We used a thermally reversible hybrid gel made of billions of physically jam‐packed, swollen, thermally sensitive poly(N‐isopropyl‐acrylamide) chemical microgels. Laser light scattering study on a series of such hybrid gels formed at different gelling rates and temperatures revealed that the position‐dependence of the scattering speckle pattern (static nonergodicity) came from large voids formed during the sol‐gel transition. With proper preparation, such nonergodicity is completely removed, indicating that the static nonergodicity generally observed in a gel is not intrinsic, but comes from clustering “island” structures formed during the gelation process.
A novel AB(3)-type monomer was prepared from gallic acid and DL-2-aminobutyric acid, and used for the synthesis of the biocompatible hyperbranched poly(ester-amide)s by self-polycondensation. The polymers were characterized via FTIR and NMR spectroscopy and thermal analysis, and the average degree of branching of the polymers was estimated to be 0.75. The polymers with abundant acetyl end groups were found to be amorphous with lower intrinsic viscosity, better thermal stability and excellent solubility.
A new kind of polyfluorene containing oxadiazole as the side chain was synthesized. The introduction of oxadiazole moiety as more bulky group prevents the aggregation and reduces the crystallinity of the polymers. Efficient intramolecular energy transfer from oxadiazole moiety to the conjugated backbone has been realized, leading to 70% improvement of photoluminescence quantum efficiency of the designed polymers. Compared with PAF, the PFOXD exhibits significant improvement in electroluminescence properties, with luminous efficiency of 0.8 cd/A and maximum luminance of 1800 cd/m(2).
A series of cyclic (arylene phosphonate) oligomers were prepared by reaction of phenylphosphonic dichloride (PPD) with various bisphenols under pseudo-high dilution conditions via interfacial polycondensation. The yield of cyclic (arylene phosphonate) oligomers is over 85% by using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide as phase transfer catalyst (PTC) at 0 degreesC. The structures of the cyclic oligomers were confirmed by a combination of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and IR analysis. These cyclic oligomers undergo facile ring-opening polymerization in the melt by using potassium 4,4'-biphenoxide as the initiator to give linear polyphosphonate. Free-radical ring-opening polymerization of cyclic(arylene phosphonate) oligomers containing sulfur linkages was also performed in the melt using 2,2'-dithiobis(benzothiazole) (DTB) as the initiator at 270degreesC and the resulting polymer had a M-w of 8 x 10(3) with a molecular weight distribution of 4. Ring-opening copolymerization of these cyclic oligomers with cyclic carbonate oligomers was also achieved. The average molecular weight of the resulting copolymer is higher than the corresponding, homopolymer and the thermal stability of the copolymer is better than the corresponding homopolymer.
Structures and crystal form transition of the novel aryl ether ketone polymer containing meta-phenylene linkage: PEKEKK(T/I) were investigated by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), imaging plates (IPs) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The energy of activation of the decomposition reaction and degree of crystallinity of PEKEKK(T/I) were determined by WAXD and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. Results obtained from WAXD and IPs show that crystal forms I and II coexist in the PEKEKK(T/I) samples isothermally cold crystallized in the temperature range from 180degreesC to 240degreesC and only form I occurs in PEKEKK(T/I) samples isothermally cold crystallized at 270degreesC. The radius of gyration (Rg), thickness of microregions with electron-density fluctuations (E) and distribution of particle sizes were investigated by SAXS.
Based on the X-ray scattering intensity theory and using the approximate expression for the atomic scattering factor, the correction factors for three crystalline peaks and an amorphous peak of Nylon 1212 were calculated and the formula of degree of crystallinity of Nylon 1212 was derived by a graphic multipeak resolution method. The degree of crystallinity calculated from the WARD method is compatible with those obtained by density and calorimetry methods.
