An overview of potentiometric sensors that are capable of detecting toxic heavy metal ions in environmental samples is presented and discussed. Notwithstanding the tremendous work performed so far, it is obvious that still several limitations do exist in terms of selectivity, limits of detection, dynamic ranges, applicability to specific problems, and reversibility. A survey on important advances in potentiometric sensors with regard to high selectivity, lower detection limit, fast response time, and on-line environmental analysis is presented in this review article. [Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry to view the free supplemental file.
Fourier transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a versatile technique for the characterization of materials belonging to the carbon family. Based on the interaction of the IR radiation with matter this technique may be used for the identification and characterization of chemical structures. Most important features of this method are: non-destructive, real-time measurement and relatively easy to use. Carbon basis for all living systems has found numerous industrial applications from carbon coatings (i.e. amorphous and nanocrystalline carbon films: diamond-like carbon (DLC) films) to nanostructured materials (fullerenes, nanotubes, graphene) and carbon materials at nanoscale or carbon dots (CDots). In this paper, we present the FTIR vibrational spectroscopy for the characterization of diamond, amorphous carbon, graphite, graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), fullerene and carbon quantum dots (CQDs), without claiming to cover entire field.
Sample preparation of target compounds from biological, pharmaceutical, environmental, and food matrices is one of the most time-consuming steps in analytical procedures. Extraction techniques are dominant, especially those based on the processes running on the phase such as liquid-liquid and/or liquid-solid. Due to the reproducibility of data, precision, relatively low cost of the appropriate analysis, simplicity of the determination, and the possibility of direct combination of those techniques with other methods (both on-line and off-line), they have become the most widespread in routine determinations. Additionally, sample pretreatment procedures have to be more selective, cheap, quick, and environmentally friendly. Selectivity is obtained by using procedures based on immunoaffinity or molecular imprinting. Reduction of costs can be obtained by automation of the extraction procedures (automated SPE) or techniques like column-switching. Reducing at least the time for sample preparation is achieved by introducing miniaturization techniques (multi-well SPE). This review summarizes the current achievements and application of solid phase extraction (SPE). The main aim is to deal with the utilization of different types of sorbents for solid-phase extraction and emphasize the use of new synthesized sorbents as well as to bring together studies on a systematic approach to SPE method development.
The ability to quantify levels of target analytes in biological samples accurately and precisely in biomonitoring involves the use of highly sensitive and selective instrumentation such as tandem mass spectrometers and a thorough understanding of highly variable matrix effects. Typically, matrix effects are caused by co-eluting matrix components that alter the ionization of target analytes as well as the chromatographic response of target analytes, leading to reduced or increased sensitivity of the analysis. Thus, before the desired accuracy and precision standards of laboratory data are achieved, these effects must be characterized and controlled. Here we present our review and observations of matrix effects encountered during the validation and implementation of tandem mass spectrometry-based analytical methods. We also provide systematic, comprehensive laboratory strategies needed to control challenges posed by matrix effects in order to ensure delivery of the most accurate data for biomonitoring studies assessing exposure to environmental toxicants.
This review aims to highlight the applications of one of the most prominent optical biosensor technologies, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), in the drug discovery process and quality analysis of pharmaceutical compounds and their particularities. SPR assay formats and experimental issues are used for pharmacokinetic drug profiling, ADMET studies, high-throughput screening, and fragment-based drug screening, the last with an emphasis on the detection of small (drug) molecules. The classical method strengths and some applications of localized SPR and SPR imaging that are of high interest in the drug discovery process are presented, as well as possible challenges. While similar works treat separately the steps of drug discovery or focus only on the detection of drug residues in food or health safety, this review presents in a compact format the results and the progress obtained in both areas (drug discovery and quality analysis) based on the application of SPR biosensors.
