This paper mainly summarizes the recent progresses for the cavitation study in the hydraulic machinery including turbo-pumps, hydro turbines, etc.. Especially, the newly developed numerical methods for simulating cavitating turbulent flows and the achievements with regard to the complicated flow features revealed by using advanced optical techniques as well as cavitation simulation are introduced so as to make a better understanding of the cavitating flow mechanism for hydraulic machinery. Since cavitation instabilities are also vital issue and rather harmful for the operation safety of hydro machines, we present the 1-D analysis method, which is identified to be very useful for engineering applications regarding the cavitating flows in inducers, turbine draft tubes, etc. Though both cavitation and hydraulic machinery are extensively discussed in literatures, one should be aware that a few problems still remains and are open for solution, such as the comprehensive understanding of cavitating turbulent flows especially inside hydro turbines, the unneglectable discrepancies between the numerical and experimental data, etc.. To further promote the study of cavitation in hydraulic machinery, some advanced topics such as a Density-Based solver suitable for highly compressible cavitating turbulent flows, a virtual cavitation tunnel, etc. are addressed for the future works.
In this paper, we investigate the verification and validation（V＆V） procedures for the URANS simulations of the turbulent cavitating flow around a Clark-Y hydrofoil. The main focus is on the feasibility of various Richardson extrapolation-based uncertainty estimators in the cavitating flow simulation. The unsteady cavitating flow is simulated by a density corrected model（DCM） coupled with the Zwart cavitation model. The estimated uncertainty is used to evaluate the applicability of various uncertainty estimation methods for the cavitating flow simulation. It is shown that the preferred uncertainty estimators include the modified Factor of Safety（FS1）, the Factor of Safety（FS） and the Grid Convergence Index（GCI）. The distribution of the area without achieving the validation at the U v level shows a strong relationship with the cavitation. Further analysis indicates that the predicted velocity distributions, the transient cavitation patterns and the effects of the vortex stretching are highly influenced by the mesh resolution.
In the present review, recent progress on the vortex identification methods are introduced with a focus on the newly proposed omega method (Omega method). The advantages of Omega method are summarized with many illustrating examples. Furthermore, comparing with other existing methods (e.g., Q criterion and lambda(2) criterion), one of the characteristics of Omega method is its independence on the chosen threshold values for vortex identifications. The important parameters involved for the practical applications of Omega method are further discussed in detail together with the physical interpretation of the and Omega some suggestions of the future work. Other emerging topics (e.g., Lagrangian coherent structure and Rortex) are also introduced with comments.
In ocean engineering, the applications are usually related to a free surface which brings so many interesting physical phenomena (e.g. water waves, impacts, splashing jets, etc.). To model these complex free surface flows is a tough and challenging task for most computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solvers which work in the Eulerian framework. As a Lagrangian and meshless method, smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) offers a convenient tracking for different complex boundaries and a straightforward satisfaction for different boundary conditions. Therefore SPH is robust in modeling complex hydrodynamic problems characterized by free surface boundaries, multiphase interfaces or material discontinuities. Along with the rapid development of the SPH theory, related numerical techniques and high-performance computing technologies, SPH has not only attracted much attention in the academic community, but also gradually gained wide applications in industrial circles. This paper is dedicated to a review of the recent developments of SPH method and its typical applications in fluid-structure interactions in ocean engineering. Different numerical techniques for improving numerical accuracy, satisfying different boundary conditions, improving computational efficiency, suppressing pressure fluctuations and preventing the tensile instability, etc., are introduced. In the numerical results, various typical fluid-structure interaction problems or multiphase problems in ocean engineering are described, modeled and validated. The prospective developments of SPH in ocean engineering are also discussed.
In this paper, the turbulent attached cavitating flow around a Clark-Y hydrofoil is investigated by the large eddy simulation(LES) method coupled with a homogeneous cavitation model. The predicted lift coefficient and the cavity volume show a distinctly quasi-periodic process with cavitation shedding and the results agree fairly well with the available experimental data. The present simulation accurately captures the main features of the unsteady cavitation transient behavior including the attached cavity growth, the sheet/cloud cavitation transition and the cloud cavitation collapse. The vortex shedding structure from a hydrofoil cavitating wake is identified by the Q- criterion, which implies that the large scale structures might slide and roll down along the suction side of the hydrofoil while being further developed at the downstream. Further analysis demonstrates that the turbulence level of the flow is clearly related to the cavitation and the turbulence velocity fluctuation is much influenced by the cavity shedding.
