Comparisons of carbon and nitrogen transformation and their coupling relationships among different forest types,including primary and restoration forests after primary forest harvesting in the subalpine region of western Sichuan,are relatively limited. In this study,we measured the seasonal dynamics of soil respiration and gross nitrification rate using the barometric process separation(BaPS) technique and examined their possible effect in Abies faxoniana primary,Picea asperata broadleaved mixed,natural secondary Betula-Abies,and P. asperata plantation forests. The results showed that the average soil respiration and gross nitrification rate during the growing season were the highest in P. asperata broadleaved mixed forest and P. asperata plantation forest,respectively,and were the lowest in A. faxoniana primary forest. The soil respiration and gross nitrification rates varied obviously during the growing season,peaking in July. They were significantlycorrelated with soil temperature(P<0.05),but were not significantly correlated with soil water content,indicating that soil temperature,rather than soil water content,is a controlling factor in the regulation of the seasonal dynamics of soil respiration and gross nitrification. Soil respiration temperature sensitivity varied from 2.59 to 4.71 with the highest in the A.faxoniana primary forest,suggesting primary forests at high altitudes may be more vulnerable to climate change. Soil respiration and gross nitrification rates among forest types were mainly influenced by litter mass,p H,and soil organic matter. The soil respiration rate was positively correlated with the gross nitrification rate in different forest types,indicating a coupling relationship between soil respiration and gross nitrification rates.
Increasing marine engineering projects have resulted in ecological degradation of fishery resources. In this study, combining survey data, historical data, data from fishermen′s interviews, and many other data, we focused on the core issue of compensation for damage to fishery resources due to marine engineering projects. The survey data were obtained from 80 stations in the coastal waters of Zhoushan(29°20′-31°00′N, 121°40′-123°00′E), collected between November 2015 and May 2016. Different aquatic areas, fishery production areas or spawning and egg gathering areas, and areas endowed with different fishery resources were assigned various weighting coefficients in the compensation model, including direct economic damage compensation and indirect ecological damage compensation for reclamation projects. Standard techniques were used for the calculation of ecological damage to fishery resources in the coastal waters of different counties(districts) and townships along nearshore Zhoushan. The developed compensation model not only offers useful application in the collection of compensation for ecological damage to fishery resources in the coastal waters near Zhoushan, but also provides technical support for establishing compensation mechanisms for marine ecological damage in China.
Establishment of the China National Park system aims to re-organise the diversified management systems of protected areas to realize efficient and proper terrestrial land planning, natural capital conservation, and public welfare. This study reviews the development of theories and techniques of the nature reserves and scenic areas and summarizes progress of national park pilots, and proposed the general rules of boundary delineation and zoning of national parks. National park planning should aim to achieve conservation goals, learn from nature reserve zoning and itemize management objectives for sub-zoning, and learn from scenic area planning to take a landscapce value into consideration and balance socio-economic conditions, especially land tenure. It then should consider climate change and regional development goals in the long term to finalize the theoretical system. In the formation of the theory, realizing different ecosystem service bundles could be the target of spatial control. Under certain land tenure systems, ecological protection and community livelihood development could be balanced by implementing conservation easements to separate land ownership, use rights, and benefit rights to restrain community land use in certain areas with compensation.
Changes in the value of natural ecosystem regulating services over a period of time can reflect the effectiveness of regional ecological protection measures. Qiandongnan Miao-Dong Autonomous Prefecture of Guizhou Province is located in the karst region of southwest China, which with its high forest coverage is an important ecological barrier in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River and the Pearl River. Qiandongnan Prefecture was chosen as a case study; we constructed an evaluation index system based on gross ecosystem product(GEP) and applied the methods of value accounting to ecosystem regulating services to discuss the application of GEP-based accounting in assessing the effectiveness of ecological protection measures. The evaluation results showed that the ecosystem regulating services value of Qiandongnan in 2010 was 223.878 billion Yuan, which was 7.16 times its GDP. Ecosystem regulating service value per unit area and per capita in the national key ecological function area counties are higher than those in non-key ecological function area counties. From 2000 to 2010, the value of ecosystem regulating services in Qiandongnan Prefecture increased by 2.26% at constant price; the rate of increase of this value in non-key ecological function area counties was higher than that in key ecological function area counties. Our results suggest that the value of ecosystem regulating services can directly reflect the status and changes in the ecological environment during a certain period in Qiandongnan Prefecture, and highlight the effect of comprehensive implementation of projects for ecological protection. The value of ecosystem regulating services provides a scientific basis for subsequent implementation of ecological protection measures in Qiandongnan Prefecture.