This review with 194 references summarizes the recent progress in the development and applications of boron-doped diamond film electrodes in electroanalysis of organic compounds. It is based on the survey of 106 papers listed in a comprehensive table devoted to batch voltammetric and liquid flow amperometric methods using boron-doped diamond electrodes. The varieties in their construction, surface pre-treatment and electroanalytical methods used are discussed. Special attention is paid to miniaturized boron-doped diamond electrodes for in vitro/in vivo sensing, or electrochemical detection coupled to conventional or chip-based electrophoretic detection systems. Further, possibilities and limitations of surface modification are discussed.
This work is mainly oriented to give an overview of the progress of multivariate curve resolution methods in the last 5 years. Conceived as a review that combines theory and practice, it will present the basics needed to understand what is the use, prospects and limitations of this family of chemometric methods with the latest trends in theoretical contributions and in the field of analytical applications.
Recently, a simple, rapid, high-efficiency, selective, and sensitive method for isolation, preconcentration, and enrichment of analytes has been developed. This new method of sample handling is based on ferum oxides as magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and has been used for magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of various analytes from various matrices. This review focuses on the applications of modified ferum oxides, especially modified Fe 3 O 4 MNPs, as MSPE adsorbent for pesticide isolation from various matrices. Further perspectives on MSPE based on modified Fe 3 O 4 for inorganic metal ions, organic compounds, and biological species from water samples are also presented. Ferum(III) oxide MNPs (Fe 2 O 3 ) are also highlighted.
Graphene is a new carbon-based material that is of interest in separation science. Graphene has extraordinary properties including nano size, high surface area, thermal and chemical stability, and excellent adsorption affinity to pollutants. Its adsorption mechanisms are through non-covalent interactions (π-π stacking, electrostatic interactions, and H-bonding) for organic compounds and covalent interactions for metal ions. These properties have led to graphene-based material becoming a desirable adsorbent in a popular sample preparation technique known as solid phase extraction (SPE). Numerous studies have been published on graphene applications in recent years, but few review papers have focused on its applications in analytical chemistry. This article focuses on recent preconcentration of trace elements, organic compounds, and biological species using SPE-based graphene, graphene oxide, and their modified forms. Solid phase microextraction and micro SPE (µSPE) methods based on graphene are discussed.
The review describes working and reference electrodes based on solid and/or paste amalgams and their application for voltammetric, amperometric, and potentiometric determination of both inorganic and organic analytes. Attention is paid to their preparation, pre-treatment and possible modification, and their application in classical voltammetric arrangements, in flowing systems (HPLC-ED, FIA-ED), and in adsorptive transfer stripping voltammetry. The review confirms that amalgam electrodes can successfully substitute mercury electrodes and, in some special cases, offer possibilities not available to mercury electrodes.
There is a significant demand for devices that can rapidly detect chemical-biological-explosive (CBE) threats on-site and allow for immediate responders to mitigate spread, risk, and loss. The key to an effective reconnaissance mission is a unified detection technology that analyzes potential threats in real time. In addition to reviewing the current state of the art in the field, this review illustrates the practicality of colorimetric arrays composed of sensors that change colors in the presence of analytes. This review also describes an outlook toward future technologies, and describes how they could possibly be used in areas such as war zones to detect and identify hazardous substances.
Boron-doped diamond (BDD) is a prospective electrode material that possesses many exceptional properties including wide potential window, low noise, low and stable background current, chemical and mechanical stability, good biocompatibility, and last but not least exceptional resistance to passivation. These characteristics extend its usability in various areas of electrochemistry as evidenced by increasing number of published articles over the past two decades. The idea of chemically modifying BDD electrodes with molecular species attached to the surface for the purpose of creating a rational design has found promising applications in the past few years. BDD electrodes have appeared to be excellent substrate materials for various chemical modifications and subsequent application to biosensors and biosensing. Hence, this article presents modification strategies that have extended applications of BDD electrodes in electroanalytical chemistry. Different methods and steps of surface modification of this electrode material for biosensing and construction of biosensors are discussed.
