Integration has become both a key policy objective related to the resettlement of refugees and other migrants, and a matter of significant public discussion. Coherent policy development and productive public debate are, however, both threatened by the fact that the concept of integration is used with widely differing meanings. Based on review of attempted definitions of the term, related literature and primary fieldwork in settings of refugee settlement in the UK, the paper identifies elements central to perceptions of what constitutes ‘successful’ integration. Key domains of integration are proposed related to four overall themes: achievement and access across the sectors of employment, housing, education and health; assumptions and practice regarding citizenship and rights; processes of social connection within and between groups within the community; and structural barriers to such connection related to language, culture and the local environment. A framework linking these domains is presented as a tool to foster debate and definition regarding normative conceptions of integration in resettlement settings.
Gas exchange, growth, water transport and carbon (C) metabolism diminish during drought according to their respective sensitivities to declining water status. The timing of this sequence of declining physiological functions may determine how water and C relations compromise plant survival. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that the degree of asynchrony between declining C supply (photosynthesis) and C demand (growth and respiration) determines the rate and magnitude of changes in whole-plant non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) during drought. Two complementary experiments using two tree species (Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Pinus radiata D. Don) with contrasting drought response strategies were performed to (i) assess changes in radial stem growth, transpiration, leaf water potential and gas exchange in response to chronic drought, and (ii) evaluate the concomitant impacts of these drought responses on the temporal patterns of NSC during terminal drought. The three distinct phases of water stress were delineated by thresholds of growth cessation and stomatal closure that defined the 'carbon safety margin' (i.e., the difference between leaf water potential when growth is zero and leaf water potential when net photosynthesis is zero). A wider C safety margin in E. globulus was defined by an earlier cessation of growth relative to photosynthesis that reduced the demand for NSC while maintaining C acquisition. By contrast, the narrower C safety margin in P. radiata was characterized by a synchronous decline in growth and photosynthesis, whereby growth continued under a declining supply of NSC from photosynthesis. The narrower C safety margin in P. radiata was associated with declines in starch concentrations after similar to 90 days of chronic drought and significant depletion of starch in all organs at mortality. The observed divergence in the sensitivity of drought responses is indicative of a potential trade-off between maintaining hydraulic safety and adequate C availability.
Plant defence theories have recently evolved in such a way that not only the quantity but also the quality of mineral nutrients is expected to influence plant constitutive defence. Recently, an extended prediction derived from the protein competition model (PCM) suggested that nitrogen (N) limitation is more important for the production of phenolic compounds than phosphorus (P). We aimed at studying sexual differences in the patterns of carbon allocation to growth and constitutive defence in relation to N and P availability in Populus tremula L. seedlings. We compared the gender responses in photosynthesis, growth and whole-plant allocation to phenolic compounds at different combination levels of N and P, and studied how they are explained by the main plant defence theories. We found no sexual differences in phenolic concentrations, but interestingly, slow-growing females had higher leaf N concentration than did males, and genders differed in their allocation priority. There was a trade-off between growth and the production of flavonoid-derived phenylpropanoids on one hand, and between the production of salicylates and flavonoid-derived phenylpropanoids on the other. Under limited nutrient conditions, females prioritized mineral nutrient acquisition, flavonoid and condensed tannin (CT) production, while males invested more in above-ground biomass. Salicylate accumulation followed the growth differentiation balance hypothesis as low NaEuro...mainly decreased the production of leaf and stem salicylate content while the combination of both low N and low P increased the amount of flavonoids and CTs allocated to leaves and to a lesser extent stems, which agrees with the PCM. We suggest that such a discrepancy in the responses of salicylates and flavonoid-derived CTs is linked to their clearly distinct biosynthetic origins and/or their metabolic costs.
This paper revisits the concept of refugee labelling I elaborated nearly two decades ago. In radically different conditions, the contemporary relevance and utility of the concept are re-examined and re-established. Formulated at a time of regionally contained, mass refugee migration in the south during the late 1970s and early 1980s, the paper argues that the concept still offers vital insights into the impacts of institutional and bureaucratic power on the lives of refugees in a globalized era of transnational social transformations, mixed migration flows, and the continuing presence of large scale refugee migration. The core of the paper argues that the ‘convenient images’ of refugees, labelled within a co-opting humanitarian discourse in the past, have been displaced by a fractioning of the label which is driven by the need to manage globalized processes and patterns of migration and forced migration in particular. The paper re-evaluates the concept using the three original axioms—forming, transforming and politicizing the label ‘refugee’. The core argument is that in the contemporary era: a) the formation of the refugee label reflects causes and patterns of forced migration which are much more complex than in the past, contrasting with an essentially homogeneous connotation in the past; b) responding to this complexity, the refugee label is transformed by an institutional ‘fractioning’ in order to manage the new migration; c) governments, rather than NGOs as in the past, are the pre-eminent agency in the contemporary processes of transforming the refugee label, a process driven by northern interests; d) the refugee label has become politicized by the reproduction of institutional fractioning and by embedding the wider political discourse of resistance to migrants and refugees.