Governance type plays a prominent role in the effective management of protected areas. Appropriate type of governance is essential to maximize the ecological, social, economic and cultural benefits of these areas. Nonetheless, existing studies on the institutional mechanisms of protected areas primarily focused on the theoretical system analysis, institutional mechanism construction, and experience summaries of specific governance types. These studies overlooked the need to analyze governance types on a global scale, especially the current governance structure of the global protected area network, and understand the correlations between different governance types. To this end, current study analyzed the IUCN global protected area database, and found that the global protected area governance types are quite diverse. In general, the "governance by government" serves as the dominant governance type, while other governance types act as the supplement. The governance types vary with the spatial distribution and management categories of protected areas. To evaluate the structure of the global protected area governance type, a social network analysis involving both qualitative and quantitative features was conducted. It revealed that the current structure of the global protected area governance type is a dual-center 'core-edge' network structure, which consists of a core circle with the 'federal or national ministry or agency in charge' and 'sub-national ministry or agency in charge' as the main center. It is supplemented by the 'collaborative governance'; and an independent center based on the 'established and run by local communities' governance type at the edge, indicating that community governance type cannot be ignored. Present study also found that the governance types within the two groups show certain relevance. The first group includes the 'sub-national ministry or agency in charge' and 'conserved areas established and run by non-profit organizations', while the second group includes the 'established and run by local communities' and 'established and run by indigenous peoples' or 'government-delegated management'. These imply that the same country/region tends to adopt these associated governance types simultaneously.
Farmers′ professional cooperatives are important for promoting rural revitalization and precise poverty alleviation strategies and realizing the organic connection between small farmers and agricultural modernization. On the basis of "process-pattern-mechanism" thinking, we analyzed the spatial and temporal evolution characteristics and influencing factors of planting industry, aquaculture industry, supply & marketing, and agricultural machinery professional cooperatives in 13 cities in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei from 2007 to 2013. The number of planting, aquaculture, supply & marketing, and agricultural machinery professional cooperatives in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei showed an increasing trend year by year, and the number and growth rate of cooperatives were as follows: planting industry > aquaculture industry > supply & marketing > agricultural machinery. The planting and aquaculture professional cooperatives presented the spatial pattern of "two cores and one belt". The distribution of supply & marketing and agricultural machinery professional cooperatives showed obvious gradient characteristics, and the number of cooperatives was as follows: central > southern > northern. Obvious spatial negative correlations were detected among the four types of professional cooperatives. The spatial error model for the planting and supply & marketing professional cooperatives had a better fit, and the spatial lag model for the aquaculture industry and agricultural machinery professional cooperatives had a better fit. Geographical factors, economic development level, and development level of the primary industry all had significant positive impacts on the development of the four types of professional cooperatives. Market demand had the greatest impact on the planting and aquaculture cooperatives, and development level of the primary industry had the greatest impact on the supply & marketing and agricultural machinery cooperatives.
