Tandem structured dye-sensitized solar cells （DSSCs） can take full advantage of sunlight, effectively broadening the absorption spectrum of the cell, resulting in a higher open circuit voltage or short circuit current than that of the conventional DSSC with single light absorber. The theoretical maximum efficiency is therefore suggested to be over the Schottky-Queisser limit of 33%. Accord- ingly, tandem design of DSSC is thought to be a promising way to break the performance bottleneck of DSSC. Besides, the tandem designs also broaden the application diversity of DSSC technology, which will accelerate its scale-up industrial application. In this paper, we have reviewed the recent progress on photo-electrochemical applications associated with kinds of tandem designs of DSSCs, in general, which are divided into three kinds： ＂n- type DSSC ＋ n-type DSSC,＂ ＂n-type DSSC ＋ p-type DSSC＂ and ＂n-type DSSC ＋other solar conversion devices.＂ The working principles, advantages and chal- lenges of these tandem structured DSSCs have been discussed. Some possible solutions for further studies have been also pointed out together.
Germanium （Ge） pin photodiodes show clear direct band gap emission at room temperature, as grown on bulk silicon in both photoluminescence （PL） and electro- luminescence （EL）. PL stems from the top contact layer with highly doped Ge because of strong absorption of visible laser light excitation （532 nm）. EL stems from the recombination of injected carriers in the undoped intrinsic layer. The difference in peak positions for PL （0.73 eV） and EL （0.80 eV） is explained by band gap narrowing from high doping in n＋-top layer. A superlinear increase of EL with current density is explained by a rising ratio of direct/ indirect electron densities when quasi Fermi energy level rises into the conduction band. An analytical model for the direct/indirect electron density ratio is given using simplifying assumptions.
Scanning near-field optical microscopy （SNOM） is an ideal experimental measuring system in nano-optical measurements and characterizations. Besides microscopy with resolution beyond the diffraction limit, spectroscope with nanometer resolution and other instruments with novel performances have been indispensable for researches in nano-optics and nanophotonics. This paper reviews the developing history of near-field optical （NFO） measuring method and foresees its prospects in future. The development of NFO measurements has gone through four stages, including optical imaging with super resolution, near-field spectroscopy, measurements ofnanooptical parameters, and detections of near-field interac- tions. For every stage, research objectives, technological properties and application fields are discussed.
In the last few years, there has been growing interest in the research of helical metamaterials due to the advantages of giant circular dichroism; broad operation bands, and compact structures. However, most of the researches were in the cases of single-, circular-helical metamaterials, and normal incidences. In this paper, we reviewed recent simulation works in the helical metama- terials with the finite-difference time-domain （FDTD） method, which mainly included the optical performances of double-, three-, four-helical metamaterials, perfor- mances of elliptical-helical metamaterials, and the polar- ization properties under the condition of oblique incidences. The results demonstrate that the double-helical metamaterials have operation bands more than 50%, which is broader than those of the single-helical structures. But both of them have low signal-to-noise ratios about 10 dB. The three- and four-helical metamaterials have significant improvement in overall performance. For elliptical- helixes, simulation results suggest that the transmitted light can have elliptical polarization states. On the condition of oblique incidences, the novel property of tunable polarization states occurred in the helical metama- terials, which could have much broader potential applica- tions such as tunable optical polarizers, tunable beam splitters, and tunable optical attenuators.
The treatment ofwastewater that includes toxic organic pollutants such as dyes, phenoaniline, phenols and their derivatives is still a challenge due to their biorecalcitrant and acute toxicity to the widespread acceptance of water recycling. Three-dimensional （3D） Bi2WO6 microsphere was synthesized by the hydrothermal method using Bi（NO3）3 and Na2WO4 as raw materials. This structure exhibits high photocatalytic activity for the dyes, toxic organic compounds. The degradation of methlyene blue is 100% in 30 min, 4-nitrylphenol is 95% in 60min and p-nitrylphenol is 95% in 75min in ultraviolet （UV） light irradiation. 3D Bi2WO6 microsphere is also a good photocatalyst to treat the printing and dyeing sewage, and exhibits high repeatability. After being used the 20th time, Bi2WO6 still has high activity to degrade the printing and dyeing sewage, which is very important for a photocatalyst to be used in industry. This study will pave a new way to treat industry wastewater.
We propose and numerically demonstrate an ultrafast real-time ordinary differential equation （ODE） computing unit in optical field based on a silicon microring resonator, operating in the critical coupling region as an optical temporal differentiator. As basic building blocks of a signal processing system, a subtractor and a splitter are included in the proposed structure. This scheme is featured with high speed, compact size and integration on a siliconon-insulator （SOl） wafer. The size of this computing unit is only 35 μm × 45 μm. In this paper, the performance of the proposed structure is theoretically studied and analyzed by numerical simulations.
