The Caryophyllales constitute a major lineage of flowering plants with approximately 12500 species in 39 families. A taxonomic backbone at the genus level is provided that reflects the current state of knowledge and accepts 749 genera for the order. A detailed review of the literature of the past two decades shows that enormous progress has been made in understanding overall phylogenetic relationships in Caryophyllales. The process of re-circumscribing families in order to be monophyletic appears to be largely complete and has led to the recognition of eight new families (Anacampserotaceae, Kewaceae, Limeaceae, Lophiocarpaceae, Macarthuriaceae, Microteaceae, Montiaceae and Talinaceae), while the phylogenetic evaluation of generic concepts is still well underway. As a result of this, the number of genera has increased by more than ten percent in comparison to the last complete treatments in the "Families and genera of vascular plants" series. A checklist with all currently accepted genus names in Caryophyllales, as well as nomenclatural references, type names and synonymy is presented. Notes indicate how extensively the respective genera have been studied in a phylogenetic context. The most diverse families at the generic level are Cactaceae and Aizoaceae, but 28 families comprise only one to six genera. This synopsis represents a first step towards the aim of creating a global synthesis of the species diversity in the angiosperm order Caryophyllales integrating the work of numerous specialists around the world.
Supplementary information on taxonomy, nomenclature, distribution within Greece, total range, life form and ecological traits of vascular plants known to occur in Greece is presented and the revised data are quantitatively analysed. Floristic discrepancies between Vascular plants of Greece: An annotated checklist (Dimopoulos & al. 2013) and relevant influential datasets (Flora europaea, Med-Checklist, Euro+Med PlantBase, etc.) are explained and clarified. An additional quantity of synonyms and misapplied names used in previous Greek floristic literature is presented. Taxonomic and floristic novelties published after 31 October 2013 are not considered.
Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the subfamily Chenopodioideae of the goosefoot family (Chenopodiaceae), with the addition of matK/trnK sequences to an existing trnL-F data set, indicates that Chenopodium as traditionally recognised consists of six independent lineages. One of these, the Dysphania-Teloxys clade, had already been recognised previously as a separate tribe Dysphanieae. Of the five others, Chenopodium is here re-defined in a narrow sense so as to be monophyletic. The C. polyspermum, C. rubrum and C. murale clades are successive sisters of a lineage constituted by Atripliceae s.str. plus Chenopodium s.str. Consequently, the long forgotten genera Lipandra (for C. polyspermum) and Oxybasis (for C. rubrum and relatives) are revived, and the new genus Chenopodiastrum (for C. murale and relatives) is published. The afore-mentioned five clades, taken together, are a monophylum corresponding to an enlarged tribe Atripliceae (a name that has priority over Chenopodieae). Last, the Linnaean genus Blitum (for G capitatum and relatives), enlarged to include C. bonus-henricus, is the sister group of Spinacia in the tribe Anserineae (a name that has priority over Spinacieae). The aromatic species of Dysphania, the related genus Teloxys, as well as Cyclocoma and Suckleya form the enlarged tribe Dysphanieae. Building upon phylogenetic results, the present study provides a modern classification for a globally distributed group of plants that had suffered a complex taxonomic history due to divergent interpretation of single morphological characters for more than two hundred years. The seven genera among which the species traditionally assigned to Chenopodium are now distributed are defined morphologically and keyed out; for four of them (Blitum, Chenopodiastrum, Lipandra, Oxybasis) the component species and subspecies are enumerated and the necessary nomenclatural transfers are effected.
The genus Tamarix (Tamaricaceae) is a lineage of shrubs and trees with leaves reduced to scales and numerous species adapted to moist and often saline soils in arid and semi-arid climates. Extensive morphological variation and hybridization complicate species delimitation and identification. Based on both morphological and DNA sequence characters, Tamarix humboldtiana Akhani, Borsch & N. Samadi is described as a new species from S Iran. Phylogenetic analysis of plastid rpl16 intron and trnG-trnS spacer sequences depicts a sister group relationship of its unique plastid haplotype to T. tetrandra, whereas nuclear ITS sequence data show close affinities to T. kotschyi. The new species differs from T. kotschyi by distinctly pedicellate, 5-merous flowers and vaginate-amplexicaul leaves. The stem and foliar anatomy and the epidermal micromorphology provide additional characters differentiating the new species from T. kotschyi. The gametic chromosome number of n = 12 reflects that of most of other species of the genus. Tamarix humboldtiana is a rare species living at freshwater riversides in S Iran and is according to current knowledge critically endangered.