The allelopathic effects of water extracts from alfalfa(Medicago sativa) in the seedling stage on seed germination and growth of Elymus nutans in different areas were examined in the laboratory based on seed germination rate, seedling length, root length, and dry weight of seedlings and roots. The results showed that the seed germination rate of Elymus nutans in LS(Lhasa) and DX(Damxung County) was significantly promoted by water extracts from the aboveground alfalfa, but that of those in GS(Gansu), KMX(Kangma County), LKZ(Nagarzê County), and LZ(Nyingchi County) was inhibited, and Elymus nutans in GS was the most inhibited, with suppression rates of 57.89% and 55.26% at concentrations of 14.5% and 5.5%, respectively. At the concentration of 5.5%, the seedling length of Elymus nutans in LZ was the most inhibited with the suppression rate of 33.03%, followed successively by those in NQ(Nagqu region), DX, LS, KMX, QH(Qinghai), GS, and LKZ. At the concentration of 14.5%, the seedling length of Elymus nutans in LZ was nearly the most inhibited with the suppression rate of 28.97%, followed successively by those in KMX, LKZ, NQ, GS, QH, DX, and LS. At the concentration of 5.5%, the root length of Elymus nutans in QH had the strongest inhibition, followed by those in the order of NQ>LZ>KMX, GS>LKZ>DX, LS. At the concentration of 14.5%, the root length of Elymus nutans in GS had the strongest inhibition with the suppression rate of 57.69%, followed successively by those in the order of QH, NQ>LZ>LS>KMX>DX>LKZ. The dry weight of seedlings of Elymus nutans in LKX and LZ increased by the aboveground water extracts, whereas that of those in KMX and DX decreased and the dry weight of seedlings of Elymus nutans in NQ was only increased at high concentrations(RI>0). The dry weight of roots of Elymus nutans in LS, QH, GS, NQ, and LKZ was decreased by the aboveground water extracts, whereas that of those in KMX and DX was increased and the dry weight of roots of Elymus nutans in LZ was only increased at high concentrations. Seed germination rate, seedling length, root length, and dry weight of seedlings and roots of Elymus nutans in most areas were significantly inhibited(RI 0.05). All the above results showed that the sensitivity of Elymus nutans in different areas to the allelopathic effects of the aboveground alfalfa in the seedling stage is in the order of GS>QH>LS>KMX>NQ>LKZ>LZ>DX from the highest to the lowest allelopathic sensitivity. The allelopathic sensitivity to the root of the alfalfa is in the order of QH>NQ>LZ>KMX>LS,from the highest to the lowest. The allelopathic sensitivity of Elymus nutans in different areas to water extracts from the aboveground alfalfa is higher than that from the root of alfalfa.
The establishment of the Three-river-source National Park is beneficial because the strictest ecological protection extended to this area helps to strengthen the sustainable protection of the "Chinese water tower" and to enhance the national ecological security barrier. In order to understand the ecological background of the Three-river-source National Park, the spatial distribution of the ecosystem, the temporal and spatial variation of ecological functions from 2000 to 2015, and the importance hierarchy of the ecosystem functions were analyzed by using remote sensing data, a geographical information system, and model simulations. The results showed that:(1) Grassland, desert, water, and wetland ecosystems are the main ecosystem types in the Three-river-source National Park, and they accounted for 99.8% of the total area.(2) Areas with extremely important water regulation, soil conservation, wind prevention/sand fixation functions accounted for approximately 15.3%, 13.7%, and 22.4% of the total area in the Three-river-source National Park, respectively.(3) In the eastern, central, and western parts of the Three-river-source National Park, the core ecosystem functions were the water conservation, soil conservation, and wind prevention/sand fixation functions, respectively.(4) From 2000 to 2015, the water conservation volume decreased overall, while the increased area accounted for 84.5% of the total area, and the area of extremely important site decreased. The overall improvement of the soil conservation function was significant both in volume with a change of 9.87×10~6 t/a and in the improved area, which was more than 95%. However, the wind prevention/sand fixation function showed a declining trend, because of the decline in wind speed and vegetation coverage, with a change of-3.56×10~6 t/a.(5) A warm and wet climate and the implementation of the ecological protection project were the main reasons for the improvement of ecosystem functions in the Three-river-source National Park. However, grassland degradation was not fundamentally reversed, and vegetation coverage still declined regionally. Thus, the restoration of degraded grassland must be prioritized and the integrated capacity of ecosystem functions remains to be improved. For the strict protection and sustainable use of the Three-river-source National Park and its natural resources, overall planning and scientific layout should be scrutinized, and classifications and subarea protection should be implemented based on the natural law of the ecosystem.
