This article introduces the biodiversity survey "Our Planet Reviewed" in the south of French Guiana organized in February-March and August 2015. It has enabled more than 50 scientists to inventory the following groups: Actinopterygii, Amphibia, Annelida, Arachnida, Insecta, Mollusca and Squamata, with a particular effort on diverse and little-known orders, such as Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera and Hymenoptera. The forested area under investigation presents a mosaic of hills and insclbergs, with a wide variety of ecosystems. The main objectives were to discover new species for science, report first records for French Guiana, and establish a baseline inventory for biogeographic studies. The organisation of the field trip and post-field phase are supported by coordinators of major taxonomic groups. Authorisations and associated commitments, including Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS) are specified. The sampling effort, in terms of number and diversity of methods, is certainly the largest ever made in French Guiana over a short period of time. Thirteen different trap types were used including four types of interception traps and nine types of attraction-based traps. Active research methods (13 techniques) and extraction from the substrate (five techniques, including Winkler sieves, emergence from dead wood, etc.) completed the sampling array. The sample processing procedure describes the difference between active collecting and the longer and more complex process of processing massive samples of traps such as window pane flight intercept traps, Malaise traps, colored pan traps and automatic light traps. After a sorting phase that lasted less than a year for most groups, a network of 165 taxonomic experts was mobilized by the coordinators to study the sorted specimens. The data are stored and managed in an observations database and in the database of the collections of the Museum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris). Data are widely disseminated, notably in France via the Inventaire national du Patrimoine naturel (INPN) and internationally by the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). This introductory article will be supplemented by a second paper, which will analyse research results three years after the survey and assess the effectiveness of the expedition in advancing taxonomic knowledge.
313 nominal species of monogenean parasites of aquatic vertebrates occurring in Mexico are included in this checklist; in addition, records of 54 undetermined taxa are also listed. All the monogeneans registered are associated with 363 vertebrate host taxa, and distributed in 498 localities pertaining to 29 of the 32 states of the Mexican Republic. The checklist contains updated information on their hosts, habitat, and distributional records. We revise the species list according to current schemes of classification for the group. The checklist also included the published records in the last 11 years, since the latest list was made in 2006. We also included taxon mentioned in thesis and informal literature. As a result of our review, numerous records presented in the list published in 2006 were modified since inaccuracies and incomplete data were identified. Even though the inventory of the monogenean fauna occurring in Mexican vertebrates is far from complete, the data contained in our checklist depict the actual knowledge about this group of flatworms in Mexico.
During the "Our Planet Reviewed" French Guiana 2014-2015 expedition, Diptera were collected in seven habitat types over an approximately 1 km(2) area in the Mitaraka Mountains of southwestern French Guiana. Sixteen collecting methods were used, seven of which yielded multiple samples containing Dolichopodidae. The survey produced a total of 4918 specimens of Dolichopodidae, belonging to 244 morphospecies, 31 genera including four new ones, and 10 recognized subfamilies. This is the highest dolichopodid species richness thus far recorded from a single location anywhere in the world. Three taxa could be identified to species level and all represent first records for French Guiana. Paraclius Loew, 1864, Chrysotus Meigen, 1824 and Medetera Fischer von Waldheim, 1819 were the most speciose genera. Paraclius represented by 50 species, exhibited an unprecedented species richness, mainly in the palm swamps. The three most productive methods in terms of numbers of specimens collected (68% of all specimens obtained using the three methods combined), SLAM traps, sweep nets, and a 6 m long Malaise trap, each yielded between 78 and 90 species, with approximately half of the species from each trap type unique to that method. Both blue, white or yellow pan traps, on the contrary, captured less than 20 species, and overall yellow traps were dearly the least efficient. Pan trap yields, however, were severely affected by repeated heavy rainfall. The highest species richness was recorded around the drop zone and in the base camp, on river banks and in river bank forests, with 40 to 60% of species unique to one of these habitat types. Forty-five species were collected on 'savanes roches', and 14 species on inselbergs, with four species shared by both types of rocky outcrops and uniquely found on them.
Ohler & Dubois (2018) argued that Article 23.9 of the Code cannot be used to reject the name Hyla quoyi Bory de Saint-Vincent, 1828 in favor of its junior synonym Hyla prasina Burmeister, 1856. However, their statement was based on an insufficient literature search erroneously suggesting that E prasina had been rarely used. We discuss this issue and give recommendations on searches in electronic bibliographical databases.
The genus Enlinia Aldrich, 1933 is recorded from French Guiana for the first time and six new species are described: E. loboptera n. sp., E. bova n. sp., E. colossicornis n. sp., E. mitarakensis n. sp., E. touroulti n. sp., and E. dalensi n. sp. A seventh unnamed species belonging to the E. armata Robinson, 1969 species group, and represented by a single female specimen, is also reported. These species were collected as part of the 2015 "Our Planet Revisited" survey in the Mitaraka Mountain area in far southwestern French Guiana. A key to the seven species known from French Guiana is provided.
