Smart cities have attracted an extensive and emerging interest from both science and industry with an increasing number of international examples emerging from all over the world. However, despite the significant role that smart cities can play to deal with recent urban challenges, the concept has been being criticized for not being able to realize its potential and for being a vendor hype. This paper reviews different conceptualization, benchmarks and evaluations of the smart city concept. Eight different classes of smart city conceptualization models have been discovered, which structure the unified conceptualization model and concern smart city facilities (i.e., energy, water, IoT etc.), services (i.e., health, education etc.), governance, planning and management, architecture, data and people. Benchmarking though is still ambiguous and different perspectives are followed by the researchers that measure -and recently monitor- various factors, which somehow exceed typical technological or urban characteristics. This can be attributed to the broadness of the smart city concept. This paper sheds light to parameters that can be measured and controlled in an attempt to improve smart city potential and leaves space for corresponding future research. More specifically, smart city progress, local capacity, vulnerabilities for resilience and policy impact are only some of the variants that scholars pay attention to measure and control.
This study aims to examine the effect of perceived value, perceived behavioural control and social influence on older citizens' attitude toward e-government portals and their continuous use intention. Through a questionnaire survey, primary data are collected from 123 older citizens aged 50 and above who use e-government portals. The findings show that older citizens generally have positive attitude toward e-government portals and are favourable on their continuous use intention. Older citizens rate cost, convenience, and information accuracy as the most important dimensions of perception of value of e-government portals. All the three determinants of older citizens' attitude toward e-government portals are positive and statistically significant, with perceived behavioural control having the strongest effect on attitude, followed by perceived value and social influence. Older citizens' attitude also positively and strongly relates to their continuous use intention of e-government portals.
With significant development in Internet technology contributing to daily lives in nearly every aspect, it is important that government websites and e-government services offered through them are used effectively, efficiently, and satisfactorily. Achieving accessible, usable, qualified, and readable e-government services that enable citizens to fulfill different users' requirements by everyone involved in the target group, implying a lack of equality between disabled and non-disabled people in benefiting from online governmental services regardless of time and location constraints, has become a global aim. This study investigated whether the websites of the state and local level e-government in the Turkish Republic comply with prevailing standards of accessibility, heuristic usability, mobile readiness, performance and, the readability of website content with six different indices and whether these qualities depend on the type of the government websites. After examining 77 state and 247 local e-government sites, the results indicate that the Turkish government websites have made many of the accessibility, usability, quality, and readability mistakes as predicted. In light of the study findings, this paper will present some recommendations for improving Turkish government websites, as well as discuss future implications.
Though many researchers have carried out studies on electronic government (e-government) and its effect on performance of public organizations in developed countries not much such studies have taken place in developing countries, creating a gap in literature. The current study seeks to fill the gap. The study highlights the factors affecting the implementation and sustainability of E-government and effect of the factors on performance of the driver and vehicle licensing agency (DVLA) in Ghana. The study used purposive sampling technique to gather data from the DVLA (N-50) in 2016. The outcome of the study revealed that the challenges that impede the successful implementation of e-government include regular interruption of the electricity supply, online theft, poor ICT infrastructure, and financial constraints. Based on the benefits associated with the implementation of e-government, the current researchers made recommendations for long-term sustainability of e-government.
This study explored the moderating effect of perceived usefulness on the impact of trust in the internet and trust in government on the intention to adopt e-government services. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was used as the theoretical foundation for this study. The results indicated that trust in the internet and trust in government were both significant predictors of the intention to use e-government services. It was also discovered that trust in the internet was a positive determinant of trust in government. Furthermore, the study revealed that while perceived usefulness had a significant moderating effect on the impact of trust in the internet on the intention to use e-government services, it was however not significant in moderating the impact of trust in government on the intention to use. The significant and non-significant moderating effect of perceived usefulness on both the relationship between trust in the internet and trust in government on the intention to use is the unique contribution of this study. The implications of these findings are discussed.
