The alloy design for equiatomic multi-component alloys was rationalized by statistically analyzing the atomic size difference,mixing enthalpy,mixing entropy,electronegativity,valence electron concentration among constituent elements in solid solutions forming high entropy alloys and amorphous alloys.Solid solution phases form and only form when the requirements of the atomic size difference,mixing enthalpy and mixing entropy are all met.The most significant difference between the solid solution forming high entropy alloys and bulk metallic glasses lies in the atomic size difference.These rules provide valuable guidance for the future development of high entropy alloys and bulk metallic glasses.
Electrical energy storage technologies for stationary applications are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to pumped hydroelectric storage, compressed air energy storage, battery, flow battery, fuel cell, solar fuel, superconducting magnetic energy storage, flywheel, capacitor/supercapacitor, and thermal energy storage. Comparison is made among these technologies in terms of technical characteristics, applications and deployment status.
The field of thermoelectrics has long been recognized as a potentially transformative power generation technology and the field is now growing steadily due to their ability to convert heat directly into electricity and to develop cost-effective,pollution-free forms of energy conversion.Of various types of thermoelectric materials,nanostructured materials have shown the most promise for commercial use because of their extraordinary thermoelectric performances. This article aims to summarize the present progress of nanostructured thermoelectrics and intends to understand and explain the underpinnings of the innovative breakthroughs in the last decade or so.We believed that recent achievements will augur the possibility for thermoelectric power generation and cooling,and discuss several future directions which could lead to new exciting next generation of nanostructured thermoelectrics.
In recent years, graphene has attracted considerable research interest in all fields of science due to its unique properties. Its excellent mechanical properties lead it to be used in nano-composites for strength enhancement. This paper reports an Aluminum–Graphene Nanoplatelets(Al/GNPs)composite using a semi-powder method followed by hot extrusion. The effect of GNP nano-particle integration on tensile, compressive and hardness response of Al is investigated in this paper. It is demonstrated that 0.3 wt% Graphene Nanoplatelets distributed homogeneously in the matrix aluminum act as an effective reinforcing filler to prevent deformation. Compared to monolithic aluminum(in tension), Al–0.3 wt% GNPs composite exhibited higher 0.2% yield strength(+14.7%), ultimate tensile strength(+11.1%) and lower failure strain( -40.6%). Surprisingly, compared to monolithic Al(in compression), Al–0.3 wt% GNPs composite exhibited same 0.2% compressive yield strength and lower ultimate compression strength(- 7.8%),and lower failure strain(- 20.2%). The Al–0.3 wt% GNPs composite exhibited higher Vickers hardness compared to monolithic aluminum(+11.8%).Scanning electron microscopy(SEM), Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy(EDS) and X-ray diffraction(XRD) were used to investigate the surface morphology, elemental percentage composition, and phase analysis, respectively.
Zinc oxide nanoparticles are known to be one of the multifunctional inorganic nanoparticles with effective antibacterial activity.This study aims to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of green and chemical synthesized ZnO nanoparticle against various bacterial and fungal pathogens.Various microbiological tests were performed using varying concentrations of green and chemical ZnO NPs with sizes 40 and 25 nm respectively.Results prove that green ZnO nanoparticles show more enhanced biocidal activity against various pathogens when compared to chemical ZnO nanoparticles.Also effectiveness of nanoparticles increases with increasing particle dose,treatment time and synthesis method. In addition,the current study has clearly demonstrated that the particle size variation and surface area to volume ratio of green ZnO nanoparticle are responsible for significant higher antimicrobial activity.From the results obtained it is suggested that green ZnO NPs could be used effectively in agricultural and food safety applications and also can address future medical concerns.
Hydrogen may play a key role in a future sustainable energy system as a carrier of renewable energy to replace hydrocarbons. This review describes the fundamental physical and chemical properties of hydrogen and basic theories of hydrogen sorption reactions, followed by the emphasis on state-of-the-art of the hydrogen storage properties of selected interstitial metallic hydrides and magnesium hydride, especially for stationary energy storage related utilizations. Finally, new perspectives for utilization of metal hydrides in other applications will be reviewed.
