The development and understanding of elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) can be traced back to the beginning of the previous century. However, it was not until 1949 that the first real solution of the problem was published. Since then, the technology has evolved enormously. In the current article a summary of these developments is given. Smooth surface EHL has become well established. Numerical methods, analytical solutions, and experimental techniques have become mature. Focus areas of research today are thermal EHL, starved EHL, friction (non-Newtonian lubricants), roughness, and grease. The scope of EHL is so wide that the authors needed select the topics of focus in this article. Therefore, in addition to the general overview of the areas of friction, analytical methods, starved EHL, and grease EHL are highlighted in this article.
White etching crack (WEC) failure is distinct to classical fatigue and driven by the composition of lubricants under special loading conditions; for example, slippage and electricity. The white etching area (WEA) within WEC contains carbon supersaturated ferrite (bcc-iron) and carbides, with a size of a few nanometers. This article presents investigations supporting the hypothesis that WEC processes start within a failure-free period by successive accumulation of a structural distortion. This can be measured by acoustic emission. Failure statistics show a steep ascent in the Weibull diagram (ß values beyond 1) leading to the assumption that WEC processes start unsuspicious, as one would see as a failure-free period, but imply a hidden subsurface accumulation of material defects. It is suggested and supported by the evidence presented within this article that WEC is neither related to the presence of nonmetallic inclusions nor related to other impurities in the steel. Instead, the failure is a sequence and accumulation of plastic deformations in the microstructure. Within the SAE 52100 material as discussed in this article, this accumulation is located in the microstructure around cementite, seen in a turn of hard magnetization toward soft magnetization proven by Barkhausen noise measurements. This decay is caused by the plastic deformation of such domains. Distortions in the vicinity of a cementite first would lead to carbon supersaturation by diffusion processes and later to a plastic deformation of the carbides. In the end, the complete distorted region will release the accumulated energy by downsizing the microstructure toward WEC.
Interest in the tribological performance of ionic liquids (ILs) has increased significantly since they were first introduced as lubricants in 2001. The primary advantages of ILs over conventional lubricants lie in their better ability to form tribofilms, higher thermal stability, environmental friendliness, and adaptability to various applications. A remarkable reduction in friction and wear has been observed after the addition of ILs in oil- or water-based media and in grease, suggesting that ILs are promising candidate materials as neat lubricants as well as lubricant additives. Despite the relatively common utilization of ILs as lubricating media, their wider use is limited by their high cost and corrosive properties. This article provides a brief introduction to relevant IL structures and properties, focusing on recent applications of the materials in engineering tribology.
A critical problem for wind turbine gearboxes is failure of rolling element bearings where axial cracks form on the inner rings. Metallurgical analyses show that the failure mode is associated with microstructural alterations manifested by white etching areas (WEAs) and white etching cracks (WECs). This article presents field experience from operating wind turbines that compares performance of through-hardened and carburized materials. It shows that through-hardened bearings develop WEA/WECs and fail with axial cracks, whereas carburized bearings do not. In another comparison of two rotor bearings with different carburized metallurgies, one bearing developed WEA/WECs and failed by macropitting, whereas the other bearing did not develop WEAs or WECs and did not fail. The field experience shows that a carburized bearing that has a core with low carbon content, high nickel content, greater compressive residual stresses, and a higher amount of retained austenite provides higher fracture resistance and makes carburized bearings more durable than through-hardened bearings in the wind turbine environment.
This research investigated the wheel wear and tribological characteristics in wet, dry, and minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) grinding of cast iron. Water-based Al 2 O 3 and diamond nanofluids were applied in the MQL grinding process and the grinding results were compared with those of pure water. During the nanofluid MQL grinding, a dense and hard slurry layer was formed on the wheel surface and could benefit the grinding performance. Experimental results showed that G-ratio, defined as the volume of material removed per unit volume of grinding wheel wear, could be improved with high-concentration nanofluids. Nanofluids showed the benefits of reducing grinding forces, improving surface roughness, and preventing workpiece burning. Compared to dry grinding, MQL grinding could significantly reduce the grinding temperature.