Abstract On a global scale, millions of refugees are contained in camps of one sort or another. This special issue and this introductory article explore what characterizes a camp and how camps affect the lives of those who are placed in them. It argues that the camp is an exceptional space that is put in place to deal with populations that disturb the national order of things. While being exceptional, the camp does not, however, produce bare life in an Agambenian sense. Life goes on in camps—albeit a life that is affected by the camp. Camps are defined along two dimensions: spatially and temporally. Spatially, camps always have boundaries, while in practice refugees and locals cross these boundaries for trade, employment, etc. Temporally, refugee camps are meant to be temporary, while in practice this temporariness may become permanent. The article proposes that camps may be explored along three dimensions. First, analyses of refugee camps must be attentive to the fact that a camp is at once a place of social dissolution and a place of new beginnings where sociality is remoulded in new ways. Second, we must explore the precarity of life in the camp by exploring relations to the future in this temporary space. Finally, the depoliticization of life that takes place in refugee camps due to humanitarian government, paradoxically also produces a hyper-politicized space where nothing is taken for granted and everything is contested.
The endophytic bacterial communities of six Prunus avium L. genotypes differing in their growth patterns during in vitro propagation were identified by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Five morphologically distinct isolates from tissue culture material were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. To detect and analyze the uncultivable fraction of endophytic bacteria, a clone library was established from the amplified 16S rDNA of total plant extract. Bacterial diversity within the clone libraries was analyzed by amplified ribosomal rDNA restriction analysis and by sequencing a clone for each identified operational taxonomic unit. The most abundant bacterial group was Mycobacterium sp., which was identified in the clone libraries of all analyzed Prunus genotypes. Other dominant bacterial genera identified in the easy-to-propagate genotypes were Rhodopseudomonas sp. and Microbacterium sp. Thus, the community structures in the easy- and difficult-to-propagate cherry genotypes differed significantly. The bacterial genera, which were previously reported to have plant growth-promoting effects, were detected only in genotypes with high propagation success, indicating a possible positive impact of these bacteria on in vitro propagation of P. avium, which was proven in an inoculation experiment.
In cloud forests, foliar uptake (FU) of water has been reported for numerous species, possibly acting to relieve daily water and carbon stress. While the prevalence of FU seems common, how daily variation in fog timing may affect this process has not been studied. We examined the quantity of FU, water potentials, gas exchange and abiotic variation at the beginning and end of a 9-day exposure to fog in a glasshouse setting. Saplings of Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. and Picea rubens Sarg. were exposed to morning (MF), afternoon (AF) or evening fog (EF) regimes to assess the ability to utilize fog water at different times of day and after sustained exposure to simulated fog. The greatest amount of FU occurred during MF (up to 50%), followed by AF (up to 23%) and then EF, which surprisingly had no FU. There was also a positive relationship between leaf conductance and FU, suggesting a role of stomata in FU. Moreover, MF and AF lead to the greatest improvements in daily water balance and carbon gain, respectively. Foliar uptake was important for improving plant ecophysiology but was influenced by diurnal variation in fog. With climate change scenarios predicting changes to cloud patterns and frequency that will likely alter diurnal patterns, cloud forests that rely on this water subsidy could be affected.
Australia's humanitarian programme contributes to UNHCR's global resettlement programme and enhances Australia's international humanitarian reputation. However, as the recent tragedy on Christmas Island has shown, the arrival of asylum seekers by boat continues to stimulate debate, discussion and reaction from the Australian public and the Australian media. In this study, we used a mixed methods community survey to understand community perceptions and attitudes relating to asylum seekers. We found that while personal contact with asylum seekers was important when forming opinions about this group of immigrants, for the majority of respondents, attitudes and opinions towards asylum seekers were more influenced by the interplay between traditional Australian values and norms, the way that these norms appeared to be threatened by asylum seekers, and the way that these threats were reinforced both in media and political rhetoric.
The refugee journey is the defining feature of the exilic process: it is a profoundly formative and transformative experience and a ‘lens’ on the newcomers’ social condition. Yet it remains a significantly under-researched theme in refugee and forced migration studies. This exploratory article maps what exists, what is missing, and what might be researched regarding these journeys. Commencing with a review of the fragmented nature of the research and its limited analytical scope, the article then reviews BenEzer’s definitive work. The core of the article explores the potential value and contribution of the study of journeys in terms of: better understanding the profoundly formative experience of the journey; giving voice to the refugees’ unique experiences; and better informing policy from a fuller understanding of the journey experience. The article presents four conceptual challenges in studying the refugee journey and the final section proceeds to discuss some of the methodological questions related to research of journeys.