In this paper, melt blends of poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC) with poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) were characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile testing, wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), polarized optical microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results indicated that the glass transition temperature of PPC in the 90/10 PPC/PBS blend was decreased by about 11 K comparing with that of pure PPC. The presence of 10% PBS was partially miscible with PPC. The 90/10 PPC/PBS blend had better impact and tensile strength than those of the other PPC/PBS blends. The glass transition temperature of PPC in the 80/20, 70/30, and 60/40 PPC/PBS blends was improved by about 4.9 K, 4.2 K, and 13 K comparing with that of pure PPC, respectively; which indicated the immiscibility between PPC and PBS. The DSC results indicated that the crystallization of PBS became more difficult when the PPC content increased. The matrix of PPC hindered the crystallization process of PBS. While the content of PBS was above 20%, significant crystallization-induced phase separation was observed by polarized optical microscopy. It was found from the WAXD analysis that the crystal structure of PBS did not change, and the degree of crystallinity increased with increasing PBS content in the PPC/PBS blends.
The possibility of mesoporous acid solid as a carrier for metallocene catalyst in ethylene polymerization and catalyst for polyethylene (PE) catalytic degradation was investigated. Here, HMCM- 41 and AIMCM-41, and mesoporous silicoaluminophosphate molecular sieves (SAPO1 and SAPO2) were synthesized and used as acid solid. Much more gases were produced during catalytic degradation in PE/acid solid mixtures via in situ polymerization than those via physical mixing. The particle size distribution results exhibited that the particle size of SAPO1 in the PE/SAPO1 mixture via in situ polymerization was about 1/14 times of that of the original SAPO1 or SAPO1-supported metallocene catalyst. This work shows a novel technology for chemical recycling of polyolefin.
The wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) patterns of isothermally crystallized Nylon 1212 show that gamma-form crystals form below 90 degrees C and the alpha-form crystals call exist above 140 degrees C. In the temperature range of 90-140 degrees C, the a-form gamma-form crystals coexist. Variable-temperature WAXD exhibits that the nylon 1212 gamma-form does not show crystal and transition on heating, while a-form isothermally crystallized at 160 degrees C exhibits Brill transition at a little higher than 180 degrees C on heating. The multiple melting behaviors of Nylon 1212 isothermally crystallized from melt come from a complex mechanism of different crystal structures, dual lamellar population and melting-recrystallization. In polarized optical microscope (POM) observations, Nylon 1212 isothermally crystallized at 175 degrees C shows the ringed banded spherulites. However, at temperatures below 160 degrees C the ringed handed image disappears, and cross-extinct spherulites are formed.
Water soluble conducting polyaniline with electrical conductivity of 10(-1)-10(-2) S/cm was prepared employing dopant induced water solubility technology. The water resistance of the conducting film was significantly improved employing,sol-gel hybrids method, especially when the conductive polyaniline loading was below 30 wt%. The reason for the improvement is that the conducting polyaniline chains are confined in a stable inorganic network.
Polypropylene/montmorillonite (PP/MMT) nanocomposites were prepared by in-situ polymerization using a MMT/MgCl2/TiCl4-EB Ziegler-Natta catalyst activated by trietbylaluminum (TEA). The enlarged layer spacing of MMT was confirmed by X-ray wide angle diffraction (WAXD), demonstrating that MMT were intercalated by the catalyst components. X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) analysis proved that TiCl4 was mainly supported on MgCl2 instead of on the surface of MMT The exfoliated structure of MMT layers in the PP matrix of PP/MMT composites was demonstrated by WAXD patterns and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation. The higher glass transition temperature and higher storage modulus of the PP/MMT composites in comparison with pure PP were revealed by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA).
The miscibility and structure of A-B copolymer/C homopolymer blends with special interactions were studied by a Monte Carlo simulation in two dimensions. The interaction between segment A and segment C was repulsive, whereas it was attractive between segment B and segment C. In order to study the effect of copolymer chain structure on the morphology and structure of A-B copolymer/C homopolymer blends, the alternating, random and block A-B copolymers were introduced into the blends, respectively. The simulation results indicated that the miscibility of A-B block copolymer/C homopolymer blends depended on the chain structure of the A-B copolymer. Compared with alternating or random copolymer, the block copolymer, especially the diblock copolymer, could lead to a poor miscibility of A-B copolymer/C homopolymer blends. Moreover, for diblock A-B copolymer/C homopolymer blends, obvious self-organized core-shell structure was observed in the segment B composition region from 20% to 60%. However, if diblock copolymer composition in the blends is less than 40%, obvious self-organized core-shell structure could be formed in the B-segment component region from 10 to 90%. Furthermore, computer statistical analysis for the simulation results showed that the core sizes tended to increase continuously and their distribution became wider with decreasing B-segment component.