Large Eddy Simulation (LES) was coupled with a mass transfer cavitation model to predict unsteady 3-D turbulent cavitating flows around a twisted hydrofoil. The wall-adapting local eddy-viscosity (WALE) model was used to give the Sub-Grid Scale (SGS) stress term. The predicted 3-D cavitation evolutions, including the cavity growth, break-off and collapse downstream, and the shedding cycle as well as its frequency agree fairly well with experimental results. The mechanism for the interactions between the cavitation and the vortices was discussed based on the analysis of the vorticity transport equation related to the vortex stretching, volumetric expansion/contraction and baroclinic torque terms along the hydrofoil mid-plane. The vortical flow analysis demonstrates that cavitation promotes the vortex production and the flow unsteadiness. In non-cavitation conditions, the streamline smoothly passes along the upper wall of the hydrofoil with no boundary layer separation and the boundary layer is thin and attached to the foil except at the trailing edge. With decreasing cavitation number, the present case has σ = 1.07, and the attached sheet cavitation becomes highly unsteady, with periodic growth and break-off to form the cavitation cloud. The expansion due to cavitation induces boundary layer separation and significantly increases the vorticity magnitude at the cavity interface. A detailed analysis using the vorticity transport equation shows that the cavitation accelerates the vortex stretching and dilatation and increases the baroclinic torque as the major source of vorticity generation. Examination of the flow field shows that the vortex dilatation and baroclinic torque terms increase in the cavitating case to the same magnitude as the vortex stretching term, while for the non-cavitating case these two terms are zero.
In the present paper, epsilon (ε) in the Omega vortex identification criterion (Ω method) is defined as an explicit function in order to apply the Ω method to different cases and even different time steps for the unsteady cases. In our method, ε is defined as a function relating with the flow without any subjective adjustment on its coefficient. The newly proposed criteria for the determination of ε is tested in several typical flow cases and is proved to be effective in the current work. The test cases given in the present paper include boundary layer transition, shock wave and boundary layer interaction, and channel flow with different Reynolds numbers.
Smoothed particle hydrodynamics （SPH） is a Lagrangian, meshfree particle method and has been widely applied to diffe- rent areas in engineering and science. Since its original extension to modeling free surface flows by Monaghan in 1994, SPH has been gradually developed into an attractive approach for modeling viscous incompressible fluid flows. This paper presents an overview on the recent progresses of SPH in modeling viscous incompressible flows in four major aspects which are closely related to the computational accuracy of SPH simulations. The advantages and disadvantages of different SPH particle approximation sche- mes, pressure field solution approaches, solid boundary treatment algorithms and particle adapting algorithms are described and analyzed. Some new perspectives and fuRtre trends in SPH modeling of viscous incompressible flows are discussed.
Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is a Lagrangian, meshfree particle method and has been widely applied to different areas in engineering and science. Since its original extension to modeling free surface flows by Monaghan in 1994, SPH has been gradually developed into an attractive approach for modeling viscous incompressible fluid flows. This paper presents an overview on the recent progresses of SPH in modeling viscous incompressible flows in four major aspects which are closely related to the computational accuracy of SPH simulations. The advantages and disadvantages of different SPH particle approximation schemes, pressure field solution approaches, solid boundary treatment algorithms and particle adapting algorithms are described and analyzed. Some new perspectives and future trends in SPH modeling of viscous incompressible flows are discussed.
This article addresses the two-dimensional laminar boundary layer flow of magnetohydrodynamic （MHD） Jeffrey nano- fluid with mixed convection. Effects of thermal radiation, thermophoresis, Brownian motion and double stratifications are taken into account. Rosseland＇s approximation is utilized for the thermal radiation phenomenon. Convergent series solutions of velocity, tempe- rature and nanoparticle concentration are developed. Graphs of dimensionless temperature and nanoparticle concentration are prese- nted to investigate the influences of different emerging parameters. The values of skin-friction coefficient, local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are computed and discussed for both Jeffrey and viscous fluids cases. We have observed that the temperature profile retarded for the larger values of Deborah number while an enhancement is noticed with the increasing values of ratio of relaxation to retardation times. Increasing values of thermal and nanoparticle concentration stratifications lead to a reduction in the temperature and nanoparticle concentration. The values of local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are larger for the viscous fluid case when compared with Jeffrey fluid.
