sequencing. However, small RNA targets are largely unknown in rice (Oryza sativa). Here, we report global identification of small RNA targets using high throughput degradome sequencing in the rice indica cultivar 93–11 (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica). One hundred and seventy-seven transcripts targeted by a total of 87 unique miRNAs were identified. Of targets for the conserved miRNAs between Arabidopsis and rice, transcription factors comprise around 70% (58 in 82), indicating that these miRNAs act as masters of gene regulatory nodes in rice. In contrast, non-conserved miRNAs targeted diverse genes which provide more complex regulatory networks. In addition, 5 AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORs (ARFs) cleaved by the TAS3 derived ta-siRNAs were also detected. A total of 40 sRNA targets were further validated via RNA ligasemediated 5’ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM 5’-RACE). Our degradome results present a detailed sRNA-target interaction atlas, which provides a guide for the study of the roles of sRNAs and their targets in rice.
Polyhydroxyalkanoates （PHAs） are a class of biopolyesters that are synthesized intracellularly by microorganisms, mainly by different genera of eubacteria. These biopolymers have diverse physical and chemical properties that also classify them as biodegradable in nature and make them compatible to living systems. In the last two decades or so, PHAs have emerged as potential useful materials in the medical field for different applications owing to their unique properties. The lower acidity and bioactivity of PHAs confer them with minimal risk compared to other biopolymers such as poly-lactic acid （PLA） and poly-glycolic acid （PGA）. Therefore, the versatility of PHAs in terms of their non-toxic degradation products, biocompatibility, desired surface modifications, wide range of physical and chemical properties, cellular growth support, and attachment without carcinogenic effects have enabled their use as in vivo implants such as sutures, adhesion barriers, and valves to guide tissue repair and in regeneration devices such as cardiovascular patches, articular cartilage repair scaffolds, bone graft substitutes, and nerve guides. Here, we briefly describe some of the most recent innovative research involving the use of PHAs in medical applications. Microbial production of PHAs also provides the opportunity to develop PHAs with more unique monomer compositions economically through metabolic engineering approaches. At present, it is generally established that the PHA monomer composition and surface modifications influence cell responses.PHA synthesis by bacteria does not require the use of a catalyst （used in the synthesis of other polymers）, which further promotes the biocompatibility of PHA-derived polymers.
Brucella spp. are zoonotic, facultative intracellular pathogens, which cause animal and human disease. Animal disease results in abortion of fetuses; in humans, it manifests flu-like symptoms with an undulant fever, with osteoarthritis as a common complication of infection. Antibiotic regimens for human brucellosis patients may last several months and are not always completely effective. While there are no vaccines for humans, several licensed live Brucella vaccines are available for use in livestock. The performance of these animal vaccines is dependent upon the host species, dose, and route of immunization. Newly engineered live vaccines, lacking well-defined virulence factors, retain low residual virulence, are highly protective, and may someday replace currently used animal vaccines. These also have possible human applications. Moreover, due to their enhanced safety and efficacy in animal models, subunit vaccines for brucellosis show great promise for their application in livestock and humans. This review summarizes the progress of brucellosis vaccine development and presents an overview of candidate vaccines.
Benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) containing six fused benzene rings is considered as priority pollutant because of its carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and acute toxicity. Response surface methodology (RSM), 3-level five variables Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to optimize the factors viz. pH 7.0, temperature 30[degrees]C, shaking speed 130 rpm, inoculum dosage 3% and ZnO nanoparticles concentration 2 g/L after a period of 6 days of incubation for the enhanced degradation of BghiP (63.83[+ or -]0.01%). It was well in close agreement with the predicated value obtained by RSM model yield (63.83[+ or -]0.08%). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed F-value of 51.70, R2 of 0.9764, probability of<0.0001 and coefficient of variation of 1.25% confirmed the validity of the model. Degradation of BghiP was assessed using GC-MS and FTIR analysis. Kinetic study demonstrated that BghiP degradation fitted first order kinetic model. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on process optimization toward nanobioremediation of BghiP using yeast consortium in presence of ZnO nanoparticles and produced biosurfactant in medium.