Big data construction for eco-environment has become a creative approach in environmental management, and it is also the basic requirement for building the "data power" in China. Aiming to explore the general situation of big data construction for eco-environment by environmental agencies, this study conducted literature analyses and website interviews of environmental agencies in 31 provinces, 27 provincial capital cities, and 6 big data construction pilot cities in 2018. The results showed that although considerable progress had been made in data resource integration, there were still many problems with regional development, institution building, data sharing, and big data applications. Therefore, we proposed the following four suggestions:(1) expanding the relevant functions of environmental information center;(2) accelerating the progress of integration and sharing for big data;(3) strengthening international exchanges;(4) promoting the applications of big data in key areas.
Populus euphratica is an important part of the desert riparian forest in the lower reaches of the Tarim River. Changes of biomass characteristics and the ecological service value of P. euphratica were studied in this paper, that can provide scientific basis to the benefit assessments of ecological water conveyance in the lower reaches of the Tarim River. Firstly, characteristics of the biomass of P. euphratica in different years were evaluated by the methods includes field survey and remote sensing interpretation; Secondly, the area of P. euphratica in different years were extracted; Thirdly, the ecological service value of P. euphratica in different years were estimated. The results were as follows:(1) P. euphratica distributed in the range of 0-700 m distances from the river mainly, and the biomass in this range accounted for more than 90% of the total biomass; The average biomass of P. euphratica on Yingsu was the highest, Alagan was the next, Karday and Yiganbjm were very low.(2) Based on the revised formula, the average ecosystem service value of P. euphratica was 78.96 yuan/hm~2 in 2000, and that was 177.14 yuan/hm~2 and 313.55 yuan/hm~2 in 2010 and 2016, respectively. The total ecological service value of P. euphratica was 43.24×10~4 yuan, 93.00×10~4 yuan, and 184.27×10~4 yuan in 2000, 2010, and 2016, respectively.(3) In 2016, the visible service value of P. euphratica was 22.74×10~4 yuan; However, the invisible service value, which was 7.1 times more than the visible service value, was 161.53×10~4 yuan. There was amount of significant effects of ecological water conveyance on the biomass and service value of P. euphratica, and the benefit of ecological water conveyance was very significant.
Green infrastructure can provide efficient and accessible flood regulation ecosystem services; the measurement of supply and demand is the basis and prerequisite for improving ecosystem services and can provide decision-making information for land use planning and green infrastructure planning. This paper elaborates on the flood regulation ecosystem services of green infrastructure, including the conceptual connotation, main body composition, and relationship for each scale of supply and demand. Various methods of measurement for flood regulation service supply and demand are reviewed; the methods for supply measurement include land use method, ecosystem methods, and the flood storage model, while the methods for demand include the risk assessment method, flood submerged model, and economic loss statistics. Based on the existing research on the supply and demand of ecosystem services, we envisage a supply and demand analysis framework for flood regulation services. Through quantity balance and space matching for supply and demand, the relationship of supply and demand is divided into four scenarios. For each scenario, there are three regulation strategies: regulation for supply and demand toward dynamic balance, adjustment of supply and demand for quantity match, and service flow mechanism for the spatial match. Finally, we summarize deficiencies in the current research and propose future research directions with the aim of enlightening research on green infrastructure planning and ecosystem service management and decision-making.
Analysis of the ecological vulnerability of the bay landscape under the influence of reclamation will help to improve environmental protection of the bay and accelerate the restoration of the bay ecosystem. On the basis of the data of the 6 th phase of the East China Sea Bay, the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of the ecological vulnerability and artificial disturbance intensity of the East China Sea Bay under the influence of reclamation were analyzed, and the response of the bay landscape to human activities was discussed. The results show that(1) the vulnerability of the East China Sea Bay landscape and high and extremely high vulnerability areas in the northern and southern bays are increasing. High-level vulnerability areas continue to spread, mainly from urban to suburban, inland to coastal, and land to port.(2) The intensity of development and use of reclaimed land in the East China Sea Bay has strengthened. The landscape artificial disturbance intensity of the northern bay in the East China Sea has changed from low to high, and the medium-intensity, high-intensity, and extremely high intensity areas increased continuously. The landscape artificial disturbance intensity of the southern bay is significantly different from north to south, showing the characteristics of north low and south high. The intensity of artificial disturbance gradually deepens from the inland to the periphery of the estuary and coastal areas.(3) Landscape changes in the East China Sea Bay have responded significantly to human activities. The northern bay landscape of the East China Sea tends to be fragmented, diversified, and unbalanced. The southern bay of the East China Sea is gradually developing towards intensive development, and the landscape tends to be regularized and balanced. A significant positive correlation exists between the landscape fragmentation degree of the East China Sea Bay and landscape artificial disturbance intensity. The fit between the southern bay landscape vulnerability and artificial disturbance intensity is greater than that between the northern bay landscape vulnerability and artificial disturbance intensity.