The water electrolysis for hydrogen production is constrained by the thermodynamically unfavorable oxygen evolution reaction(OER),which requires input of a large amount of energy to drive the reaction.One of the key challenges to increase the efficiency of the water electrolysis system is to develop highly effective and robust electrocatalysts for the OER.In the past 20–30 years,significant progresses have been made in the development of efficient electrocatalysts,including metal oxides,metal oxide-carbon nanotubes(CNTs) hybrid and metal-free CNTs based materials for the OER.In this critical review,the overall progress of metal oxides catalysts and the role of CNTs in the development of OER catalyst are summarized,and the latest development of new metal free CNTs-based OER catalyst is discussed.
Composites of carbon nanotubes and conducting polymers can be prepared via chemical synthesis, electrochemical deposition on preformed carbon nanotube electrodes, or by electrochemical co-deposition. The composites combine the large pseudocapacitance of the conducting polymers with the fast charging/discharging double-layer capacitance and excellent mechanical properties of the carbon nanotubes. The electrochemically co-deposited composites are the most homogeneous and show an unusual interaction between the polymer and nanotubes, giving rise to a strengthened electron delocalisation and conjugation along the polymer chains. As a result they exhibit excellent electrochemical charge storage properties and fast charge/discharge switching, making them promising electrode materials for high Dower suDercapacitors.
Biodegradable metals(BMs) are metals and alloys expected to corrode gradually in vivo, with an appropriate host response elicited by released corrosion products, then dissolve completely upon fulfilling the mission to assist with tissue healing with no implant residues. In the present review article, three classes of BMs have been systematically reviewed, including Mg-based, Fe-based and Zn-based BMs.Among the three BM systems, Mg-based BMs, which now have several systems reported the successful of clinical trial results, are considered the vanguards and main force. Fe-based BMs, with pure iron and Fe–Mn based alloys as the most promising, are still on the animal test stage. Zn-based BMs, supposed to have the degradation rate between the fast Mg-based BMs and the slow Fe-based BMs, are a rising star with only several reports and need much further research. The future research and development direction for the BMs are proposed, based on the clinical requirements on controllable degradation rate, prolonged mechanical stability and excellent biocompatibility, by optimization of alloy composition design, regulation on microstructure and mechanical properties, and following surface modification.
Polyaniline (PANI) based nanocomposites filled with ZnO nanorods were prepared by the chemical oxidative method of the aniline in acid medium with ammonium peroxydisulphate (APS) as an oxidant. The composition, morphology and structure of the polymer and the nanocomposites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UV-vis spectroscopy and electrical conductivity. The characteristic FTIR peaks of PANI were found to shift to higher or lower wave number in PANI-ZnO composites due to formation of H-bonding. Different amounts of ZnO nanorods were used to verify this effect on the characteristics of the synthesized materials. These observed effects have been attributed to interaction of ZnO nanorods with PANI molecular chains. XRD results revealed that the crystallinity of PANI was more pronounced after addition of nanorods, while the intensity of the peaks increased by addition of ZnO nanorods. Electrical conductivity of the PANI-ZnO nanocomposite film was found to be smaller than that of the PANI film. The decrease of electrical conductivity in PANI-ZnO films as compared to PANI was attributed to the interfaces formed between oxygen of ZnO nanorods and hydrogen of PANI. Also, TGA results showed that the decomposition of the nanocomposite was less than that of pure polyaniline which confirms the successful fabrication of products. These conductive polymers can be used in commercial paints as an additive.
Highly transparent and conducting Al-doped Zn O(Al:Zn O) thin films were grown on glass substrates using pulsed laser deposition technique.The profound effect of film thickness on the structural, optical and electrical properties of Al:Zn O thin films was observed. The X-ray diffraction depicts c-axis, plane(002) oriented thin films with hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure. Al-doping in Zn O introduces a compressive stress in the films which increase with the film thickness. AFM images reveal the columnar grain formation with low surface roughness. The versatile optical properties of Al:Zn O thin films are important for applications such as transparent electromagnetic interference(EMI) shielding materials and solar cells. The obtained optical band gap(3.2–3.08 e V) was found to be less than pure Zn O(3.37 e V) films. The lowering in the band gap in Al:Zn O thin films could be attributed to band edge bending phenomena. The photoluminescence spectra gives sharp visible emission peaks, enables Al:Zn O thin films for light emitting devices(LEDs) applications. The current–voltage(I–V) measurements show the ohmic behavior of the films with resistivity(ρ) 10-3Ω cm.