Autophagy is an important lysosomal degradation pathway that aids in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis by breaking down and recycling intracellular contents. Dysregulation of autophagy is linked to a growing number of human diseases. The Beclin 1-Vps34 protein-protein interaction network is critical for autophagy regulation and is therefore essential to cellular integrity. Manipulation of autophagy, in particular via modulation of the action of the Beclin I-Vps34 complexes, is considered a promising route to combat autophagy-related diseases. Here we summarize recent findings on the core components and structural architecture of the Beclin 1-Vps34 complexes, and how these findings provide valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms that underlie the multiple functions of these complexes and for devising therapeutic strategies.
Flavonoid biosynthetic genes are often coordinately regulated in a temporal manner during flower or fruit development, resulting in specific accumulation profiles of flavonoid compounds. R2R3-MYB-type transcription factors （TFs） ＂recruit＂ a set of biosynthetic genes to produce flavonoids, and, therefore, R2R3-MYBs are responsible for the coordinated expression of structural genes. Although a wealth of information regarding the identified and functionally characterized R2R3-MYBs that are involved in flavonoid accumulation is available to date, this is the first review on the global regulation of MYB factors in the flavonoid pathway. The data presented in this review demonstrate that anthocyanin, flavone/flavonol/3-deoxyflavonoid （FFD）, proanthocyanidin （PA）, and isoflavonoid are independently regulated by different subgroups of R2R3-MYBs. Furthermore, FFD-specific R2R3-MYBs have a preference for early biosynthetic genes （EBGs） as their target genes; anthocyanin-specific R2R3-MYBs from dicot species essentially regulate late biosynthetic genes （LBGs）; the remaining R2R3-MYBs have a wider range of target gene specificity. To elucidate the nature of the differential target gene specificity between R2R3-MYBs, we analyzed the DNA binding domain （also termed the MYB-domain） of R2R3-MYBs and the distribution of the recognition cis-elements. We identified four conserved amino acid residues located in or just before helix-3 of dicot anthocyanin R2R3-MYBs that might account for the different recognition DNA sequence and subsequently the different target gene specificity to the remaining R2R3-MYB TFs.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). This disease with two million deaths per year has the highest mortality rate among bacterial infections. The only available vaccine against TB is BCG vaccine. BCG is an effective vaccine against TB in childhood, however, due to some limitations, has not proper efficiency in adults. Also, BCG cannot produce an adequately protective response against reactivation of latent infections.In the present study we will review the most recent findings about contribution of HspX protein in the vaccines against tuberculosis.Therefore, many attempts have been made to improve BCG or to find its replacement. Most of the subunit vaccines for TB in various phases of clinical trials were constructed as prophylactic vaccines using Mtb proteins expressed in the replicating stage. These vaccines might prevent active TB but not reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). A literature search was performed on various online databases (PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar) regarding the roles of HspX protein in tuberculosis vaccines.Ideal subunit post-exposure vaccines should target all forms of TB infection, including active symptomatic and dormant (latent) asymptomatic forms. Among these subunit vaccines, HspX is the most important latent phase antigen of M. tuberculosis with a strong immunological response. There are many studies that have evaluated the immunogenicity of this protein to improve TB vaccine.According to the studies, HspX protein is a good candidate for development of subunit vaccines against TB infection.
Metabolic disorders such as Obesity, Diabetes Type 2 (T2DM) and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) are the most prevalent globally. Recently, there has been a surge in the evidence indicating the correlation between the intestinal microbiota and development of these metabolic conditions apart from predisposing genetic and epigenetic factors. Gut microbiome is pivotal in controlling the host metabolism and physiology. But imbalances in the microbiota patterns lead to these disorders via several pathways. Animal and human studies so far have concentrated mostly on metagenomics for the whole microbiome characterization to understand how microbiome supports health in general. However, the accurate mechanisms connecting the metabolic disorders and alterations in gut microbial composition in host and the metabolites employed by the microorganisms in regulating the metabolic disorders is still vague.The review delineates the latest findings about the role of gut microbiome to the pathophysiology of Obesity, IBD and Diabetes Mellitus. Here, we provide a brief introduction to the gut microbiome followed by the current therapeutic interventions in restoration of the disrupted intestinal microbiota.A methodical PubMed search was performed using keywords like “gut microbiome,” “obesity,” “diabetes,” “IBD,” and “metabolic syndromes.” All significant and latest publications up to January 2018 were accounted for the review.Out of the 93 articles cited, 63 articles focused on the gut microbiota association to these disorders. The rest 18 literature outlines the therapeutic approaches in maintaining the gut homeostasis using probiotics, prebiotics and faecal microbial transplant (FMT).Metabolic disorders have intricate etiology and thus a lucid understanding of the complex host-microbiome inter-relationships will open avenues to novel therapeutics for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of the metabolic diseases.