Article 23.9 of the Code, introduced in its last 1999 version, allows the validation, in some cases, of a well known junior synonym or homonym as opposed to a senior synonym or homonym that had been ignored in the literature after 1899. In such cases, the junior nomen qualifies as a nomen protectum and the senior one as a nomen oblitum, a formula redefined in a new sense in this edition. The implementation of this Article requires one to follow strictly several conditions: the invalidation can concern only senior synonyms or homonyms (a junior one cannot be a nomen oblitum); it must have been published in the sense given to this term in the Code (i.e., it cannot have been proposed online in an unpublished electronic document); and evidence must be published that the junior synonym or homonym has been used as valid for the same taxon in at least 25 works published by at least 10 authors in the immediately preceding 50 years and encompassing a span of not less than 10 years. A nomen oblitum remains an available nomen and can be revalidated subsequently, for example in the case of re-evaluation of a subjective synonymy. Since the implementation of this new Article, some authors have used it without respecting these conditions or some of them: in such cases, the nomenclatural act supposed to have been effected under Article 23.9 is null and void, and the regular Rules of the Code must be applied (e.g., through validation of the senior synonym or homonym). A few examples concerning amphibian nomina of the family Hylidae illustrate these statements. The statuses of the nomina, spellings, emendations and combinations Hyla fulva, Hyla gaimardi, Hyla lesueurii, Hyla-lesueuri, Hyla prasina, Hyla quoyi, Hyla septentrionalis, Hyla suerii, Hyla sueurii, Rana gaimardii, Istriurus lesueurii, Istriurus sueurii and Trachycephalus marmoratus are discussed. A lectophoront (lectotype) is designated for Hyla septentrionalis and Trachycephalus marmoratus and neophoronts (neotypes) are designated for Hyla fulva, Hyla gaimardi and Hyla sueurii.
Two new species of the genus Austinograea Hessler & Martin, 1989 (Bythograeidae Williams, 1980), distinct from A. williamsi Hessler & Martin, 1989 and A. alayseae Guinot, 1990, are here reported from hydrothermal vent fields of the southwestern Pacific: A. hourdezi n. sp. and A. jolliveti n. sp., both in the Lau and North Fiji Back-Arc Basins. Austinograea hourdezi n. sp. is characterised by two depressions appearing as dark spots on the palm of both chelipeds in males and differs from the more northern A. williamsi and the Indian A. rodriguezensis Tsuchida & Hashimoto, 2002, which show only one spot on the male chelae, near the base of the dactylus. Some individuals exhibiting all morphological characters of A. hourdezi n. sp. bear only one spot on the chelae, near the base of dactylus; the fact that most are left-handed corresponds to the presence of a regenerated cheliped, with handedness reversal after the accidental loss of the major cheliped: these atypical individuals are here treated as A. hourdezi n. sp. The single spot that characterises each chela of A. jolliveti n. sp. is located at the base of the fixed finger in both sexes and shows as a differently pigmented, violaceous "pustule", being similar to that of Bythograea microps Saint Laurent, 1984 from the East Pacific Rise. Moreover, A. jolliveti n. sp. can be distinguished by the shortest G2 found in Austinograea, especially by its reduced flagellum. A. hourdezi n. sp., represented by numerous specimens, was found to co-occur with A. alayseae in several vent sites of the Lau and North Fiji Back-Arc Basins, and both are probably distributed across a wide geographical range, whereas A. jolliveti n. sp., represented by only a few specimens, was collected from only two vent sites (ABE and Mussel Valley). In the northwestern Pacific, A. williamsi is apparently restricted to the Mariana Trough, where it is the only one member of the family Bythograeidae. The Manus Basin perhaps hosts an additional Austinograea species. In the western Pacific, vent fields are the only hydrothermal systems, except the East Pacific Ridge, that are not linearly distributed; different basins may host different species within the same brachyuran genus (five congeneric species of Austinograea, including A. rodriguezensis from the western Indian Ocean). The morphological distinction between the Austinograea species is supported by molecular analyses, for A. williamsi, A. alayseae, and A. hourdezi n. sp. A key to the five species of Austinograea is provided, in order to be able to potentially identify the crabs photographed in situ in their natural environment.
We recently stated that Article 23.9 of the Code could not be used to validate the nomen Hyla prasina Burmeister, 1856 against its senior synonym Hyla quoyi Bory de Saint-Vincent, 1828, but this statement was shown to be wrong by two teams of authors. The discrepancy between the analyses is due to the huge incompleteness of the database Web of Science. This suggests that the greatest care should be given to any search for references using scientific and bibliographic databases, especially if the recourse to Article 23.9 is contemplated. We agree that the nomen Hyla prasina should now be maintained for this species, which might require the intervention of the Commission under its plenary power. This unusual case prompted us to propose comments on the use of taxonomic and bibliographic databases, as well as modifications concerning Article 23.9 of the Code.