Bacterial adhesion has become a significant problem in industry and in the domicile, and much research has been done for deeper understanding of the processes involved. A generic biological model of bacterial adhesion and population growth called the bacterial biofilm growth cycle, has been described and modified many times. The biofilm growth cycle encompasses bacterial adhesion at all levels, starting with the initial physical attraction of bacteria to a substrate, and ending with the eventual liberation of cell clusters from the biofilm matrix. When describing bacterial adhesion one is simply describing one or more stages of biofilm development, neglecting the fact that the population may not reach maturity. This article provides an overview of bacterial adhesion, cites examples of how bacterial adhesion affects industry and summarises methods and instrumentation used to improve our understanding of the adhesive properties of bacteria.
This paper provides a comprehensive review of literature related to the assessment of climate change impacts on crop productivity using climate, water and crop yield models. The existing studies present that climate change models with higher spatial resolution can be a way forward for future climate projections. Meanwhile, stochastic projections of more than one climate model are necessary for providing insights into model uncertainties as well as to develop risk management strategies. It is projected that water availability will increase in some parts of the world, which will have its own effect on water use efficiency and water allocation. Crop production can increase if irrigated areas are expanded or irrigation is intensified, but these may increase the rate of environmental degradation. Since climate change impacts on soil water balance will lead to changes of soil evaporation and plant transpiration, consequently, the crop growth period may shorten in the future impacting on water productivity. Crop yields affected by climate change are projected to be different in various areas, in some areas crop yields will increase, and for other areas it will decrease depending on the latitude of the area and irrigation application. Existing modelling results show that an increase in precipitation will increase crop yield, and what is more, crop yield is more sensitive to the precipitation than temperature. If water availability is reduced in the future, soils of high water holding capacity will be better to reduce the impact of drought while maintaining crop yield. With the temperature increasing and precipitation fluctuations, water availability and crop production are likely to decrease in the future. If the irrigated areas are expanded, the total crop production will increase; however, food and environmental quality may degrade.
The recent fast development of supercapacitors,also known scientifically as electrochemical capacitors,has benefited significantly from synthesis,characterisations and electrochemistry of nanomaterials.Herein,the principle of supercapacitors is explained in terms of performance characteristics and charge storage mechanisms,i.e.double layer(or interfacial) capacitance and pseudo-capacitance.The semiconductor band model is applied to qualitatively account for the pseudo-capacitance in association with rectangular cyclic voltammograms(CVs) and linear galvanostatic charging and discharging plots(GCDs),aiming to differentiate supercapacitors from rechargeable batteries.The invalidity of using peak shaped CVs and non-linear GCDs for capacitance measurement is highlighted.A selective review is given to the nano-hybrid materials between carbon nanotubes and redox active materials such as electronically conducting polymers and transition metal oxides.A new concept,"interfacial conjugation",is introduced to reflect the capacitance enhancement resulting from π-π stacking interactions at the interface between two materials with highly conjugated chemical bonds.The prospects of carbon nanotubes and graphenes for supercapacitor applications are briefly compared and discussed.Hopefully,this article can help readers to understand supercapacitors and nano-hybrid materials so that further developments in materials design and synthesis,and device engineering can be more efficient and objective.