Grease lubrication is widely applied to rolling bearings. The consistency of grease prevents it from leaking out of the bearing, makes it easy to use, and will give it good sealing properties. The same consistency prevents an optimal lubrication performance. Most of the grease is pushed out of the bearing during the initial phase of bearing operation and no longer actively participates in the lubrication process, leaving only a limited quantity available, which is stored inside the bearing geometry and on the bearing shoulders (covers or seals). This stored volume strongly determines the remaining lubrication process in the bearing. The distribution of this volume is determined by the grease flow, which is very complex to understand due to the strong nonlinear rheology. There is no consensus on the next phase in the lubrication process. The grease may bleed and provide oil to the raceway; it may be severely sheared in the raceway releasing oil; or small fresh quantities of grease may be sheared off from the volume stored on the shoulder. In addition, the lubrication process may be dynamic. Grease has self-healing properties where fresh grease is supplied in case of film breakdown and self-induced heat development. This article describes the state-of-the-art knowledge on grease lubrication, including grease flow, film formation, film reduction, dynamic behavior, and grease life.
The operational life of bearings is often determined by the performance of the lubricating grease. The consistency of the grease prevents it from leaking out of the bearing and provides good sealing properties. The possible ingress of water into the bearing will have a considerable impact not only on this consistency but also on the lubricating ability of the grease. There are numerous applications where water ingress may occur, such as in the steel, food, pulp, and paper industries. Some greases are less sensitive to water than others. No specific guidelines are available to select the proper grease for bearings subjected to water ingress. The goal of the article is to contribute to the development of such guidelines for greases subjected to water ingress by studying the impact of water on grease rheology. Fully formulated, commercially available greases with the most common thickeners and base oils are used as model greases. It will be shown that water strongly influences rheological properties such as zero-shear viscosity, yield stress, and storage modulus. Calcium sulfonate greases were found to become stiffer after absorbing a considerable amount of water, leading to an increase in zero-shear viscosity and yield stress. However, lithium, lithium complex, and polyurea greases were found to soften, with appreciable changes in measured rheological properties.
The present work investigates the tribological behavior of electroless Ni-B coating in its as-plated condition at elevated operating temperatures. Ni-B coating is deposited using an electroless method on AISI 1040 steel specimens. Coating characterization is done using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, and X-ray diffraction techniques. Vicker's microhardness and surface roughness are measured. Friction and wear tests are carried out on a pin-on-disc tribological test setup at room and elevated temperatures of 100, 300, and 500°C. The tribological behavior deteriorates at 100°C compared to room temperature. Electroless Ni-B coating shows excellent wear resistance at 300°C, which again degrades at 500°C due to severe oxidation and softening of the deposits. The worn surface of the coatings is analyzed using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Within the temperature range considered, the wear mechanism changes from adhesion to a combination of adhesion and abrasion as the temperature rises from ambient condition to 100°C, following which the wear mechanism is predominantly abrasive. The formation of a tribochemical oxide film also affects the tribological behavior of the coatings at high temperature.
White etching crack (WEC) early bearing failures occur when the rolling contact is subjected to a so-called additional load such as an electrical current flowing through the bearing, in addition to the pure rolling load (p Hz ). Tests on rolling bearings showed that a low electrical direct current flow, such as that resulting from electrostatic charges, can lead to WEC failures in oil-lubricated roller bearings and greased ball bearings. The WEC formation in the performed tests was dependent on the current, electrical polarity, load type (rotating or stationary ring load), and bearing load. A black oxidation of the WEC critical bearing ring led to a significant increase in lifetime. Based on the findings, the failure hypothesis "cathodic WEC fatigue" for electrical direct current-initiated WEC failures was established.