The brittle-ductile transition (BDT) of particle toughened polymers was extensively studied in terms of morphology, strain rate, and temperature. The calculation results showed that both the critical interparticle distance (IDc) and the brittle-ductile transition temperature (T-BD) of polymers were a function of strain rate. The IDc reduced nonlinearly with increasing strain rate, whereas T-BD increased considerably with increasing strain rate. The effects of temperature and plasticizer concentration on BDT were discussed using a percolation model. The results were in agreement with the experiments.
Crystallization kinetics of syndiotactic polypropylene ( sPP) was observed by light attenuation measurements. The initial stages of temperature dependent sPP crystallization fall in the range of Rayleigh scattering and Rayleigh-Debye-Gans scattering. Initial time and growth time of crystallization were obtained, and the trend of crystallization temperature dependent linear attenuation coefficient on the radius and the index of the refraction of the spherulite were evaluated.
Bioactive SiO2-CaO-P2O5 gel (BAG) nanoparticles with 40 nm in diameter were synthesized by the sol-gel route and further modified via the ring-opening polymerization of lactide on the surface of particles. Surface modified BAG (mBAG) was introduced in poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) matrix as bioactive filler. The dispersibility of mBAG in PLLA matrix was much higher than that of rough BAG particles. Tensile strength of the mBAG/PLLA composite could be increased to 61.2 MPa at 2 wt% filler content from 53.4 MPa for pure PLLA. The variation of moduli of the BAG/PLLA and mBAG/PLLA composites always showed an enhancement tendency with the increasing content of filler loading. The SEM photographs of the fracture surfaces showed that mBAG could be homogeneously dispersed in the PLLA matrix, and the corrugated deformation could absorb the rupture energy effectively during the breaking of materials. In vitro bioactivity tests showed that both BAG and mBAG particles could endow the composites with ability of the calcium sediment in SBF, but the surface modification of BAG particles could weaken this capability to some extent. Biocompatibility tests showed that both BAG and mBAG particles could facilitate the attachment and proliferation of the marrow cells on the surface of the composite.
Single crystals of head-to-tail poly(3-hexylthiophene)s have been grown through the method of isothermal solution crystallization. Electron diffraction in combination with powder X-ray diffraction revealed the crystal structure, a = 1.52 nm, b = 3.36 nm, c = 1.56 nm and alpha = beta = gamma = 90 degrees.
Two multi-nuclear titanium complexes Ti(eta(5)-Cp-*) Cl(mu-O)](3) ( 1) and (eta(5)-(CpTiCl)-Ti-*)(mu-O)(2)(eta(5)-(CpTi)-Ti-*)(2)(mu-O)(mu-O)(2)](2)Ti (Cp-* = C5Me5) ( 2) have been investigated as the precatalysts for syndiospecific polymerization of styrene. In the presence of modified methylaluminoxane ( MMAO) as a cocatalyst, complexes 1 and 2 display much higher catalytic activities towards styrene polymerization, and produce the higher molecular weight polystyrenes with higher syndiotacticities and melting temperatures ( T-m) than the mother complex (CpTiCl3)-Ti-* does when the polymerization temperature is above 70 degrees C and the Al/Ti molar ratio is in the low range especially.
Electrostatic interaction conductive hybrids were prepared in water/ethanol solution by the sol-gel process from inorganic sol containing carboxyl group and water-borne conductive polyaniline (cPANI). The electrostatic interaction hybrids film displayed 1-2 orders of magnitude higher electrical conductivity in comparison with common hybrids film, showing remarkable conductivity stability against water soaking. Most strikingly, it displayed ideal electrochemical activity even in a solution with pH = 14, which enlarged the conducting polyaniline application window to strong alkaline media.