In 1883 Kjeldahl devised a method for the determination of nitrogen, which has become a classical measurement in analytical chemistry and has been used extensively over the past 130 years. In the original method, sulfuric acid alone was used as a digestion medium. The use of a catalyst in Kjeldahl digestion accelerates oxidation and completes the digestion to allow the subsequent determination of nitrogen. Mercury (its use being in decline because of environmental concerns), selenium, and copper are the catalysts of choice, though for certain applications titanium has found some usage. Short digestion times in association with maximum nitrogen recovery may be achieved by using a methodology based on experimental design and response surfaces, with microwave digestion processes, and with the aid of the couple sulfuric acid-hydrogen peroxide without catalyst. The quantification of distilled ammonia is generally achieved by titration; the ammonia is absorbed in an excess of boric acid, followed by titration with standard acid in the presence of a suitable indicator. The Kjeldahl method can be done with limited resources; nitrogen determination with the Kjeldahl method does not require expensive devices nor specialized techniques and is precise and accurate. The Kjeldahl method is used for calibrating other protein assays; it is still the primary reference method for protein analysis today. The original method as presented by Kjeldahl has been continuously improved. Today's digestion systems offer safety both from a personal perspective and from an environmental point of view. The determination of nitrogen content is a frequently conducted analysis in industry and commerce, and numerous organizations have official methods. The use of instrumental finish in Kjeldhal applications will be the subject of the second part of this review.
Anthocyanins belong to a large group of secondary plant metabolites collectively known as flavonoids, a subclass of the polyphenol family. They are a group of very efficient bioactive compounds that are widely distributed in plant food. Anthocyanins occur in all plant tissues, including leaves, stems, roots, flowers, and fruits. Research on phenolic compounds through the last century, from the chemical, biochemical, and biological points of view, has focused mainly on the anthocyanins. Anthocyanins have structures consisting of two aromatic rings linked by three carbons in an oxygenated heterocycle (i.e., a chromane ring bearing a second aromatic ring in position 2). The basic chromophore of anthocyanins is the 7-hydroxyflavilyum ion. Anthocyanin pigments consist of two or three chemical units: an aglycon base or flavylium ring (anthocyanidin), sugars, and possibly acylating groups. Only six of the different anthocyanidins found in nature occur frequently and are of dietary importance: cyanidin, delphinidin, petunidin, peonidin, pelargonidin, and malvidin. Each aglycon may be glycosilated or acylated by different sugars and aromatic or aliphatic acids, yielding over 600 different anthocyanins reported from plants. The sugar moiety is typically attached at the 3-position on the C-ring or the 5-position on the A-ring. The chromophore of eight conjugate double bonds carrying a positive charge on the heterocyclic oxygen ring is responsible for the intensive red-orange to blue-violet color produced by anthocyanins under acidic conditions. Anthocyanins occur in solution as a mixture of different secondary structures: flavylium ion, a quinoidal base, a carbinol base, and a chalcone pseudobase. Self-association, intermolecular, and intramolecular co-pigmentation of anthocyanins leads to the formation of tertiary structures through varying stabilization mechanisms. Anthocyanin composition has been used as a botanical tool for taxonomic classification of plants. In addition, anthocyanin profiles of fruits and vegetables allow detecting adulteration of anthocyanin-based products and are indicators of product quality. Anthocyanins are common components of the human diet, as they are present in many foods, fruits, and vegetables, especially in berries. Moreover, anthocyanins have an antioxidant activity, depending to a large extent upon their chemical structure. Many epidemiological studies have shown the benefits of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables to human health, and for the prevention of various diseases associated with oxidative stress, such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Anthocyanin-rich extracts are increasingly attractive to the food industry as natural alternatives to synthetic FD&C dyes and lakes, because of their coloring properties. Anthocyanins are also one of the nine European Union-designated natural color classes. Various adverse effects on health have frequently been attributed to synthetic antioxidants. For these reasons, currently, there is a trend towards relying on antioxidants derived from natural products. Anthocyanins act as antioxidants both in the foodstuffs in which they are found and in the organism after intake of these foods. This review, like the first one of the series, intends to reflect the interdisciplinary nature of the research that is currently carried out in this prolific area.