The three-dimensional unsteady turbulent flow in axial-flow pumps was simulated based on Navier-Stoke solver embedded with – ɛ RNG turbulence model and SIMPLEC algorithm. Numerical results show that the unsteady prediction results are more accurate than the steady results, and the maximal error of unsteady prediction is only 4.54%. The time-domain spectrums show that the static pressure fluctuation curves at the inlet and outlet of the rotor and the outlet of the stator are periodic, and all have four peaks and four valleys. The pressure fluctuation amplitude increases from the hub to the tip at the inlet and outlet of the rotor, but decreases at the outlet of the stator. The pressure fluctuation amplitude is the greatest at the inlet of the rotor, and the average amplitude decreases sharply from the inlet to the outlet. The frequency spectrums obtained by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) show that the dominant frequency is approximately equal to the blade passing frequency. The static pressure on the pressure side of hydrofoil on different stream surfaces remains almost consistent, and increases gradually from the blade inlet to the exit on the suction side at different time steps. The axial velocity distribution is periodic and is affected by the stator blade number at the rotor exit. The experimental results show that the flow is almost axial and the pre-rotation is very small at the rotor inlet under the conditions of 0.8 – 1.2 . Due to the clearance leakage, the pressure, circulation and meridional velocity at the rotor outlet all decrease near the hub leakage and tip clearance regions.
A vortex is intuitively recognized as the rotational/swirling motion of fluids, but a rigorous and universally-accepted definition is still not available. Vorticity tube/filament has been regarded equivalent to a vortex since Helmholtz proposed the concepts of vorticity tube/filament in 1858 and the vorticity-based methods can be categorized as the first generation of vortex identification methods. During the last three decades, a lot of vortex identification methods, including Q, Δ, λ 2 and λ ci criteria, have been proposed to overcome the problems associated with the vorticity-based methods. Most of these criteria are based on the Cauchy-Stokes decomposition and/or eigenvalues of the velocity gradient tensor and can be considered as the second generation of vortex identification methods. Starting from 2014, the Vortex and Turbulence Research Team at the University of Texas at Arlington (the UTA team) focus on the development of a new generation of vortex identification methods. The first fruit of this effort, a new omega (Ω) vortex identification method, which defined a vortex as a connected region where the vorticity overtakes the deformation, was published in 2016. In 2017 and 2018, a Liutex (previously called Rortex) vector was proposed to provide a mathematical definition of the local rigid rotation part of the fluid motion, including both the local rotational axis and the rotational strength. Liutex/Rortex is a new physical quantity with scalar, vector and tensor forms exactly representing the local rigid rotation of fluids. Meanwhile, a decomposition of the vorticity to a rotational part namely Liutex/Rortex and an anti-symmetric shear part (RS decomposition) was introduced in 2018, and a universal decomposition of the velocity gradient tensor to a rotation part (R) and a non-rotation part (NR) was also given in 2018 as a counterpart of the traditional Cauchy-Stokes decomposition. Later in early 2019, a Liutex/Rortex based Omega method called Omega-Liutex, which combines the respective advantages of both Liutex/Rortex and Omega methods, was developed. And a latest objective Omega method, which is still under development, is also briefly introduced. These advances are classified as the third generation of vortex identification methods in the current paper. To elaborate the advantages of the third-generation methods, six core issues for vortex definition and identification have been raised, including: (1) the absolute strength, (2) the relative strength, (3) the rotational axis, (4) the vortex core center location, (5) the vortex core size, (6) the vortex boundary. The new third generation of vortex identification methods can provide reasonable answers to these questions, while other vortex identification methods fail to answer all questions except for the approximation of vortex boundaries. The purpose of the current paper is to summarize the main ideas and methods of the third generation of vortex identification methods rather than to conduct a comprehensive review on the historical development of vortex identification methods.
Bubbles have very important applications in many fields such as shipbuilding engineering, ocean engineering, mechanical engineering, environmental engineering, chemical engineering, medical science and so on. In this paper, the research status and the development of the bubble dynamics in terms of theory, numerical simulation and experimental technique are reviewed, which cover the underwater explosion bubble, airgun bubble, spark bubble, laser bubble, rising bubble, propeller cavitation bubble, water entry/exit cavitation bubble and bubble dynamics in other fields. Former researchers have done a lot of researches on bubble dynamics and gained fruitful achievements. However, due to the complexity of the bubble motion, many tough mechanical problems remain to be solved. Based on the research progress of bubble dynamics, this paper gives the future research direction of bubble dynamics, aiming to provide references for researches related to bubble dynamics.