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) increased in recent years in both adolescents and children groups. The aim of the study is evaluating the relationship between insulin and uric acid (UA) level in MS in adolescents we studied 120 adolescence aged 10 to 19 in two groups: control group without metabolic syndrome and case group with metabolic syndrome. The Criteria of ATP III was considered as a diagnosis factor for metabolic syndrome. Various studies have been conducted in various populations to evaluate the relationship between UA level and MS in adolescents. Abdominal obesity, low HDL, hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension are associated with high UA level. In their analysis, the MS OR in UA levela[c]1/24.9, 4.9-5.8 and a[c]3/45.8 mg/dl was 1, 2.53 and 9.03, respectively, which were higher than our findings in current study. Hyperinsulinemia caused by insulin resistance is one of the complications associated with MS, which puts individuals at risk of diabetes and cardiovascular events. Uric acid level in the Case group was significantly higher than the control group (p = 0.0001, 43.8[+ or -]1.4 vs. 4.1[+ or -]1 mg/dl, respectively). Insulin level was significantly higher in the case group in compare to the control group (p = 0.008, 9.8[+ or -] 5.3 vs. 12.2[+ or -]6 [micro]U/ml, respectively). The findings of this case-control study showed that adolescents with metabolic syndrome have a higher uric acid and insulin level in compare to normal subjects. We hypothesis that increase in serum insulin and uric acid level can be a risk factor in the development of metabolic syndrome.
Thalassemia is known as the commonest monogenic disorder with an imbalanced rate of globin chains production of adult hemoglobin. Despite the available information about the thalassemia etiology, its phenotype varies from each patient to another. This study aimed to evaluate the hematological parameters of patients with the same -[alpha]3.7 homozygote and heterozygote genotypes to amend screening programs. The mean age in heterozygous and homozygous groups was 25.7[+ or -]4.5 and 26[+ or -]4.4 years old, respectively. The degree of anemia was considerably varied in patients with the same genotype. MCV, RBC and MCH showed a wide distribution in patients. The findings presented here suggest that other molecular mechanisms along with [alpha]-globin gene mutations could be involved in determining the phenotypes of alpha thalassemia patients.
Among the reported potential agents to treat the epilepsy, sulphonamides are important and their significance cannot be ignored. A series of substituted 4-amino-benzene sulfonamides were designed, keeping in view the structural requirement of pharmacophore. Lipinski rule of five has been calculated failure to Lipinski rule was not observed. Docking was performed through AutoDock Vina. Molecules have been screened out through docking. Compounds were synthesized and characterized through IR, 1.sup.HNMR, 13.sup.C NMR, Mass and elemental analysis. The anticonvulsant activity of the synthesized compounds was assessed using the Maximal Electroshock Seizure (MES) model. In-silico biological activity spectrum, toxicological studies, predicted oral rats LD50 were performed. Docking studies showed good interaction with lyase (Oxo-acid) - human carbonic anhydrase-I (1AZM). The in-silico studies proved them to be with good drug-likeness properties, especially 4-(3-Acetyl-phenylamino)-methyl)-benzenesulfonamide (2g). These results revealed that the synthesized compounds (1a-1c, 2a-2q) exhibited promising anticonvulsant effect against MES model for inhibition of Lyase- Human Carbonic Anhydrase-I. After investigating all the results, the compound 4-(3-Acetyl-phenylamino)-methyl)-benzenesulfonamide (2g) is found to be best in the series. A comparatively good activity of compound 2g suggests us that sulphonamide can be leads to further optimization for building potent and chemically diversified anti-convulsant agents.
