Over the last few decades, researchers have developed a number of empirical and theoretical models for the correlation and prediction of the thermophysical properties of pure fluids and mixtures treated as pseudo-pure fluids. In this paper, a survey of all the state-of-the-art formulations of thermophysical properties is presented. The most-accurate thermodynamic properties are obtained from multiparameter Helmholtz-energy-explicit-type formulations. For the transport properties, a wider range of methods has been employed, including the extended corresponding states method. All of the thermophysical property correlations described here have been implemented into CoolProp, an open-source thermophysical property library. This library is written in C++, with wrappers available for the majority of programming languages and platforms of technical interest. As of publication, 110 pure and pseudo-pure fluids are included in the library, as well as properties of 40 incompressible fluids and humid air. The source code for the CoolProp library is included as an electronic annex.
This paper summarizes recent research dealing with development of titanium dioxide (TiO2) used for environmental applications. TiO2 plays the most important role owing to its excellent chemical and physical properties. However, the TiO2 band edge lies in the UV region that makes them inactive under visible irradiation. In this regard, considerable efforts have been made to increase the visible light activity of TiO2 via the modification of its electronic and optical properties. Doping TiO2 using either anions or cations is one of the typical approaches that has been largely applied. Coupling TiO2 with a narrow bad gap semiconductor (MxOy/TiO2 or MxSy/TiO2) represents another approach. This work aims to encompass the new progress of TiO2 for an efficient application in water and wastewater treatment under visible light, emphasizes the future trends of TiO2 in the environment, and suggests new research directions, including preparation aspects for the development of this promising material.
Fibrillar and particulate structure magnetic carbons (MCFs and MCPs) were prepared from the same precursor (polyacrylonitrile and Fe(NO3)(3)center dot 9H(2)O) by using a different method, displaying a significant morphology dependence on wastewater treatment. TEM, SEM, XPS, TGA, etc. were systematically carried out to characterize the carbon samples to verify the morphology difference between these two kinds of carbon adsorbents. The results demonstrated that, along with the increase of the Fe(NO3)(3)center dot 9H(2)O loading in the precursor from 10 to 40 wt %, the fibrillar nanoadsorbents displayed an improved activity from 12.6% to 51.4% Cr(VI) removal percentage with the initial Cr(VI) concentration at 4 mg/L. For the maximum removal capacity, the fibrillar sample (MCFs-40) demonstrated 3 times higher removing capacity (43.17 mg/g) than that of particulate nanoadsorbents (MCPs-40, 15.88 mg/g) for the Cr(VI) removal with pH at 1, demonstrating that the fibrillar sample was more favorable for the wastewater treatment than particulate sample. This enhanced removal was mainly attributed to higher specific surface area of the fibrillar sample, leading to more active sites for the adsorption of Cr(VI) and produced Cr(III) ions. The chemical adsorption of Cr(VI) ions over two kinds of adsorbents were disclosed in this removal process. There was a good stability of 5 recycles for the Cr(VI) removal in the neutral solution over MCFs-40 (about 1.4 mg/g) and MCPs-40 (about 0.41 mg/g) with initial Cr(VI) concentration at 4 mg/L. This work can provide an understanding for the rational design of adsorbent in wastewater treatment.
Post-combustion CO2 capture from the flue gas is one of the key technology options to reduce greenhouse gases, because this can be potentially retrofitted to the existing fleet of coal-fired power stations. Adsorption processes using solid sorbents capable of capturing CO2 from flue gas streams have shown many potential advantages, compared to other conventional CO2 capture using aqueous amine solvents. In view of this, in the past few years, several research groups have been involved in the development of new solid sorbents for CO2 capture from flue gas with superior performance and desired economics. A variety of promising sorbents such as activated carbonaceous materials, microporous/mesoporous silica or zeolites, carbonates, and polymeric resins loaded with or without nitrogen functionality for the removal of CO2 from the flue gas streams have been reviewed. Different methods of impregnating functional groups, including grafting techniques and modifying the support materials, have been discussed to enhance the performance of the sorbents. The performance characteristics of the solid sorbents are assessed in terms of various desired attributes, such as their equilibrium adsorption capacity, selectivity, regeneration, multicycle durability, and adsorption/desorption kinetics. The potential of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is also recognized to determine whether these novel materials provide better CO2 adsorption capacity under low CO2 partial pressure. A comprehensive critical review and analysis of the literature on this subject has been carried out to update the recent progress in this arena. A comparison of different solid sorbents at different stages is made. It also includes a brief review on techno-economic analysis and design aspects of sorbent bed contactor configuration. Finally, a few recommendations have been proposed for further research efforts to progress post-combustion carbon capture.