The ionic liquids (ILs) are salts with melting points below 100°C. These are called as ionic fluids, ionic melts, liquid electrolytes, fused salts, liquid salts, ionic glasses, designer solvents, green solvents and solvents of the future. These have a wide range of applications, including medical, pharmaceutical and chemical sciences. Nowadays, their use is increasing greatly in separation science, especially in chromatography and capillary electrophoresis due to their remarkable properties. The present article describes the importance of ILs in high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Efforts were also made to highlight the future expectations of ILs.
In this review (with 223 refs), electroanalysis of organic compounds with carbon paste-based electrodes, sensors, and detectors is discussed. The individual methods, covering the period of 2004-2008, are summarized in tables with accompanying commentaries, attention being paid to environmental pollutants, pharmaceutical formulations and drugs, as well as other biologically active organic compounds. Recent achievements and trends are discussed, critically evaluated, and some future prospects are outlined.
Current review signifies recent trends and challenges in the development of electrochemical sensors based on organic conducting polymers (OCPs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and their composites for the determination of trace heavy metal ions in water are reviewed. OCPs and CNTs have some suitable properties, such as good electrical, mechanical, chemical and structural properties as well as environmental stability, etc. However, some of these materials still have significant limitations toward selective and sensitive detection of trace heavy metal ions. To overcome the limitations of these individual materials, OCPs/CNTs composites were developed. Application of OCPs/CNTs composite and their novel properties for the adsorption and detection of heavy metal ions outlined and discussed in this review.
Noble metal nanoparticles loaded smart polymer microgels have gained much attention due to fascinating combination of their properties in a single system. These hybrid systems have been extensively used in biomedicines, photonics, and catalysis. Hybrid microgels are characterized by using various techniques but UV/Vis spectroscopy is an easily available technique for characterization of noble metal nanoparticles loaded microgels. This technique is widely used for determination of size and shape of metal nanoparticles. The tuning of optical properties of noble metal nanoparticles under various stimuli can be studied using UV/Vis spectroscopic method. Time course UV/Vis spectroscopy can also be used to monitor the kinetics of swelling and deswelling of microgels and hybrid microgels. Growth of metal nanoparticles in polymeric network or growth of polymeric network around metal nanoparticle core can be studied by using UV/Vis spectroscopy. This technique can also be used for investigation of various applications of hybrid materials in catalysis, photonics, and sensing. This tutorial review describes the uses of UV/Vis spectroscopy in characterization and catalytic applications of responsive hybrid microgels with respect to recent research progress in this area.
Fiber optic-based biosensors with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology are advanced label-free optical biosensing methods. They have brought tremendous progress in the sensing of various chemical and biological species. This review summarizes four sensing configurations (prism, grating, waveguide, and fiber optic) with two ways, attenuated total reflection (ATR) and diffraction, to excite the surface plasmons. Meanwhile, the designs of different probes (U-bent, tapered, and other probes) are also described. Finally, four major types of biosensors, immunosensor, DNA biosensor, enzyme biosensor, and living cell biosensor, are discussed in detail for their sensing principles and applications. Future prospects of fiber optic-based SPR sensor technology are discussed.
The progress of novel sorbents and their function in preconcentration techniques for determination of trace elements is a topic of great importance. This review discusses numerous analytical approaches including the preparation and practice of unique modification of solid-phase materials. The performance and main features of ion-imprinting polymers, carbon nanotubes, biosorbents, and nanoparticles are described, covering the period 2007-2012. The perspective and future developments in the use of these materials are illustrated.