This paper uses the foundation of the conceptual framework proposed by Ager and Strang (2004a, 2008) to reflect on the focus and findings of papers in this special issue on refugee integration and other recent work. Arguing that ‘mid-level theory’ of the sort presented in the framework provides a strong basis for structuring academic debate and dialogue with practitioners and policymakers, we identify four key issues that although of some current interest warrant further attention. First, we consider recent evidence from Europe and elsewhere on how prevailing notions of nationhood and citizenship determine understandings of integration, and argue that this powerfully shapes the social space available to refugees with regard to ‘belonging’. Second, we note the wide adoption of concepts of social capital in framing components of social connection in the context of integration, but suggest greater attention is paid to the manner in which bonds, bridges and links establish forms of reciprocity and trust in social relations. Third, we examine the notion that integration is a ‘two way’ process, and suggest how this might be expanded to embrace the multiplicity and fluidity of social meaning and identity. Fourth, we reflect on Hobfoll’s (1998) work on ‘resource acquisition spirals’ as a basis for effectively conceptualizing the dynamic interplay between factors mapped by the framework in shaping trajectories of integration.
The European Union’s ambition to create a harmonized reception system for asylum seekers differs from the realities on the ground. We address how differences in national reception conditions stimulate the secondary migration that challenges the creation of an effective common migration regulation in Europe. We base our analysis on the Dublin Regulation (DR) and the secondary movement of Eritrean asylum seekers from Italy to Norway. The empirical material consists of qualitative interviews with civil servants, NGO representatives, and Eritrean migrants in Milan and Rome, and Norwegian civil servants. Recently developed models of migration destination selection were used to analyse the interaction between individual aspirations and structural constraints. We found that the Eritrean informants remained highly motivated to apply in a second country but were to some extent held back by the DR. Supranational regulations were challenged by the migrants’ actions and by national differences in reception and welfare standards. Both the migrants’ aspirations to move on and the challenges to a harmonized regional regulation of migration increased during times of economic crisis.
Much of the existing research literature on the health of immigrant populations does not address the health care experiences of refugees, even though they likely experience unique and different health care needs relative to economic or family class immigrants. The objective of this paper is to explore the systemic barriers to health care access experienced by Canada’s refugee populations. The paper focuses on understanding these challenges as expressed by health and social service providers at the local level in Hamilton, Ontario. Data from interviews illustrate the impact of these systemic barriers for both refugees and providers. The paper examines issues of interpretation/language, cultural competency, health care coverage, isolation, poverty, and transportation in terms of health care and availability of services.
Stories are part of everyday life and constitute means for actors to express and negotiate experience. For researchers, they provide a site to examine the meanings people, individually or collectively, ascribe to lived experience. Narratives are not transparent renditions of ‘truth’ but reflect a dynamic interplay between life, experience and story. Placed in their wider socio-political and cultural contexts, stories can provide insights into how forced migrants seek to make sense of displacement and violence, re-establish identity in ruptured life courses and communities, or bear witness to violence and repression. The researcher must pay particular attention to his/her own role in the production of narrative data and the representation of lived experience as text.
Abstract Lebanon is hosting more than 1 million Syrian refugees. For a country of its size, and a population of around 4 million, this influx of Syrians into Lebanon has exposed many of its already established ailments. A prevailing perception is that Syrians are establishing businesses and competing with the Lebanese, leading to violent reactions on the part of host communities. In this article, we seek to debunk the reductionist framing of 'the Syrian refugee' as a burden, and showcase the economic contribution that some Syrian entrepreneurs have been making to urban neighbourhoods. While entrepreneurs certainly represent a minority of the refugees in Lebanon, we argue that, rather than being competition, Syrian entrepreneurs are complementary to Lebanese businesses in urban areas, and that Syrian businesses are enriching spatial practices in the city. As such, we claim their experiences are significant to document as they can inform useful policy interventions that can render Syrian self-employment an opportunity for local economic development in cities and towns.
Abstract This article considers how asylum-seeking girls in residential care in Finland construct their everyday lives while waiting for asylum outcomes. These girls, from various African countries, are shown to experience waiting as both debilitating and productive. First, our findings confirm the established picture of asylum-seeking young people being in limbo, unable to influence the resolution of their claims. Second, we explore more hopeful ways in which they wait. We emphasize the complex responses and relationships they build in waiting times with each other and their carers. We suggest that waiting is not just 'dead' time, but is also lively in periods of uncertainty.
In 2010, the UK government passed contracts for the provision of dispersal accommodation and reception services for asylum seekers to three private providers. This article explores the causes and consequences of this process, arguing that dispersal has been reshaped through a confluence of ‘austerity urbanism’ and privatization. The article draws on fieldwork in four cities (Birmingham, Cardiff, Glasgow and Sunderland), including interviews with local authority representatives, politicians, and asylum and refugee support services. The article highlights the production of instability within asylum dispersal as an effect of austerity and privatization. As a result, we witness a narrative of political neglect, shrinking accountability and the slow recession of support services and expertise. Whilst instability has often been a common facet of asylum policy in the UK, austerity and privatization have meant that a limited concern with the social needs of asylum seekers has been replaced with an increasingly revanchist agenda.