This article addresses the relationship between e-government development and entrepreneurship. The study adopted an inductive approach, where it utilized archival data to test the relationship between the two paradigms. The authors hypothesize that improving e-government initiatives will influence entrepreneurship. Utilizing global data will guard for researcher biases and utilize the huge sample size built in the archival data used. The two data sets included the UN's e-government survey, and the Global Entrepreneurship and Development Institute survey. Results indicated a full support of the relationships assumed between the major dimensions of EGDI and GEI. Regression analysis indicated that Online service Index and telecommunication Infrastructure index are significant predictors of GEI, but failed to support the role of Human Capital Index. The coefficient of determination of the regression equation estimated 69.2% of the variance in GEI. Further tests and research conclusions are stated at the end.
This article undertakes a literature review on such articles on social media and citizen-centric e-government services. This research uses 139 articles to perform the intended literature review. The keywords analysis of these articles indicates that Web 2.0, participation and open government/open data were some of the frequently used keywords in addition to the two major themes of e-government and social media on which all the articles were searched for. The analysis of research methods indicated that majority of the studies were analytical, conceptual, descriptive, or theoretical in nature. The theoretical analysis however indicated that there is a lack of theory-based research in this area. The review of literature indicated that research themes such as electronic participation, engagement, transparency, communication/interaction, trust, security and collaboration are some of the most frequently used categories under this area of research. A research framework has also been proposed from the key themes emerging from the review.
The UK government is striving towards a vision for government-wide transformation, in which local authorities and central government departments are endeavouring to work with each other to deliver better services to citizens via a one-stop-shop environment for all services under the guise of electronic government (e-government). Having successfully e-enabled customer facing processes, the UK government is now working towards reengineering and e-enabling back office processes and information systems to facilitate more joined-up and citizen centric e-government services; these efforts are referred to as the transformational stage of e-government or T-Government. This paper seeks to explore what T-Government means to local authorities in the UK and what process related challenges have to be overcome to successfully implement transformational change in local government.
Smart government relies both on the application of digital technologies to enable citizen's participation in order to achieve a high level of citizen centricity and on data-driven decision making in order to improve the quality of life of citizens. Data-driven decisions in turn depend on accessible and reliable datasets, which open government and social media data are likely to promise. The SmartGov project uses digital technologies by integrating open and social media data in Fuzzy Cognitive Maps to model real life problems and simulate different scenarios leading to better decision making. This research performed a multiple-case analysis in two pilot cities. Both municipalities use the technologies to find the best routes: Limassol to improve the garbage collection and Quart de Poblet to improve the walking routes of chaperones guiding children to school. The article proposes a generic framework for Smart City Governance focusing on the inputs and outcomes of this process in the use of technologies for policy making built based on the analysis of the SmartGov.
Recent years have witnessed progress of public institutions in making their datasets available online, free of charge, for re-use. There have been however limited studies which assess the actual effectiveness of different communication media in making key facts visible to citizens. This article analysed and systematically compared two representations which are relevant in the context of open government data: geovisualizations and data tables. An empirical user study (N=16) revealed that both types of representations have their strengths: geovisualizations make spatial knowledge and the attractiveness of open government data more visible, while data tables are more adequate for the communication of numerical data. The ideas presented are relevant to open data publishers interested in strategies to effectively put the hidden knowledge in current open government datasets into the hands of citizens.
Participatory smartphone apps empower citizens to interact with the city's administration. The purpose of this case study is to investigate the current state of participatory apps in Germany. Within this study, we examined 248 applications aimed at strengthening citizen participation. These apps were found in Google Playstore and Apple Appstore using search terms extracted from the relevant literature. Many of the apps give users the opportunity to report problems within their cities, such as broken street lamps or potholes. The information created and disseminated by the citizens through the app mainly includes the topics “mobility” and “environment.” Information provided by the city itself is much more diverse. Topics such as “Points of Interest,” “News and Events,” “Government” or “City Services” can be identified here. In the southern part of Germany, there is a significantly larger number of municipalities which have a citizen participation app. None of the apps examined uses gamification, although the use of game elements is very promising to foster the engagement and motivation of citizens.