ABO(3)-based photocatalysts for water splitting were systematically reviewed in this manuscript. Crystal structure and chemical composition characteristics of ABO(3) materials were briefly introduced to guide the modification of ABO(3)-based photocatalysts. The ABO(3)-based photocatalysts were then reviewed in detail and divided into four groups based on the employed modification strategies, i.e., chemical component adjustment, micro-/nano-structure adjustment, local lattice structure adjustment, and application of the modification strategy of ABO(3) photocatalysts in designing A(x)B(y)O(z) photocatalysts. In this section, the recent research works on ABO(3)-based photocatalysts in our group were presented. Finally, application of ABO(3) photocatalysts in Z-scheme systems for overall water splitting was introduced. This review summarized the development of ABO(3)-based photocatalysts and showed the values and possible direction of future research, thereby offering a guide for photocatalytic water splitting. (c) 2012 Chinese Materials Research Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ABO3-based photocatalysts for water splitting were systematically reviewed in this manuscript. Crystal structure and chemical composition characteristics of ABO3 materials were briefly introduced to guide the modification of ABOrbased photocatalysts.The ABO3-based photocatalysts were then reviewed in detail and divided into four groups based on the employed modification strategies,i.e.,chemical component adjustment,micro-/nano-structure adjustment,local lattice structure adjustment,and application of the modification strategy of ABO3 photocatalysts in designing AxBy0z photocatalysts.In this section,the recent research works on ABOrbased photocatalysts in our group were presented.Finally, application of ABO3 photocatalysts in Z-scheme systems for overall water splitting was introduced.This review summarized the development of ABOrbased photoaitalysts and showed the values and possible direction of future research,thereby ottering a guide for photocatalytic water splitting.
Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles(IONPs) are heavily explored as diagnostic and therapeutic agents due to their low cost, tunable properties, and biocompatibility. In particular, upon excitation with an alternating current(AC) magnetic field, the NPs generate localized heat that can be exploited for therapeutic hyperthermia treatment of diseased cells or pathogenic microbes. In this review, we focus on how structural changes and inter-particle interactions affect the heating efficiency of iron oxide-based magnetic NPs. Moreover, we present an overview of the different approaches to evaluate the heating performance of IONPs and introduce a new theranostic modality based on magnetic imaging guided–hyperthermia.
The influence of variant graphenes on electrochemical performance for supercapacitors was studied comparatively and systematically by using SEM,FTIR and Raman spectroscopy,cyclic voltammetry(CV),galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS).The results revealed that:1) the nitrogen-doped graphene(N-G) electrode exhibited the highest specific capacitance at the same voltage scan rate;2) the specific capacitance of the N-G reached up to 243.5 F/g at 1 A/g,while regular graphite oxide(GO) was 43.5 F/g and reduced graphene oxide(rGO) was 67.9 F/g;3) N-G exhibited the best supercapacitance performance and the superior electrochemical properties,which made it an ideal electrode material for supercapacitors.
The development of nanotechnology in recent decades has brought new opportunities in the exploration of new materials for solving the issues of fossil fuel consumption and environment pollution.Materials with nano-array architecture are emerging as the key due to their structure advantages,which offer the possibility to fabricate high-performance electrochemical electrodes and catalysts for both energy storage and effcient use of energy.The main challenges in this feld remain as rational structure design and corresponding controllable synthesis.This article reviews recent progress in our laboratory related to the hydrothermal synthesis of metal oxide and hydroxide nanoarrays,whose structures are designed aiming to the application on supercapacitors and catalysts.The strategies for developing advanced materials of metal oxide and hydroxide nanoarrays,including NiO,Ni(OH)2,Co3O4,Co3O4@Ni–Co–O,cobalt carbonate hydroxide array,and mixed metal oxide arrays like Co3 xFex O4and Znx Co3 xO4,are discussed.The different kinds of structure designs such as 1D nanorod,2D nanowall and hierarchical arrays were involved to meet the needs of the high performance materials.Finally,the future trends and perspectives in the development of advanced nanoarrays materials are highlighted.
This paper reviews state-of-the-art developments in hydrogen energy systems which integrate fuel cells with metal hydride-based hydrogen storage. The 187 reference papers included in this review provide an overview of all major publications in the field, as well as recent work by several of the authors of the review. The review contains four parts. The first part gives an overview of the existing types of fuel cells and outlines the potential of using metal hydride stores as a source of hydrogen fuel. The second part of the review considers the suitability and optimisation of different metal hydrides based on their energy efficient thermal integration with fuel cells. The performances of metal hydrides are considered from the viewpoint of the reversible heat driven interaction of the metal hydrides with gaseous H-2. Efficiencies of hydrogen and heat exchange in hydrogen stores to control H-2 charge/discharge flow rates are the focus of the third section of the review and are considered together with metal hydride-fuel cell system integration issues and the corresponding engineering solutions. Finally, the last section of the review describes specific hydrogen-fuelled systems presented in the available reference data.