Recently, space-division multiplexing （SDM） techniques using multi-core fiber （MCF） and few-mode fiber （FMF） have been introduced into optical fiber communication to increase transmission capacity. Two main types of optical fiber amplifiers based on the Erbium- doped fiber （EDF） and the Raman effect have been developed to amplify signals in the MCF and FMF. In this paper, we reviewed the principles and configurations of these amplifiers.
In this paper, the inhomogeneous broadenings dot semiconductor optical effects of homogeneous and on the response of quantum- amplifier （QD-SOAs） are investigated. For the first time, the state space model is used to simulate static and dynamic characteristics of the QD-SOA. It is found that with decreasing the homo- geneous and inhomogeneous broadenings, the saturation power of the QD-SOA decreases and the optical gain and the ultrafast gain compression increase. Simulation results show that with decreasing the homogeneous broadening from 20 to 1 meV, the gain compression increases from 40% to 90%, the unsaturated optical gain becomes approximately tripled, and the saturation power becomes two times less. Also, simulations demonstrate that with decreasing the inhomogeneous broadening from 50 to 25 meV, the gain compression increases from less than 50% to more than 90%, the unsaturated optical gain becomes approximately 10-fold, and the saturation power becomes three times less. In addition, it is found that the homogeneous and inhomogeneous linewidths should be small for nonlinear applications. The homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadenings need to be large enough for linear applications.
Phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes （pc- LEDs）, which employ blue LEDs with yellow phosphors to generate white light illumination, is a widely used solid- state lighting source. In order to conduct a phosphor layer coating with high quality on LED chip, a self-adaptive coating technology is introduced in this paper. A slurry coating technique combined with selfexposure method is applied and developed to demonstrate the benefits of selfadaptive coating layer. For self-exposure, the slurry coating is exposed to the blue emission of LED itself other than to ultraviolet （UV） light outside to make photoresist crosslinking. Results of measurement indicate that white LEDs with self-adaptive coating have shown self-adaptability to the angular distribution of intensity of blue light and performed higher spatial color uniformity than those with conventional coating and other conformal coating.
Nanoflake-based flower-like CuO nanostruc- tures have been synthesized through thermal decomposi- tion of [Cu（NH3）4]2＋ solution without any surfactants and catalysts at low temperature. The products are character- ized by X-ray diffraction （XRD） and field-emission scanning electron microscopy （FESEM）. The possible formation process based on the aggregation-recrystalliza- tion mechanism is proposed. Finally, the obtained flower- like CuO hierarchical nanostructures have been used as the photocatalyst in the experiments. It is found that the as- prepared flower-like CuO hierarchical nanostructures exhibit superior photocatalytic property on photocatalytic decomposition of Rhodamine B due to their hierarchical structures.
This paper reviews the recent progress in photonic devices application of Ge-on-Si. Ge-on-Si materials and optical devices are suitable candidates for Si-based optoelectronic integration because of the mature epitaxial technique and the compatibility with Si complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor （CMOS） technology. Recently, the realities of electric-pump Ge light emitting diode （LED） and optical-pump pulse Ge laser, Ge quantum well modulator based on quantum Stark confined effect, waveguide Ge modulator based on Franz-Keldysh （FK） effect, and high performance near-infrared Ge detector, rendered the Si-based optoelectronic integration using Ge photonic devices. Ge-on-Si material is also an important platform to grow other materials on it for Si- based optoelectronic integration. InGaAs and GeSn have been grown on the Ge-on-Si. InGaAs LED and GeSn photodetector have been successfully fabricated as well.
Currently most light emitting diode （LED） components are made with individual chip packaging technology. The main manufacturing processes follow conventional chip-based IC packaging. In the past several years, there has been an uprising trend in the IC industry to migrate from chip-based packaging to wafer level packaging （WLP）. Therefore, there is a need for LEDs to catch up. This paper introduces advanced LED WLP technologies. The contents cover key enabling processes such as preparation of silicon sub-mount wafer, implementation of interconnection, deposition of phosphor, wafer level encapsulation, and their integration. The emphasis is placed on how to achieve high throughput, low cost manufacturing through WLE
Optical constants, including scattering coefficient, absorption coefficient, asymmetry parameter and reduced scattering coefficient, of cerium-doped yttrium aluminium garnets （YAG：Ce） phosphor blended with SiO2 particle for white light-emitting diode （LED） packages were calculated based on Mie theory in this study. Calculation processes were presented in detail. Variations of the optical constants with the changes of phosphor weight fraction, dopant weight fraction, phosphor particle radius and SiO2 particle radius, were shown and analyzed separately. It was found that the asymmetry parameter is the intrinsic characteristic of the particles, and the increase of the phosphor weight fraction （or concentration） will lead to the increase of the optical constants. It was also discovered that the increase of the dopant weight fraction will enhance the scattering coefficient, but result in the decreases of the reduced scattering coefficient and the absorption coefficient.