Reversible pump turbines are widely employed in the pumped hydro energy storage power plants. The frequent shifts among various operational modes for the reversible pump turbines pose various instability problems, e.g., the strong pressure fluctuation, the shaft swing, and the impeller damage. The instability is related to the vortices generated in the channels of the reversible pump turbines in the generating mode. In the present paper, a new omega vortex identification method is applied to the vortex analysis of the reversible pump turbines. The main advantage of the adopted algorithm is that it is physically independent of the selected values for the vortex identification in different working modes. Both weak and strong vortices can be identified by setting the same omega value in the whole passage of the reversible pump turbine. Five typical modes (turbine mode, runaway mode, turbine brake mode, zero-flow-rate mode and reverse pump mode) at several typical guide vane openings are selected for the analysis and comparisons. The differences between various modes and different guide vane openings are compared both qualitatively in terms of the vortex distributions and quantitatively in terms of the areas of the vortices in the reversible pump turbines. Our findings indicate that the new omega method could be successfully applied to the vortex identification in the reversible pump turbines.
This paper presents a comparative study of a meshless moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method and a grid based level-set method in the simulation of sloshing flows. The numerical schemes of the MPS and level-set methods are outlined and two violent sloshing cases are considered. The computed results are compared with the corresponding experimental data for validation. The impact pressure and the deformations of free surface induced by sloshing are comparatively analyzed, and are in good agreement with experimental ones. Results show that both the MPS and level-set methods are good tools for simulation of violent sloshing flows. However, the second pressure peaks as well as breaking and splashing of free surface by the MPS method are captured better than by the level-set method.
Physical modeling represents probably the oldest design tool in hydraulic engineering together with analytical approaches. In free surface flows, the similitude based upon a Froude similarity allows for a correct representation of the dominant forces, namely gravity and inertia. As a result fluid flow properties such as the capillary forces and the viscous forces might be incorrectly reproduced, affecting the air entrainment and transport capacity of a high-speed model flow. Small physical models operating under a Froude similitude systematically underestimate the air entrainment rate and air-water interfacial properties. To limit scale effects, minimal values of Reynolds or Weber number have to be respected. The present article summarizes the physical background of such limitations and their combination in terms of the Morton number. Based upon a literature review, the existing limits are presented and discussed, resulting in a series of more conservative recommendations in terms of air concentration scaling. For other air-water flow parameters, the selection of the criteria to assess scale effects is critical because some parameters (e.g., bubble sizes, turbulent scales) can be affected by scale effects, even in relatively large laboratory models.
The spectral/hp element method combines the geometric flexibility of the classical h-type finite element technique with the desirable numerical properties of spectral methods, employing high-degree piecewise polynomial basis functions on coarse finite element-type meshes. The spatial approximation is based upon orthogonal polynomials, such as Legendre or Chebychev polynomials,modified to accommodate a C~0-continuous expansion. Computationally and theoretically, by increasing the polynomial order p,high-precision solutions and fast convergence can be obtained and, in particular, under certain regularity assumptions an exponential reduction in approximation error between numerical and exact solutions can be achieved. This method has now been applied in many simulation studies of both fundamental and practical engineering flows. This paper briefly describes the formulation of the spectral/hp element method and provides an overview of its application to computational fluid dynamics. In particular, it focuses on the use of the spectral/hp element method in transitional flows and ocean engineering. Finally, some of the major challenges to be overcome in order to use the spectral/hp element method in more complex science and engineering applications are discussed.
The synergetic effects between cavitation bubbles and silt particles on the damages of materials are essential problems in fluid machineries. For studying the underlying microscopic mechanisms, in the present paper, the dynamic behaviors of a single cavitation bubble between a spherical particle and a rigid wall are experimentally investigated with a high-speed camera. The results indicate that the existence of the particle can affect the bubble shape during collapse and significantly accelerate the collapse velocity of the bubble. The influences of the particle size, the distance between the bubble and the particle and the distance between the bubble and the rigid wall on the phenomena are qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. These parameters can prominently affect the collapse velocity of the bubble (especially its maximum value).
In the new vortex identification method (Liu et al. 2016) to represent the rotation level and capture and visualize the vortices, proposed in our previous study, the independence of the reference frame and the Galilean invariant were not proved. In the present study, the Galilean invariance of the omega vortex identification method is proved and several examples are presented to verify the conclusion.
In the present study, the physical meaning of vorticity is revisited based on the Liutex-Shear (RS) decomposition proposed by Liu et al. in the framework of Liutex (previously called Rortex), a vortex vector field with information of both rotation axis and swirling strength (Liu et al. 2018). It is demonstrated that the vorticity in the direction of rotational axis is twice the spatial mean angular velocity in the small neighborhood around the considered point while the imaginary part of the complex eigenvalue (λ ci ) of the velocity gradient tensor (if exist) is the pseudo-time average angular velocity of a trajectory moving circularly or spirally around the axis. In addition, an explicit expression of the Liutex vector in terms of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of velocity gradient is obtained for the first time from above understanding, which can further, though mildly, accelerate the calculation and give more physical comprehension of the Liutex vector.