With the deepening of urbanization, increasing attention has been paid to the status quo and control of heavy metal pollution in soil; however, identifying pollution sources is the premise of effective pollution control. Source analysis has been widely used to evaluate heavy metals in environmental receptors. In this paper, the common methods and principles of source analysis of soil heavy metals pollution in recent years are summarized, and a system combining various methods is proposed. A typical farmland in the Pearl River Delta was selected as a case area. The results indicated that（1） concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and As in some soil samples were greater than the filter capacity of agricultural land according to the Soil Environmental Quality of China, especially cadmium, which reached 60.1%; and（2） the accumulation of heavy metals in soils was related to the overuse of fertilizers for industrial production, traffic pollution, and soil parent material.（3） The results of the correlation analysis implied that the r2 values of Cd, Ni, Zn, and Hg were more than 90%, and the r2 values of other heavy metals were more than 60%, which indicates that there were significant correlations between the values of the measured and predicted heavy metals.（4） The contribution rates of the sum of transportation and agriculture to soil Pb accumulation through the PMF model and Pb stable isotope ratio method were 86.0% and 84.8%, respectively. The contribution rates of agriculture to soil Cd through the PMF model and material flow analysis were 86.7% and 79.7%, respectively.（5） The results indicate that the positive matrix factor, isotope ratio analysis, and material flow analysis methods can be well combined to study the source of heavy metals in soil.
On the basis of the land use change process in Wuhan Urban Agglomeration between 2005 and 2015, the "Evaluation Table of Ecological Service Value per Unit of China′s Ecosystem" was revised using the expert scoring method to quantitatively measure the value of ecological services and compare different functions and services in Wuhan Urban Agglomeration. We analyzed the spatial and temporal change of service value and constructed a double-logarithmic spatial regression measurement model for economy, landscape and ESV(Ecological Service Values) on the basis of the estimated value of the ecological services. We explored the driving influence factors, which would provide a scientific basis for regional ecosystem management. The results show that from 2005 to 2015, the ESV in Wuhan Urban Agglomeration decreased on a yearly basis, from 17.617 billion Yuan in 2005 to 16.729 billion Yuan in 2010 and 15.3717 billion Yuan in 2015. The spatial difference is prominent in terms of ESV. The declining pattern from the outer to the inner ring is shown in Wuhan. With respect to different functions and individual service, the regional ecological function adjustment service value is larger than that in cultural service and in supply service, in which food production was the most important single service function. The value gradually declined and showed relatively stable changes over the years. The results also showed that the primary influencing factors of the total ecological service value and individual service value are both per capita disposable income for rural residents and the AI(aggregation index) index of rural areas, which exhibit significant negative correlation. Significant positive correlation coefficients were observed with agricultural output. Rapid socio-economic development and changes in the regional landscape pattern affect the pattern characteristics and ecological processes of ecosystems. Socio-economic development and landscape evolution together affect the function of ecological services and manifest these influences in the form of the positive and negative changes in monetary and economic accounting values. The result provides a scientific reference for the protection and compensation of regional ecological functions and the promotion of regional sustainable development.