Titanium dioxide-double-walled carbon nano- tubes （TiO2-DWCNTs） with DWCNTs/TiO2 of 20 wt.% is prepared by a conventional sol-gel method. Doping the TiO2-DWCNTs in TiO2 photoanode, a flexible dye- sensitized solar cell （DSSC） is fabricated. The sample is characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction （XRD）, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy （FTIR） absorption, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy （UV- vis） absorption spectra , electrochemical impedance spec- troscopy （EIS） technique and photovoltaic measurement. It is found that adding a certain amount of TiO2-DWCNTs can efficiently decrease the resistance of charge transport, improve dye adsorption. Under an optimal condition, a flexible DSSC contained with 0.50 wt.% TiOz-DWCNTs achieves a light-to-electric energy conversion efficiency of 3.89% under a simulate solar light irradiation of 100 mW. cm^2.
The use of cavity to manipulate photon emission of quantum dots （QDs） has been opening unprecedented opportunities for realizing quantum functional nanophotonic devices and quantum information devices. In particular, in the field of semiconductor lasers, QDs were introduced as a superior alternative to quantum wells （QWs） to suppress the temperature dependence of the threshold current in vertical-external-cavity surfaceemitting lasers （VECSELs）. In this work, a review of properties and development of semiconductor VECSEL devices and QD laser devices is given. Based on the features of VECSEL devices, the main emphasis is put on the recent development of technological approach on semiconductor QD VECSELs. Then, from the viewpoint of both single QD nanolaser and cavity quantum electro- dynamics （QED）, a single-QD-cavity system resulting from the strong coupling of QD cavity is presented. In this review, we will cover both fundamental aspects and technological approaches of QD VECSEL devices. Lastly, the presented review here has provided deep insight into useful guideline for the development of QD VECSEL technology, future quantum functional nanophotonic devices and monolithic photonic integrated circuits （MPhlCs）.
The increasing demand for sustainable and green energy supply spurred the surging research on high- efficiency, low-cost photovoltaics. Colloidal quantum dot solar cell （CQDSC） is a new type of photovoltaic device using lead chalcogenide quantum dot film as absorber materials. It not only has a potential to break the 33% Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit for single junction solar cell, but also possesses low-temperature, high-throughput solution processing. Since its first report in 2005, CQDSCs experienced rapid progress achieving a certified 7% efficiency in 2012, an averaged 1% efficiency gain per year. In this paper, we reviewed the research progress reported in the last two years. We started with background introduction and motivation for CQDSC research. We then briefly introduced the evolution history of CQDSC development as well as multiple exciton generation effect. We further focused on the latest efforts in improving the light absorption and carrier collection efficiency, including the bulk-heterojunction structure, quantum funnel concept, band alignment optimization and quantum dot passivation. Afterwards, we discussed the tandem solar cell and device stability, and concluded this article with a perspective. Hopefully, this review paper covers the major achievement in this field in year 2011-2012 and provides readers with a concise and clear understanding of recent CQDSC development.
A hybrid plasmonic waveguide containing silicon core, silver cap and ultra-thin sandwiched SiO2 layer is studied. By analyzing the mode distribution patterns and the curves of mode effective index, we show how the plasmonic mode around the metal surface is coupled with the fundamental mode in the silicon core to form a squeezed hybrid mode. The ability of the hybrid plasmonic waveguide in energy confinement is also discussed quantitatively.
A novel design of optical sampling system has been developed by using sum-frequency generation （SFG） in a periodically-poled lithium niobate （PPLN） waveguide and using passive mode-locked fiber laser pulses as optical sampling pulses. The system achieved high temporal resolution and high sensitivity using a 30 mm length PPLN with quasi phase match period of 19.3 μm and 151 fs sampling pulses which were generated by passive modelock fiber laser based on nonlinear polarization rotation （NPR）. Clear eye-diagram of 10 Gbit/s non-return-to-zeros （NRZ） pseudorandom binary sequence （PRBS） optical signal were successfully reconstructed by this system.
We propose and experimentally demonstrate two simple solutions for power-efficient ultra-wideband （UWB） radio frequency （RF） system assisted by an electrical bandpass filter （EBPF）. In the first solution, any optical Gaussian pulse with enough bandwidth is transmitted over optical fiber link, and then converted to a power-efficient UWB pulse by an EBPF with a passband of 3.1 10.6GHz. The transmission and modulation of UWB signal is processed in optical domain, whereas the generation of UWB is processed in electrical domain. Both UWB modulations of on-off keying （OOK） and binary phase shift keying （BPSK） are experimentally demon- strated. In the second solution, the EBPF is used to convert any electrical waveform to a power-efficient UWB pulse. Then the electrical UWB pulse is converted to an optical UWB pulse with a Mach-Zehnder modulator （MZM）, and then distributed over long haul fiber link. These two solutions embody the advantages of both low-loss long- haul transmission of optical fiber and mature electrical circuits. And the millimeter-wave UWB signal is also demonstrated.