Data-based process monitoring has become a key technology in process industries for safety, quality, and operation efficiency enhancement. This paper provides a timely update review on this topic. First, the natures of different industrial processes are revealed with their data characteristics analyzed. Second, detailed terminologies of the data-based process monitoring method are illustrated. Third, based on each of the main data characteristics that exhibits in the process, a corresponding problem is defined and illustrated, with review conducted with detailed discussions on connection and comparison of different monitoring methods. Finally, the relevant research perspectives and several promising issues are highlighted for future work.
Economical and environmental aspects are the main motivation for research on energy efficient processes and the search for environment friendly materials for CO2 capture. Currently, CO2 capture is dominated by amine-based (e.g., monoethanolamine) technologies, which are very energy intensive and less attractive from an environmental point of view due to emissions of the used volatile solvent components. Ionic liquids have been proposed as a promising alternative to the conventional volatile solvents, because of their low volatility and other interesting properties. This remarkable interest has led to a rapid growth of literature on this specific subject. The aim of the present review paper is to provide a detailed overview of the achievements and difficulties that has been encountered in finding a suitable ionic liquid for CO2 capture from flue-gas streams. A major part of this review includes an overview of the experimental data of CO2 solubility, selectivity, and diffusivity in different ionic liquids. The effect of anions, cations, and functional groups on the CO2 solubility, biodegradability, and toxicity of the ionic liquids are highlighted. Recent developments on task-specific ionic liquids and supported ionic liquid membranes are also discussed. Scarcely available results of molecular simulations, which is a valuable tool in designing and evaluating ionic liquids, are also reviewed. The trends highlighted here can be used by solvent designers to navigate through the massive amount of theoretically possible ILs.
A novel and sensitive biosensor employing immobilized DNA on a pencil graphite electrode modified with polypyrrole/functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes for the determination of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) is presented. In the first step, we modified the pencil graphite surface with polypyrrole and functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT/COOH). The developed electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, reflectionabsorption infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In the other step, we used decreases in the oxidation responses of guanine and adenine as a sign of the interaction of 6-MP with salmon sperm double-stranded DNA using differential pulse voltammetry. The signal of guanine oxidation was linear with respect to the 6-MP concentration in the range of 0.2-100 mu mol L-1 with a detection limit of 0.08 mu mol L-1. The modified electrode was utilized for the determination of 6-MP in real samples.
Increasing environmental awareness coupled with more stringent regulation standards has triggered various industries to challenge themselves in seeking-appropriate wastewater treatment technologies. Coagulation-flocculation process process is regarded as one of the most important and widely used treatment processes of industrial wastewaters due to its simplicity and effectiveness. This paper provides a critical review on recent studies of coagulation-flocculation treatment processes of various industrial wastewaters. The limitations and challenges for the coagulation-flocculation process such as the toxicity and health hazard posed by inorganic coagulants, production of large amount of toxic sludge, ineffectiveness in removing heavy metals and emerging contaminants, increase in effluent color, inefficient pollutant removal using natural coagulants, and complexity of scaling up procedure are presented. In addition, an overview on the influence of process parameters on treatment efficiency is included in this review. Finally, this review concludes with recommendations for improvements and new directions for this long-established process.