Gladiolus mariae Burgt (Iridaceae), a new species from Guinea, West Africa, is described and illustrated. The new species is placed in Gladiolus sect. Decorati Goldblatt and compared with the nine species already known from that section. Flowering plants stand 28-160 cm high with 1-6 bright orange flowers, opening one at a time. The ecology of the new species is discussed in detail, and a description of the vegetation in the region is provided. Gladiolus mariae is at present known only from two uninhabited sandstone table mountains in the Kounounkan Massif, Forecariah Prefecture. About 210 plants were found, on rocky soils at altitudes of 650-1100 m. The majority of plants, about 160, were found in fire-free shrubland, in five patches of 1-4 ha each, dominated by fire-sensitive plant species, but grasses are infrequent. Gladiolus mariae seems vulnerable to grassland fires. The area of occupancy is 28 km(2). The species is assessed to the IUCN category Endangered.
Two new species of Selaginella (i.e. S. ayitiensis and S. brigitteana) from Hispaniola Island are described. Illustrations are provided for both new species and their affinities are discussed. Selaginella ayitiensis was collected in the Massif de la Hone, Haiti, and is characterized by its long-creeping stems, corrugate to bumpy leaf upper surfaces, broadly acute to obtuse or apiculate median leaf apices, and white megaspores. It is morphologically related to the "Selaginella flexuosa group". Selaginella ayitiensis differs chiefly from S. denudata and S. krugii (the only two other members of the "Selaginella flexuosa group" in the Greater and Lesser Antilles) by the shape of the median and lateral leaves apices. Selaginella brigitteana is known from different localities in the Dominican Republic and Haiti; it can be distinguished by its long-creeping, 2-4-branched stems, coriaceous leaves with the upper surfaces glossy, the median leaves with broadly hyaline, long-ciliate margins, and short-acuminate apices tipped by 2 or 3 cilia, and light yellow to cream megaspores. Selaginella brigitteana differs from S. leonardii, with which it has been confused in the past, by its broadly ovate median leaves with rounded, non-auriculate, and glabrous outer bases, submarginal and marginal stomata along proximal 1/2 of outer halves of the laminae, and with the upper surfaces glossy, comprising rounded and rectangular to elongate cells, many of which are papillate.
Argyreia decemloba Traiperm, Fujikawa & Staples, a new species of Convolvulaceae from Natma Taung National Park, Chin State, Myanmar, is described here with detailed illustrations and summaries for its distribution, ecology and IUCN conservation status. This new species is a high-climbing twiner that can be distinguished by a white or pale yellow corolla with a deep red or purple-black colour inside at the base of the tube, a ten-lobed corolla limb, and staminal filament bases expanded and densely covered by hispid hairs. A rgyreia decemloba is here assessed as Near Threatened (NT) following IUCN Red List categories.
Blackberries (Rubes subg. Rubus, Rosaceae) are perennial plants that form thickets of biennial spiny stems (canes), which grow in length in the first year and develop flowering laterals in the second year. In the present study, a hitherto overlooked separate type of stem is described, denoted as panicle shoot (PS, turio paniculatus) that occurs in several species of all three European blackberry sections. PSs are up to 2.5 m long, spring directly from the rootstock, terminate apically in a mostly large paniculate inflorescence (simple type) and may develop additional flowering branches (complex type). PSs can emerge from young (two-year old) and older rootstocks established sexually from seeds and vegetatively from tip-rooted canes, respectively. As a rule, they are biennially flowering shoots that develop flowering laterals in the second season. By virtue of their length, PSs tend to project with their panicles out of the surface of bushes and hence overcome the frequent fate of flowering laterals of low arching canes to become rapidly overgrown and overshadowed by surrounding vegetation.
A morphometric study of populations from the central-southern Apennines and Sicily of the Italian endemic Corydalis densiflora has been undertaken, based on herbarium specimens and field research. A new subspecies, C. densiflora subsp. apennina, is described from the central Apennines. It differs from C. densiflora s.str. by its more divided leaves and bracts, basal leaf with more numerous and narrower leaflets, longer middle and lateral lobes of middle and upper bracts, narrower lower petal wing, shorter inner petals and shorter upper stamen.