Cities have offered diversified ecosystem services for human wellbeing, while various kinds of problems emerging in urban development have hindered the sustainability of urban ecosystems. This paper presented the major challenges for urbanization including ecological and social problems as a result of rapid urban development. Based on the connotation of sustainable development, theory of Social-Economic-Natural Complex Ecosystem and Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response(DPSIR) model, urban water supply and sewage treatment systems, urban waste emission reduction, urban transportation and regional planning, food systems in response to urban expansion, and urban clean energy systems were systematically discussed to achieve the urban transformation. In view of the urban sustainable development in China, it is not just about city itself but also about its integrated relationships with its surrounding regions. Therefore, the paper suggested that the coupling and coordination mechanisms between urbanization and regional ecology be studied and established based on the five "transformations".
Monitoring of human settlement environment, a basic practice in urban human settlement environment construction and management, is the focus of human settlement environment research. The traditional urban human settlement environmental data have shortcomings in terms of renewal speed and accuracy. This paper proposes to use remote sensing images and point of interest(POI) from the internet to build a human settlement environment model. The model is composed of two key parts. The first part involves constructing an automatic building extraction algorithm, which are the global optimization and region growth algorithms, based on urban land coverage feature sets and taking corresponding POI point samples as seeds. The second part involves the calculation of the human settlement environment index using density and distance spatial analysis algorithms, which use the land cover extraction results with POI data as input data. Based on the above model, Beijing-2 remote sensing images and POI data in April 2018 were used to verify the results in the Huilongguan community of Beijing. The results show that the overall accuracy of the information extraction results is more than 95%, the Kappa coefficient is more than 92%, and the extraction efficiency is improved by 2.3-fold. On applying the model to monitor human settlements in Huilongguan community, it was found that there is little difference in natural indicators, but due to the overall lack of water ecosystem, biodiversity is not rich enough. Socioeconomic indicators mainly account for the impact of business, school, and medical care. On the whole, businesses in the community are prosperous, and schools and medical care are adequate, the latter is the case especially in large hospitals. Through the research and application analysis of the human settlements monitoring model, the application of remote sensing data and internet data fusion in human settlement environmental quality monitoring effectively improves the accuracy and speed and is conducive to business applications and government management.
In China, urbanization has been rapid in the past 40 years. In terms of numeric indicators, China has not only experienced a rapid upgrade in industrialization but also rapid progress in urbanization. However, urbanization in China has focused on "quantity" rather than "quality", increase in the number of cities and towns, and promotion of the speed of urbanization rather than on essential issues such as improvement in the quality and efficiency of urbanization, improvement of the people′s living standards, protection of resources and ecological environment, provision of more employment opportunities, and development of the tertiary industry. "Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable" has been addressed in the 2030 UN Sustainable Development Goals(SDGs). China′s new urbanization should be oriented towards sustainable development. It is important how to apply the specific requirements of UN SDGs for the development of China′s urbanization. We hold the view that new urbanization has to meet the requirements for the implementation of sustainable development goals from the following two aspects: establishment of an evaluation mechanism to measure the delivery of China′s urban sustainable development goals, and development of more alternative paths for achieving the urban sustainable development goals through promotion of green innovation practices.
Urban soil is one of the most important components in urban ecosystems and plays a prominent role in ecosystem services. With the ongoing rapid urbanization worldwide, urban soils are being extensively disturbed by human activities, which alters their physical and chemical properties and results in soil degradation and severe pollution. The ecological characteristics and behavioral patterns of urban soil fauna has been affected by soil degradation, and changes in urban land use and land cover have disturbed the habitats of these fauna, posing potential threats to their survival and biodiversity. Urbanization has also significantly influenced the assemblage composition and functional characteristics of the soil microbial community. Furthermore, it has a direct impact on the essential ecosystem services of urban soils, including the maintenance of plant survival and growth, natural attenuation capacity, and carbon sequestration. To counter the impact of urbanization on the soil ecological environment, it is necessary to improve soil physical and chemical properties through scientific management, to maintain soil environmental quality, preserve biodiversity, and enhance the ecosystem service function of urban soil.
