Effects of sevoflurane and isoflurane anesthesia in oxygen on clinical, cardiopulmonary, hematological, and serum biochemical findings were compared in sheep breathing spontaneously undergoing minor surgical operations during short-term (60-80 min) or long-term (3-4 h) anesthesia. All sheep were premedicated with atropine sulfate (0.1 mg/kg) intramuscularly, and 10 min later, induced to anesthesia by intravenous infusion of sodium thiopental (mean 14.1 ± 3.4 S.D. mg/kg). After incubation, they were anesthetized with either isoflurane or sevoflurane in oxygen at a total gas flow rate of 1.5 l/min. The results revealed that recovery time with sevoflurane was more rapid than with isoflurane. Respiration rates, tidal volume, minute ventilation and heart rates during sevoflurane anesthesia were similar to those during isoflurane anesthesia. The degree of respiratory acidosis during sevoflurane anesthesia was also similar to that during isoflurane anesthesia. There were no significant differences between sevoflurane and isoflurane anesthesia in hematological and serum biochemical values. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.
A two-phase method is exploited to prepare many kinds of nearly monodisperse, highly crystalline, size- and shape-controlled, surface-property-tunable inorganic nanocrystals, such as metal, semiconducting, magnetic, dielectric, and rare earth nanocrystals. The reaction of the two-phase system happens at the interface between the oil (nonpolar) and water (polar) phases and the interface is an exclusive site for both nucleation and growth. Interestingly, many solvent pairs with a clear interface can be applied to synthesize inorganic nanocrystals successfully. Generally, as-prepared nanocrystals with organic ligands are soluble in nonpolar solvents. Furthermore, exchange of ligands can also be realized readily and the final nanocrystals can be soluble in polar solvents. This two-phase method is a simple, reproducible, and general route and is becoming as powerful an approach as other solution-based synthetic approaches to high-quality inorganic nanocrystals.
HBsAg, the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus (HBV), is used as a model to study the mechanisms and dynamics of a single-enveloped virus infecting living cells by imaging and tracking at the single-particle level. By monitoring the fluorescent indicator of HBsAg particles, it is found that HBsAg enters cells via a caveolin-mediated endocytic pathway. Tracking of individual HBsAg particles in living cells reveals the anomalously actin-dependent but not microtubule-dependent motility of the internalized HBsAg particle. The motility of HBsAg particles in living cells is also analyzed quantitatively. These results may settle the long-lasting debate of whether HBV directly breaks the plasma membrane barrier or relies on endocytosis to deliver its genome into the cell, and how the virus moves in the cell.
Water-soluble nano-C(60) can serve as a novel, effective, fluorescent sensing platform for biomolecular detection with high sensitivity and selectivity. In this paper, fluorescent detection of DNA and thrombin via nano-C(60) is demonstrated for the first time. The principle of the assay lies in the fact that the adsorption of the fluorescently labeled single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) probe by nano-C(60) leads to substantial fluorescence quenching. In the presence of a target, the biomolecular mutual interaction suppresses this quenching, signaling the existence of the target. This sensing system rivals graphene oxide but is superior to other carbon-structure-based systems. The present method can also achieve multiplex DNA detection and withstand the interference from human blood serum.
The high-molar-extinction-coefficient heteroleptic ruthenium aye, cis-Ru (4,4'-bis(5-octylthieno3,2-b] thiophen-2-yl)-2,2'-bipyridine) (4,4'-dicarboxyl-2,2'-bipyridine) (NCS)(2), exhibits an AM 1.5 solar (100 mW cm(-2))-to-electric power-conversion efficiency of 4.6% in a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (SSDSC) with 2,2', 7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine,)9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as the organic hole-transporting material. These SSDSC devices exhibit good durability during accelerated tests under visible-light soaking for 1000 h at 60 degrees C. This demonstration elucidates a class of photovoltaic devices with potential for stable and low-cost power generation. The electron recombination dynamics and charge collection that take place at the dye-sensitized heterojunction are studied by means of impedance and transient photovoltage decay techniques.
A simple and facile procedure to synthesize a novel hybrid nanoelectrocatalyst based on polyaniline (PANI) nanofiber-supported supra-high density Pt nanoparticles (NPs) or Pt/Pd hybrid NPs without prior PANI nanofiber functionalization at room temperature is demonstrated. This represents a new type of ID hybrid nanoelectrocatalyst with several important benefits. First, the procedure is very simple and can be performed at room temperature using commercially available reagents without the need for templates and surfactants. Second, ultra-high density small "bare" Pt NPs or Pt/Pd hybrid NPs are grown directly onto the surface of the PANI nanofiber, without using any additional linker. Most importantly, the present PANI nanofiber-supported supra-high density Pt NPs or Pt/Pd hybrid NPs can be used as a signal enhancement element for constructing electrochemical devices with high performance.
All messenger-RNA (mRNA) molecules in eukaryotic cells have a polyadenylic acid poly (rA)] tail at the 3'-end and human poly (rA) polymerase (PAP) has been considered as a tumor-specific target. A ligand that is capable of recognizing and binding to the poly(M) tail of mRNA might interfere with the full processing of mRNA by PAP and can be a potential therapeutic agent. We report here for the first time that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) can cause single-stranded poly (M) to self-structure and form a duplex structure, which is studied by UV melting, atomic force microscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and NMR spectrometry.