The outer circlip constraint is a typical way for a wet multidisc clutch to limit the axial displacement of friction components. The pressure transmission mechanism in a clutch, excited by the concentrated reactive force of the outer circlip, is revealed by a simplified pressure calculation model. Moreover, a finite element model is constructed to investigate the contact pressure distributions on friction surfaces. Thermal analysis to determine the radial temperature distributions on friction surfaces is performed numerically. The computational results indicate that the concentrated reactive force contributes to the dissimilar distributions of the contact pressure along the radial and axial directions. The radial contact pressure considerably affects the temperature fields on friction surfaces, which is verified effectively by bench tests under the creeping condition. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the outer circlip is identified to be one of the main reasons for the expansion of the radial temperature difference. In order to smooth the contact pressure in the radial direction, three new designs for a circlip are proposed, including an inner circlip, medial circlip, and both inner and outer circlips. Considering the utility and feasibility of the four cases, the design with both the inner and outer circlips is the most appropriate one.
The performance of a lubricant greatly depends on the additives it involves. However, recently used additives produce severe pollution when they are burned and exhausted. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a new generation of green additives. Graphene oxide (GO) is considered to be environmentally friendly. The scope of this study is to explore the fundamental tribological behavior of graphene, the first existing 2D material, and evaluate its performance as a lubricant additive. The friction and wear behavior of 0.5 wt% concentrations of GO particles in ethanol and SAE20W50 engine oil on a hypereutectic Al-25Si alloy disc against steel ball was studied at 5 N load. GO as an additive reduced the wear coefficient by 60-80% with 30 Hz frequency for 120 m sliding distance. The minimum value of the coefficient of friction (0.057) was found with SAE20W50 + 0.5 wt% GO. A possible explanation for these results is that the graphene layers act as a 2D nanomaterial and form a conformal protective film on the sliding contact interfaces and easily shear off due to weak Van der Waal's forces and drastically reduce the wear. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and Raman spectroscopy were used for characterization of GO and wear scars.
In this study, Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-64) coatings were prepared on commercial Ti-64 substrates via a high-pressure cold spray process. The coatings were heat treated at different temperatures of 400-1000°C to investigate the effect of heat treatment temperature on their microstructure and mechanical and tribological properties. The increased heat treatment temperature from 400 to 600°C promoted diffusion between sprayed Ti-64 particles. Recrystallization of the sprayed particles was found at the heat treatment temperature of 800°C and grain growth was found in the microstructure of the coating heat treated at 1000°C. The highest and lowest hardnesses of the heat-treated coatings were found at heat treatment temperatures of 400 and 800°C, respectively. Therefore, the lowest and highest specific wear rates of the coatings were consistently found at 400 and 800°C due to their highest and lowest abrasive wear resistances associated with their highest and lowest surface hardnesses, respectively. The coating heat treated at 400°C showed the highest surface hardness of 470.1 Hv and lowest specific wear rate of 69.6 × 10 −14 m 3 /Nm. It could be concluded that the microstructure and mechanical and tribological properties of the Ti-64 coatings were significantly influenced by heat treatment temperature.,In this study, Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-64) coatings were prepared on commercial Ti-64 substrates via a high-pressure cold spray process. The coatings were heat treated at different temperatures of 400–1000°C to investigate the effect of heat treatment temperature on their microstructure and mechanical and tribological properties. The increased heat treatment temperature from 400 to 600°C promoted diffusion between sprayed Ti-64 particles. Recrystallization of the sprayed particles was found at the heat treatment temperature of 800°C and grain growth was found in the microstructure of the coating heat treated at 1000°C. The highest and lowest hardnesses of the heat-treated coatings were found at heat treatment temperatures of 400 and 800°C, respectively. Therefore, the lowest and highest specific wear rates of the coatings were consistently found at 400 and 800°C due to their highest and lowest abrasive wear resistances associated with their highest and lowest surface hardnesses, respectively. The coating heat treated at 400°C showed the highest surface hardness of 470.1 Hv and lowest specific wear rate of 69.6 × 10 −14 m 3 /Nm. It could be concluded that the microstructure and mechanical and tribological properties of the Ti-64 coatings were significantly influenced by heat treatment temperature.