Water-use efficiency（WUE） is a key indicator of the interactions between the water and carbon cycles of terrestrial ecosystems. Understanding the spatiotemporal characteristics of WUE and the climatic factors that affect it could guide sustainable management of water resources and ecosystem services in areas lacking water. The Haihe River basin is located in a region sensitive to climate change and human activities, and water shortages have constrained sustainable development of regional agricultural and ecological environments. Using 2000-2014 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer（MODIS） and meteorology data, we investigated the spatiotemporal changes in gross primary productivity（GPP）, evapotranspiration（ET）, and WUE in the Haihe River basin using linear trend analysis, correlation analysis, Mann-Kendall（M-K） tests, and other statistical methods, revealing four key results.（1） The change in annual GPP trended upward non-significantly（R2 = 0.1784, P > 0.1）, and ET trended downward non-significantly（R2 = 0.0269, P > 0.1）. Annual WUE significantly increased over 2000-2014 at a rate of 0.0185 gC/kg H2O a-1（R2 = 0.6299, P < 0.01）.（2） The spatial patterns of average annual WUE and GPP in the Haihe River basin′s vegetated areas varied widely, and the annual average WUE and GPP values decreased from the southeast to the northwest. High WUE and GGP values were mainly found in the North China Plain agricultural ecoregion and the Tianjin-Beijing-Tangshan urban and suburban agricultural ecoregion. The lowest WUE and GGP values were mainly found in the East Central Inner Mongolian Plateau typical steppe ecoregion, Loess Plateau agricultural and steppe ecoregion, and the deciduous forest ecoregion northwest of the Yanshan-Taihang Mountains. The WUE of the Haihe River basin increased, with WUE values of 91.11% and 60.17% of the Haihe River basin′s vegetated areas increasing and increasing significantly（P < 0.05）, respectively. That of the Loess Plateau agricultural and steppe ecoregion increased the most significantly.（3） The WUE means and trends among the different land use types also varied significantly. The mean WUE of croplands（CRO） was highest, and the WUE of grasslands（GRA） was lowest. The WUE of CRO, woody savannas（WSA）, and GRA each increased significantly（P < 0.05）.（4） Annual WUE was mainly affected by precipitation, and 41.44%, 33.23%, and 16.01% of WUE estimates in the Haihe River basin′s vegetated areas were dominated by inter-annual variation in precipitation, drought, and temperature, respectively. The vegetated areas in which WUE was primarily shaped by precipitation were mainly found in the northern portion of the Yanshan-Taihang Mountains deciduous forest ecoregion, the North China Plain agricultural ecoregion, and the Tianjin-Beijing-Tangshan urban and suburban agricultural ecoregion. The vegetated areas in which WUE was primarily shaped by drought were mainly found in the northeast of the North China Plain agricultural ecoregion and the southern portion of the Yanshan-Taihang Mountains deciduous forest ecoregion. The vegetated areas in which WUE was primarily shaped by temperature were mainly found in the western portion of the Yanshan-Taihang Mountains deciduous forest ecoregion and the East Central Inner Mongolian Plateau typical steppe ecoregion.
The Chinese leadership has formally proposed that the national park system should initiate an institutional change in conservation management by reforming the governance system and management mechanism. The principle of "ecological protection first and public welfare a priority" indicates that both biodiversity and ecosystem services are essential. The compensation mechanism of ecological protection is an important institutional guarantee for the construction of national parks as the main body of the protected area system. Firstly, this paper summarizes and analyzes the practice and experience of ecological protection compensation for foreign natural conservation areas from three perspectives: compensation subject, funding source, and compensation mechanism. Secondly, according to the requirement of national park ecological protection compensation in our country, this paper discusses the necessity for ecological protection compensation of national parks from the perspective of ecosystem services flow and consumption and analyzes the relationship between its power and compensation. On this basis, from the two aspects of compensation for ecosystems and compensation for human behavior, the connotation of national park ecological protection compensation is clarified, and the policy framework of protection compensation of national parks have been proposed. Finally, this paper constructs four key technologies for ecological protection compensation in national parks, which identify the main body of compensation, construct the method of compensation, determine the standard of compensation, and expand the channels of financing. The results show that it is important to explore the establishment of ecological protection compensation funds in the pilot area of the national park system, pay attention to the "Blood making type" compensation method based on the green industry development support, and actively explore the horizontal compensation model upstream and downstream of the national park basin, to provide scientific support for the establishment of national park ecological protection compensation mechanisms in China.