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), an X-linked disorder, is the most common cause of inherited mental retardation. This is caused by a trinucleotide CGG repeat expansion (>200) on the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1) becoming methylated leading to a deficiency or absence of the FMR1 protein. Determining FXS prevalence in the mentally retarded individuals in the west of Iran was the aim of this study. 200 patients with moderate mental retardation who were clinically suspicious to FXS were screened using cytogenetic and molecular methods. Blood samples were collected and cultured in the specific culture media. The G-Banding method was used for karyotyping and DNA sequencing performed for verifying the results of the cytogenetic tests. 16 patients (8%) were found to have fragile X syndrome. The results showed that there is no significant association between the fragile X syndrome and economic status and place of residence, however, the relationship between fragile X syndrome and mental retardation in the family history is significant. The frequency of FXS was similar to other reports in the preselected patients. For diagnosis of FXS, chromosome analysis must be accompanied by molecular studies.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases, and its prevalence continues to increase globally. The impact of mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid metabolism on diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance (IR) has been implicated in several previous reports however, the results of studies are confusing despite four decades of study. This review has evaluated updated understanding of the role of mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid metabolism on type 2 diabetes, and found that mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid metabolism disorder induce the dysregulation of liver and pancreatic beta cells, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid metabolism induce metabolic dysregulation and finally increasing the possibility of diabetes.
Planar cell polarity (PCP) is a phenomenon in which epithelial cells are polarized along the plane of a tissue. PCP is critical for a variety of developmental processes and is regulated by a set of evolutionarily conserved PCP signaling proteins. Many of the PCP proteins adopt characteristic asymmetric localizations on the opposing cellular boundaries. Currently, the molecular mechanisms that establish and maintain this PCP asymmetry remain largely unclear. Newly synthesized integral PCP proteins are transported along the secretory transport pathway to the plasma membranes. Once delivered to the plasma membranes, PCP proteins undergo endocytosis. Recent studies reveal insights into the intracellular trafficking of PCP proteins, suggesting that intracellular trafficking of PCP proteins contributes to establishing the PCP asymmetry. To understand the intracellular trafficking of planar cell polarity proteins in the secretory transport pathway and endocytic transport pathway. This review summarizes our current understanding of the intracellular trafficking of PCP proteins. We highlights the molecular mechanisms that regulate sorting of PCP proteins into transport vesicles and how the intracellular trafficking process regulates the asymmetric localizations of PCP proteins. Current studies reveal novel insights into the molecular mechanisms mediating intracellular trafficking of PCP proteins. This process is critical for delivering newly synthesized PCP proteins to their specific destinations, removing the unstable or mislocalized PCP proteins from the plasma membranes and preserving tissue polarity during proliferation of mammalian skin cells. Understanding how PCP proteins are delivered in the secretory and endocytic transport pathway will provide mechanistic insights into how the asymmetric localizations of PCP proteins are established and maintained.
Diabetes is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis. The diabetic foot is characterized by the presence of arteriopathy and neuropathy. When ischemia is diagnosed, restoration of pulsatile blood flow by revascularization may be considered for salvaging the limb. The treatment options are angioplasty with or without stenting and surgical bypass or hybrid procedures combining the two. To evaluate the outcomes of severe ischemic diabetic foot ulcers for which percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) was considered as the first-line vascular procedure. Factors associated with successful PTA were also evaluated. In 80 consecutive diabetic patients with foot ulcers and severe limb ischemia, PTAwas performed if feasible. All patients were followed until healing or for one year. Clinical and angiographic factors in fluencing outcomes after PTA were sought by univariate and multivariate analysis. PTAwas done in 73 of the 80 (91.2%) patients, and considered clinically succe ssful in 58(79.9%). Successful PTA was significantly higher in patients with Superficial femoral artery, posterior Tibialis and dorsalis pedis arteries involvement in the univariate analysis. Seven patients were expired during the study follow up due to MI, pulmonary thromboembolism and GI bleeding. PTA in diabetic patients with severe ischemic foot ulcers provided favorable. Some parameters could be used for predicting PTA successfulness.
Cancer and chemotherapy-induced malnutrition increase death, reduce the response to treatment, and increase multiple kinds of side effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Mediterranean-neutropenic diet on the nutritional status of acute myeloid leukemia patients under chemotherapy. 50 patients were divided into two groups by a random allocation scheme: the Mediterranean-neutropenic diet (n = 25) and the neutropenic diet group (n = 25). The intervention was implemented during a one month period. The nutritional status was evaluated based on PG-SGA. Serum albumin levels and dietary intake were also measured. In general, based on the results of this study, the Mediterranean neutropenic diet improves nutritional status during chemotherapy by increasing food intake, preventing weight loss and increasing serum albumin levels