The investigation of lubricated friction and wear is an extended study. The aim of this study is to investigate the friction and wear characteristics of double fractionated palm oil (DFPO) as a biolubricant using a pin-on-disk tribotester under loads of 50 and 100 N with rotating speeds of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 ms −1 in a 1-h operation time. In this study, hydraulic oil and engine oil (SAE 40) were used as reference base lubricants. The experiment was conducted using aluminum pins and an SKD 11(alloy tool steel) disc lubricated with test lubricants. To investigate the wear and friction behavior, images of the worn surface were taken by optical microscopy. From the experimental results, the coefficient of friction (COF) rose when the sliding speed and load were high. In addition, the wear rate for a load of 100 N for all lubricants was almost always higher compared to lubricant with a load of 50 N. The results of this experiment reveal that the palm oil lubricant can be used as a lubricating oil, which would help to reduce the global demand for petroleum-based lubricants substantially.
This investigation studies the dry sliding wear behavior of magnesium (Mg) matrix composites reinforced with titanium carbide (TiC) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) fabricated using a powder metallurgy technique. The effects of both TiC (0-10%) and MoS 2 (0-10%) content on the tribological properties are investigated. Wear tests are carried on magnesium reinforced with TiC and MoS 2 individually and together in different proportions, using a pin-on-disc apparatus under dry sliding condition. The experiments were made using a Taguchi L 27 orthogonal array with five factors at three levels. The wear resistance of the developed composites improved significantly compared to that of the magnesium matrix due to the effect offered by both reinforcements. Analysis of variance was used to verify the significance of factors influencing wear. In addition, the worn surfaces of the wear-tested specimens were examined using a scanning electron microscope coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy.
White etching cracking (WEC) is a contact fatigue bearing failure commonly observed in wind turbine applications. It can lead to fatigue lifetimes more than an order of magnitude shorter than expected lifetimes. Though various mechanical and chemical factors have shown direct or indirect impacts of on WEC failure, the correlations between these factors are yet to be fully understood. The critical intersection among various lubricant- and non-lubricant-related parameters and their influence on hydrogen diffusion and WEC formation are discussed in this article. Experimental results are shown under diverse operating conditions and contact configurations using three test rigs. This study confirms that the mechanical properties of a rolling contact and lubrication parameters alone cannot predict WEC failure. The formation of a tribofilm and accumulation of atomic hydrogen below the contact surface can be essential to explain WEC events. Higher hydrogen concentration in the WEC zone depends on contact area size, the presence of metal-containing additives in lubricants, and higher frictional energy dissipation. Finally, a mechanism of WEC failure has been proposed that intersects the overlap of hydrogen and subsurface shear stress.
Though the premature failures of wind turbine gearboxes are often attributed to bearing fatigue from overloading, there is compelling evidence that wear from underloading is a significant contributor. Here we attempt to gain insight into the relative contributions of over- and underloading by assessing planet bearing reaction forces from the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) standard gearbox within a typical utility-scale wind turbine under realistic conditions. The results demonstrate that non-torque load sharing by the planetary stage increases and decreases planet bearing reaction forces at different locations within each rotor cycle regardless of wind speed. Planet bearing reaction forces exceeded the fatigue limit at wind speeds above 12 m/s and fell below the minimum load rating at wind speeds below 7 m/s. Based on analyses of published wind spectra from 10 U.S. sites, the expected fatigue life of the planet bearings ranged from 42 to 529 years even after accounting for non-torque load sharing. At the same 10 sites, planet bearings were underloaded (below 2% of the dynamic load rating) once per rotor cycle 40-70% of the time. Underloaded bearings are susceptible to surface damage when suddenly exposed to common transient events, such as yaw, wind gusts, braking, and grid faults. The resulting surface damage can initiate premature failure via wear (e.g., micropitting) or by reducing bearing fatigue life. The results suggest that carrier bearing clearance, non-torque load sharing, and planet bearing underloading are significant contributors to the premature failures of wind turbine planet bearings.
The aim of this work was to show that with the use of the surface roughness parameters S-sk and S-ku we can predict tribological behavior of contact surfaces and use these parameters to plan surface texturing. This article presents a continuation of our research on virtual texturing and experimental work on surface textures in the form of channels. For this investigation, steel samples were laser surface textured in the shape of dimples with different spacings between the dimples and different dimple depths. The experimental results confirmed that the parameters S-sk and S-ku can be used to design the surface texturing, where a higher value of S-ku and more negative S-sk lead to lower friction.