Highly efficient visible-light-driven g-C3N4/Ag3PO4 hybrid photocatalysts with different weight ratios of g-C3N4 were prepared by a facile in situ precipitation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Under visible-light irradiation (>440 nm), g-C3N4/Ag3PO4 photocatalysts displayed the higher photocatalytic activity than pure g-C3N4 and Ag3PO4 for the decolorization of methyl orange (MO). Among the hybrid photocatalysts, g-C3N4/Ag3PO4 with 25 wt % of g-C3N4 exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity for the decolorization of MO. The complete decolorization of MO was achieved for only 5 min of visible-light irradiation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results revealed that metallic Ag particles on the surface of g-C3N4/Ag3PO4 hybrid were formed during the catalysts preparation. In addition, the quenching effects of different scavengers displayed that the reactive h(+) and O-2(center dot-) play the major role in the MO decolorization. The photocatalytic activity enhancement of g-C3N4/Ag3PO4 hybrid photocatalysts could be ascribed to the efficient separation of electron-hole pairs through a Z-scheme system composed of Ag3PO4, Ag and g-C3N4, in which Ag particles act as the charge separation center. The evidence of the Z-scheme photocatalytic mechanism of the hybrid photo catalysts could be obtained from a photoluminescence technique.
Biofuels produced from various lignocellulosic materials, such as wood, agricultural, or forest residues, have the potential to be a valuable substitute for, or complement to, gasoline. Many physicochemical structural and compositional factors hinder the hydrolysis of cellulose present in biomass to sugars and other organic compounds that can later be converted to fuels. The goal of pretreatment is to make the cellulose accessible to hydrolysis for conversion to fuels. Various pretreatment techniques change the physical and chemical structure of the lignocellulosic biomass and improve hydrolysis rates. During the past few years a large number of pretreatment methods have been developed, including alkali treatment, ammonia explosion, and others. Many methods have been shown to result in high sugar yields, above 90% of the theoretical yield for lignocellulosic biomasses such as woods, grasses, corn, and so on. In this review, we discuss the various pretreatment process methods and the recent literature that has reported on the use of these technologies for pretreatment of various lignocellulosic biomasses.
In the last years membrane processes for gas separation are gaining a larger acceptance in industry and in the market are competing with consolidated operations such as pressure swing absorption and cryogenic distillation. The key for new applications of membranes in challenging and harsh environments (e.g., petrochemistry) is the development of new tough, high performance materials. The modular nature of membrane operations is intrinsically fit for process intensification, and this versatility might be a decisive factor to impose membrane processes in most gas separation fields, in a similar way as today membranes represent the main technology for water treatment. This review highlights the most promising areas of research in gas separation, by considering the materials for membranes, the industrial applications of membrane gas separations, and finally the opportunities for the integration of membrane gas separation units in hybrid systems for the intensification of processes.
The methods and mechanisms of nonsolvent induced phase separation have been studied for more than fifty years. Today, phase inversion membranes are widely used in numerous chemical industries, biotechnology, and environmental separation processes. The body of knowledge has grown exponentially in the past fifty years, which suggests the need for a critical review of the literature. Here we present a review of nonsolvent induced phase separation membrane preparation and characterization for many commonly used membrane polymers. The key factors in membrane preparation discussed include the solvent type, polymer type and concentration, nonsolvent system type and composition, additives to the polymer solution, and film casting conditions. A brief introduction to membrane characterization is also given, which includes membrane porosity and pore size distribution characterization, membrane physical and chemical properties characterization, and thermodynamic and kinetic evaluation of the phase inversion process. One aim of this review is to lay out the basics for selecting polymer solvent nonsolvent systems with appropriate film casting conditions to produce membranes with the desired performance, morphology, and stability, and to choose the proper way to characterize these properties of nonsolvent induced phase inversion membranes.
Rice husk, which is a relatively abundant and inexpensive material, is currently being investigated as an adsorbent for the removal of various pollutants from water and wastewaters. Various pollutants, such as dyes, phenols, organic compounds, pesticides, inorganic anions, and heavy metals can be removed very effectively with rice husk as an adsorbent. This article presents a brief review on the role of rice husk and rice husk ash in the removal of various pollutants from wastewater. Studies on the adsorption of various pollutants by rice husk materials are reviewed and the adsorption mechanism, influencing factors, favorable conditions, etc., discussed in this article. It is evident from the review that rice husk and its ash can be potentially utilized for the removal of various pollutants from water and wastewaters.
