Sirtuins 1‐7 (SIRT1‐7) belong to the third class of deacetylase enzymes, which are dependent on NAD + for activity. Sirtuins activity is linked to gene repression, metabolic control, apoptosis and cell survival, DNA repair, development, inflammation, neuroprotection, and healthy aging. Because sirtuins modulation could have beneficial effects on human diseases there is a growing interest in the discovery of small molecules modifying their activities. We review here those compounds known to activate or inhibit sirtuins, discussing the data that support the use of sirtuin‐based therapies. Almost all sirtuin activators have been described only for SIRT1. Resveratrol is a natural compound which activates SIRT1, and may help in the treatment or prevention of obesity, and in preventing tumorigenesis and the aging‐related decline in heart function and neuronal loss. Due to its poor bioavailability, reformulated versions of resveratrol with improved bioavailability have been developed (resVida, Longevinex ® , SRT501). Molecules that are structurally unrelated to resveratrol (SRT1720, SRT2104, SRT2379, among others) have been also developed to stimulate sirtuin activities more potently than resveratrol. Sirtuin inhibitors with a wide range of core structures have been identified for SIRT1, SIRT2, SIRT3 and SIRT5 (splitomicin, sirtinol, AGK2, cambinol, suramin, tenovin, salermide, among others). SIRT1 inhibition has been proposed in the treatment of cancer, immunodeficiency virus infections, Fragile X mental retardation syndrome and for preventing or treating parasitic diseases, whereas SIRT2 inhibitors might be useful for the treatment of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.
More than 150 genes have been identified that affect skin color either directly or indirectly, and we review current understanding of physiological factors that regulate skin pigmentation. We focus on melanosome biogenesis, transport and transfer, melanogenic regulators in melanocytes, and factors derived from keratinocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, hormones, inflammatory cells, and nerves. Enzymatic components of melanosomes include tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1, and dopachrome tautomerase, which depend on the functions of OA1, P, MATP, ATP7A, and BLOC-1 to synthesize eumelanins and pheomelanins. The main structural component of melanosomes is Pmel17/gp100/Silv, whose sorting involves adaptor protein 1A (AP1A), AP1B, AP2, and spectrin, as well as a chaperone-like component, MART-1. During their maturation, melanosomes move from the perinuclear area toward the plasma membrane. Microtubules, dynein, kinesin, actin filaments, Rab27a, melanophilin, myosin Va, and Slp2-a are involved in melanosome transport. Foxn1 and p53 up-regulate skin pigmentation via bFGF and POMC derivatives including alpha-MSH and ACTH, respectively. Other critical factors that affect skin pigmentation include MC1R, CREB, ASP, MITF, PAX3, SOX9/10, LEF-1/TCF, PAR-2, DKK1, SCF, HGF, GM-CSF, endothelin-1, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes, neurotrophins, and neuropeptides. UV radiation up-regulates most factors that increase melanogenesis. Further studies will elucidate the currently unknown functions of many other pigment genes/proteins. (C) 2009 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Volume 35, Number 2, March/April 2009, Pages 193-199 . E-mail: email@example.com
Interferons represent a family of cytokines, which is of central importance,,in the inn,ate immune response to virus infections. All interferons act-as secreted ligands of specific cell surface receptors, eliciting the transcription-of hundreds of interferon-stimulated genes whose protein products have antiviral activity, as well As antimicrobial,antiproliferative/antitumor, and immunombdulatory effects. Expression of type I and III interferons in induced in virtually all cell types upon recognition of. viral. molecular patterns,. especially nucleic acids, by cytoplasmic, and, endosomal, receptors, whereas type II interferon is induced by cytokines such as IL-12 and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. The effectiveness of the interferon system in counteracting viral infections is reflected by the multitude of inhibitors of interferon induction or interferon action that are encoded by many viruses, preventing their eradication and resulting in the continued coexistence of viruses and. vertebrates., The unique biological. functions of interferons have led to their therapeutic use in the treatment of diseases such as hepatitis multiple sclerosis and certain leukemias. (C) 2009 International,Union. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Volume 35, Number 1, January/February2009, Pages 14-20. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Current intakes of very long chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DNA) are low in most individuals living in Western countries. A good natural source of these fatty acids is seafood, especially oily fish. Fish oil capsules contain these fatty acids too. Very long chain w-3 fatty acids are readily incorporated from capsules into transport, functional, and storage pools. This incorporation is dose-dependent and follows a kinetic pattern that is characteristic for each pool. At sufficient levels of incorporation, EPA and DHA influence the physical nature of cell membranes and membrane protein-mediated responses, eicosanoid generation, cell signaling and gene expression in many different cell types. Through these mechanisms, EPA and DHA influence cell and tissue physiology, and the way cells and tissues respond to external signals. In most cases, the effects seen are compatible with improvements in disease biomarker profiles or in health-related outcomes. As a result, very long chain omega-3 fatty acids play a role in achieving optimal health and in protection against disease. Long chain omega-3 fatty acids protect against cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and might be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, childhood learning, and behavior, and adult psychiatric and neurodegenerative illnesses. DHA has an important structural role in the eye and brain, and its supply early in life is known to be of vital importance. On the basis of the recognized health improvements brought about by long chain omega-3 fatty acids, recommendations have been made to increase their intake. (C) 2009 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Volume 35, Number 3, May/June 2009, Pages 266-272. E-mail: email@example.com
The importance of bioactive derivatives as functional ingredients has been well recognized due to their valuable health beneficial effects. Therefore, isolation and characterization of novel functional ingredients with biological activities from seaweeds have gained much attention. Ecklonia cava Kjellman is an edible seaweed, which has been recognized as a rich source of bioactive derivatives mainly, phlorotannins. These phlorotannins exhibit various beneficial biological activities such as antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, antihypertensive, matrix metalloproteinase enzyme inhibition, hyaluronidase enzyme inhibition, radioprotective, and antiallergic activities. This review focuses on biological activities of phlorotannins with potential health beneficial applications in functional foods, pharmaceuticals, and cosmeceuticals. (C) 2010 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Volume 36, Number 6, November/December 2010, Pages 408-414. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Stilbenic compounds recently have become the focus of a number of studies in medicine and plant physiology as well as have emerged as promising molecules that potentially affect human health. Stilbenes are relatively simple compounds synthesized by plants and deriving from the phenyalanine/polyrnalonate route, the last and key enzyme of this pathway being stilbene synthase. Here, we review the biological significance of stilbenes in plants together with their biosynthesis pathway and their metabolism both by fungi and in planta. Special attention will be paid to the role of stilbenic molecules as phytoalexins.
Protein kinase CK2, a protein serine/threonine kinase, plays a global role in activities related to cell growth, cell death, and cell survival. CK2 has a large number of potential substrates localized in diverse locations in the cell including, for example, NF-kappa B as an important downstream target of the kinase. In addition to its involvement in cell growth and proliferation it is also a potent suppressor of apoptosis, raising its key importance in cancer cell phenotype. CK2 interacts with diverse pathways which illustrates the breadth of its impact on the cellular machinery of both cell growth and cell death giving it the status of a "master regulator" in the cell. With respect to cancer, CK2 has been found to be dysregulated in all cancers examined demonstrating increased protein expression levels and nuclear localization in cancer cells compared with their normal counterparts. We originally proposed CK2 as a potentially important target for cancer therapy. Given the ubiquitous and essential for cell survival nature of the kinase, an important consideration would be to target it specifically in cancer cells while sparing normal cells. Towards that end, our design of a tenascin based sub-50 nm (i.e., less than 50 nm size) nanocapsule in which an anti-CK2 therapeutic agent can be packaged is highly promising because this formulation can specifically deliver the cargo intracellularly to the cancer cells in vivo. Thus, appropriate strategies to target CK2 especially by molecular approaches may lead to a highly feasible and effective approach to eradication of a given cancer. (C) 2010 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Volume 36, Number 3, May/June 2010, Pages 187-195 . E-mail: email@example.com
Until the identification of leptin, the first adipokine discovered in 1994, adipose tissue was considered only as an energy storage tissue. However, it is now clear that adipose tissue is an endocrine/paracrine/autocrine organ, which plays a relevant role in physiopathology of several inflammatory diseases. Actually, it is mainly involved not only in the low‐grade inflammatory status in obesity but also in other relevant inflammatory conditions and autoimmune disorders. In this review article, we discuss the main biological activities of leptin, adiponectin, lipocalin‐2, resistin, and visfatin, as well as their contributions to certain inflammatory conditions.