Smart cities have been heralded for improving traffic management by utilizing data for making better traffic management decisions. Multi-sided platforms collect data from sensors and citizen-generated data on one side and can provide input for decision-making using data analytics by governments and the public on the other side. However, there is no guidance for creating developing Intelligent Traffic Management Systems (ITMS) platforms. The involvement of various actors having different interest and heterogeneous datasets hampers development. In this article, the authors design a reference architecture (RA) to support intelligent traffic management systems for providing better a commute, and safety and security during travel based on real-time information. The main three layers of this RA are datasets, processes, and actors. The RA for ITMS provides guidance for designing and overcoming the challenges with: 1) heterogeneous datasets; 2) data gathering; 3) data processing; 4) data management; and 5) supporting various types of data users. The illustration and evaluation of the architecture shows possible solutions of the aforementioned challenges. The RA helps to integrate the activities performed by the various actors. In this way it can be used to reduce traffic queues, increase the efficient use of resources, smooth and safe commute of the citizens.
India is confronting a surge in urban population in recent decades. This article is an endeavor to talk about the key issues to build future urban cities and to redeveloping existing infrastructure in existing urban areas. Further, the article discusses the difficulties in financing smart city projects in India. The government of India, under the leadership of PM Mr. Narendra Modi, has propelled a strong eagerness with the Smart City Mission in 2015 which has the sole objective of giving a better quality of life to the citizens of the country. Steps are being initiated by government for the transformation of over 100 cities into smart future cities. The present nature of government silos will represent a noteworthy test in the execution of urban development projects. To motivate and attract the increased private sector participation and investment in infrastructure projects it would be beneficial if the government funding were linked to the effort of developing projects as PPP.
Electronic voting or e-voting has been used in varying forms since 1970s with fundamental benefits over paper-based systems such as increased efficiency and reduced errors. However, challenges remain to the achieving of wide spread adoption of such systems, especially with respect to improving their resilience against potential faults. Blockchain is a disruptive technology of the current era and promises to improve the overall resilience of e-voting systems. This article presents an effort to leverage benefits of blockchain such as cryptographic foundations and transparency to achieve an effective scheme for e-voting. The proposed scheme conforms to the fundamental requirements for e-voting schemes and achieves end-to-end verifiability. The article presents details of the proposed e-voting scheme along with its implementation using Multichain platform. The article also presents an in-depth evaluation of the scheme which successfully demonstrates its effectiveness to achieve an end-to-end verifiable e-voting scheme.
An increasing number of initiatives have emerged around the world to help facilitate data sharing and collaborations to leverage different sources of data to address societal problems. They are called “data collaboratives”. Data collaboratives are seen as a novel way to match real life problems with relevant expertise and data from across the sectors. Despite its significance and growing experimentation by practitioners, there has been limited research in this field. In this article, the authors report on the outcomes of a panel discussing critical issues facing data collaboratives and develop a research and development agenda. The panel included participants from the government, academics, and practitioners and was held in June 2017 during the 18th International Conference on Digital Government Research at City University of New York (Staten Island, New York, USA). The article begins by discussing the concept of data collaboratives. Then the authors formulate research questions and topics for the research roadmap based on the panel discussions. The research roadmap poses questions across nine different topics: conceptualizing data collaboratives, value of data, matching data to problems, impact analysis, incentives, capabilities, governance, data management, and interoperability. Finally, the authors discuss how digital government research can contribute to answering some of the identified research questions.
At this point, the role of the concept Open Government (OG) has been key promoting transparency, participation and collaboration in public administration worldwide. This article presents research about the open government (OG) phenomena in Spanish municipalities over 50,000 inhabitants (146 municipalities), using a questionnaire. Particularly, the research objective of this article is looking at the perceptions of city managers responsible for OG policies in order to understand more about this emergent public policy in the local layer of government. The results are consistent with a notion of OG associated to terms like transparency or access to information, and less to collaboration, co-production, of technologies or electronic government. In addition, the results confirm the intention of city managers to promote transparency or access to information with OG policies, while other possible outcomes (collaboration, managerial improvements or reduction of management costs) are less popular. Finally, the implementation of OG policies remains in its initial stages, whereas they are much expanded in strategic plans or units/departments at the local level of government in Spain.