In-depth interviews conducted with husbands & wives (N = 10 couples) from the Upper Great Plains cities of Grand Forks, ND, & East Grand Forks, MN, are drawn on to explore the deleterious marital effects of the 1997 Red River Valley Flood. Two major findings emerged: (1) The flood had a noticeable impact on marital relationships & the impact appeared to be mediated by the state of the couples' relationship prior to the flood. Strong preflood relationships emerged stronger in the aftermath, while weak preflood relationships emerged weaker. (2) At the time of the interview (5-8 months postflood), the relationship of couples with little or total flood-related damage fared somewhat better than couples with moderate levels of flood damage (eg, flooded basements). Results are discussed relative to implications for disaster service providers. 8 References. Adapted from the source document.
Community professionals observed an increase in domestic violence during the aftermath of the 1997 Grand Forks flood in ND. Tested here is a model of the effects of flood-related variables on domestic violence, including flood impact, emotional symptoms, as well as other intervening variables that might act as a buffer. Data from a cross-sectional survey of 140 Grand Forks adults indicated that domestic violence was significantly greater among respondents after the flood. Flood impact led to increased levels of anxiety, depression, & hostility. Whether these emotional symptoms subsequently led to increased domestic violence depended on the level of social support, the age of the respondent, & whether he/she had a history of domestic violence before the flood. Those with lower social support, the elderly, & those with a prior history of violence were most affected. Results have implications for work with the elderly, with domestic violence treatment & prevention programs, & with communities affected by flood. 16 References. Adapted from the source document.
To determine the impact of the 1997 Red River of the North flood in ND on mental health practitioners & the human service delivery system, an exploratory study was conducted 1 year following the flood. Qualitative & quantitative survey data from 130 social workers & disaster outreach workers indicate that, although most respondents were considered primary disaster victims, they appropriately fulfilled their professional duties during & following evacuation. Also demonstrated was a statistically significant improvement in the respondents' perceptions of agencies' relationships following the flood. Furthermore, there was a statistically significant improvement in services provided to clients after the flood compared to before the flood. Services were coordinated effectively & efforts were made to work cooperatively with various local, state, & national human service providers. 7 Tables, 22 References. Adapted from the source document.
New kinds of human service technologies are emerging to satisfy policy expectations & consumer demands for high performance, effectiveness, & innovation. This has had profound consequences for how human service agencies & the services they provide are evaluated. In the past, evaluation often was seen as an end in itself, or was undertaken only because the agency was required to do so. Today, human service organizations are beginning to see knowledge derived from evaluation as key to their survival & growth, & are developing internal capabilities for using evaluation to improve operations. Agencies, seeking to make better use of indigenous, practice-oriented knowledge to improve services & increase benefits for clients, are beginning to support evaluation as an integral part of their operations. An increasing number of these agencies are making evaluation part of a comprehensive cycle of knowledge building for the advancement of agency practice. 6 Tables, 32 References. Adapted from the source document.
This article presents a broadened perspective on educational reform in urban settings to include sites of the “extracurriculum” in urban African-American communities, and invites readers to expand their vision of places where education takes place. Through portrayals of contemporary community-based organizations, the article explores present day non-school contexts where educational initiatives take place outside the academy. Specifically, the article focuses on community-based discourse and literacy practices of African American Vernacular English speaking participants in three community-based organizations and reports on observations during the first three years of a study of the role these organizations play in the participants' evolving uses of communicative skills. It documents some of the complex forms of language and literacy that take place across contexts and cultures for individuals who participate in such programs. Through brief vignettes, readers glimpse into the worlds of the extracurriculum and explore practices for learning that current reform efforts within schools would do well to attend to. The discussion that follows explores how observed learning practices actually ft into a theory of language maintenance for African American Vernacular English speakers. The concluding section focuses on useful insights that practitioners in the social sciences might gain from community-based organizations as we critically consider our role in facilitating educational reform for African American Vernacular English speaking students in urban settings.