Surface diffusion plays a key role in gas mass transfer due to the majority of adsorbed gas within abundant nanopores of organic matter in shale gas reservoirs. Surface diffusion simulation is very complex as a result of high reservoir pressure, surface heterogeneity, and nonisothermal desorption in shale gas reservoirs. In this paper, a new model of surface diffusion for adsorbed gas in shale gas reservoirs is established, which is based on a Hwang model derived under a low pressure condition and considers the effect of adsorbed gas coverage under high pressure. Additionally, this new model considers the effects of surface heterogeneity, isosteric sorption heat, and nonisothermal gas desorption. Results show that (1) the surface diffusion coefficient increases with pressure and temperature, while it decreases with activation energy and gas molecular weight; (2) contributions of viscous flow, Knudsen diffusion, and surface diffusion to the total gas mass transfer are varying during the development of shale gas reservoirs, which are mainly controlled by nanopore-scale and pressure; (3) in micropores (pore radius of 50 nm), the contribution is less than 4.39%, which is negligible; in mesopores (2 nm < pore radius < 50 nm), the contribution is between micropores and macropores.
The thermal stabilities of 66 ionic liquids (ILs) were investigated using the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) method. Isothermal TGA studies on the ILs showed that ILs exhibit decomposition at temperatures lower than the onset decomposition temperature (T-onset), which is determined from ramped temperature TGA experiments. Thermal decomposition kinetics of ILs was analyzed using pseudo-zero-order rate expression and their activation energy was obtained. Parameter T-0.01/10h, the temperature at which 1% mass loss occurs in 10 h, was used to evaluate the long-term thermal stability of ILs. The thermal stability of the ILs was classified to five levels according to T-onset. The ILs thermal stability is dependent on the structure of ILs, i.e., cation modification, cation and anion type. The correlations between the stability and the hydrophilicity of ILs were discussed. Finally, the thermal stabilities of acetate-based ILs, amino acid ILs, and dicyanamide ILs were analyzed.
An in situ microwave-assisted synthesis approach has been developed to prepare N-TiO2/g-C3N4 composites using H2TiO3 as the reactant and NH3 center dot H2O as the N-doping source. In this way, the N-TiO2/g-C3N4 composite catalysts have a porous structure and large surface areas, which increase the contact area of pollutants. Degradation of rhodamine B (Rh B) and methylene blue (MB) were carried out to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of samples under visible light irradiation. N-TiO2/g-C3N4 composite with 40 wt % N-TiO2 exhibits the highest photocatalytic activity and the optimal temperature is 400 degrees C. The increased photocatalytic activity of N-TiO2/g-C3N4 composites can be attributed to the formation of the heterojunction between N-TiO2 and g-C3N4, which suppresses the recombination of photoinduced electron-hole pairs. The tests of radical scavengers confirmed that O-center dot(2)- was the main reactive species during the photocatalytic process.
A magnetically separable ZnFe2O4-graphene nanocomposite photocatalyst with different graphene content was prepared by a facile one-step hydrothermal method. The graphene sheets in this nanocomposite photocatalyst are exfoliated and decorated with ZnFe2O4 nanocrystals. It was found that in the presence of H2O2, the photodegradation rate of methylene blue (MB) was 88% after visible light irradiation for only 5 min and reached up to 99% after irradiation for 90 mm. In comparison with pure ZnFe2O4 catalyst, ZnFe2O4-graphene serves a dual function as the catalyst for photoelectrochemical degradation of MB and the generator of a strong oxidant hydroxyl radical (center dot OH) via photoelectrochemical decomposition of H2O2 under visible light irradiation. ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles themselves have a magnetic property, which makes the ZnFe2O4-graphene composite magnetically separable in a suspension system, and therefore it does not require additional magnetic components as is the usual case.