Mendelian randomization (MR) approach follows the Mendel's law of inheritance, which is called "Parental alleles randomly assigned to the offspring", and refers to use genetic variants as an instrumental variable to develop causal inference between the exposure factor and the outcome from observational study. In recent years, with the rapid development of genome-wide association study (GWAS) and various omics data,the disclosure of a large number of aggregated data provides an opportunity for the wide application of MR approach in causal inference. We introduce three methods widely used in MR and then apply them to explore causal relationship between blood metabolites and depressive. The advantages and disadvantages of three methods in causal inference are compared in order to provide reference for the application of MR in observational studies.
Dental caries are common diseases in children and often affect their growth and development. In order to understand the dental caries status of preschool children in Qingdao, a total of 1 690 children aged 3-6 years were screened from 13 kindergartens in two districts of Qingdao. The oral health examination was conducted according to the WHO standard, including the decayed-missing-filled index and pigmentation status. The prevalence of caries, the mean decayed, missing and filled tooth (dmft) and the mean dmfs were calculated. The results showed that the prevalence of deciduous teeth caries of children was 65.3% ( 1 103) with the mean dmft and dmfs about 3.2 and 5.4. There was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of deciduous teeth caries among different age groups ( 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference between the prevalence of deciduous teeth caries with and without pigmentation ( 0.001). The prevalence of caries in preschool children in Qingdao is high and more atten
The Third UN High-level Meeting on Non-Communicable Diseases was held on September 2018. The conference carried out a series of activities on the theme of "Time To Deliver", and adopted the 2018 Political Declaration on Non-Communicable Diseases. The new "5×5" strategy for non-communicable diseases prevention and control was clearly put forward, slow progress of non-communicable diseases prevention and control was criticized and the seven major challenges hindering the progress of non-communicable diseases prevention and control was analyzed, the main role and responsibility of governments at all levels in coping with the challenges of non-communicable diseases was reiterated, and put forward clear requirements. The declaration also reiterates the importance of strengthening public health measures. The meeting and declaration aroused strong repercussions and were regarded as a milestone to promote the global prevention and control of non-communicable diseases, and also brought a series of important inspiratio
Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) is a generalization of simple linear regression and is one of the commonly used models in multivariate statistical analysis. This article introduces the MLR model from the perspective of practical application. Four parts, including basic principle, application examples, the application condition and diagnosis, and the extension of the model, are sequentially illustrated in this article. Particularly, in the last part, alternative methods of the model are introduced when the application condition of the model is not met. We sincerely hope that this article could make our audiences have a better understanding of the MLR model in order to improve the efficiency of data utilization and statistical analysis by correctly performing this model in their research.
Intestinal microbes play an important role in human health. The development of various clinical diseases, such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, is closely related to the imbalance of intestinal microflora. With the development of high-throughput sequencing technology, there has been a breakthrough in the understanding of intestinal microorganism. The interaction between intestinal epithelial cells and intestinal microbes has become one of the hotspots and difficulties of current research. Because of the constraints of ethical review and experimental cost, people are more interested in the development of interaction models between the intestinal microflora and the host cells. In this paper, interaction models between intestinal microflora and host cells, and its working principle and application prospect are reviewed, hoping to provide new techniques and new ideas for studying functions of intestinal microbes.
The role of microbes in regulating the metabolism and immune function of the body has been highlighted. The interactions of host-microbe and microbial-microbe have existed before the birth. However, the existence of placental microbiota and their regulatory effects on pregnancy are still controversial. It was found that placental microbes might be implanted into the placenta via urogenital-placental, gastrointestinal-placental, and oral-placental routes. Microbiome may play a role in promoting the outcome of benign pregnancy, and the placental microbiota in pathological pregnancy may be associated to adverse pregnancy outcome. Placenta and amniotic fluid microbes have been linked to abortion, chorioamnionitis, premature rupture of membranes, premature delivery and stillbirth in Cultivation-dependent and Cultivation-independent studies. Obesity, gestational diabetes mellitus, probiotics and antibiotics during pregnancy may be the main factors affecting placenta microbiology.
To analyze the relationship between serum vitamin D level and the risk of type 2 diabetes in Harbin residents. On April 2010, 24 communities in 7 districts of Harbin were selected as research sites using multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method. A total of 9 734 residents aged 20-74 years was investigated using general questionnaire survey, dietary survey and biochemical indicators test and followed up from January 2015 to July 2016. A total of 4 721 subjects with serum vitamin D were included in the study. According to the quartile of baseline serum vitamin D, the subjects were divided into four groups, from 1 to 4 group. The multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the relationship between serum vitamin D and the risk of type 2 diabetes. A mediation analysis model was used to analyze the mediating role of insulin resistance in this risk relationship. At the time of follow-up, 432 patients with type 2 diabetes were screened. The median ( (25), (75)) age of the diabetic group an
To investigate the current status of postgraduates training in public health and preventive medicine in China. In this study, a questionnaire survey was conducted among directors of enrollment and teaching in 22 universities with postgraduate admission qualifications in corresponding disciplines nationwide. In 2016, full-time postgraduates were mainly academic masters. In addition to the graduate entrance examination, the common enrollment mode in colleges was to enroll a high qualified student with recommendations from relevant experts or institutions and an exemption from entrance examination (20/22). The emphasis on training contents between academic and public health master was different. Currently, the scale of public health postgraduate enrollment in public health and preventive medicine in China is stable, and the training program is reasonable, but there is an issue of monotonous model and uneven distribution of enrollment.
To explore the association between dust exposure and the incidence of hypertension in male coal miners. Using the method of retrospective cohort study,a hypertension cohort of colliery in Henan Province was established in January 2006. From 2006 to 2017,all the male coal miners in a colliery who were exposed to dust were selected into the exposure group including tunneling, mining,auxiliary and combining workers, and workers from administrative logistics departments who were not exposed to dust were selected into the control group. The eligible participants should satisfy following conditions: working more than one year, with clear and complete record of occupation change, and with complete archives and reliable diagnosis of occupational health surveillance. The exclusion criteria of participants were with hypertension at the baseline of study or with heart,liver,kidney diseases and malignant tumors. A total of 12 647 participants were enrolled in this study (11 663 in the exposure group and 984 in the contro
Vitamin D deficiency is common in pregnant women, and it is associated with multiple gestational complications, fetal intrauterine dysplasia, and maternal and infant health in postpartum period. Vitamin D involved in lipid metabolism may affect maternal-fetal health during pregnancy through this biological pathway. This review provides an overview of three main aspects, including, the effect of vitamin D on the mechanism of lipid metabolism, the relationship between vitamin D and lipid metabolites in pregnant women and women with pregnancy complications. An association between vitamin D status and lipid metabolism at different stages of pregnancy has been justified in most current studies, and the underlying mechanism has also been partly elucidated. Given some gestational complications, such as gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia, pregnant women with these conditions are often associated with abnormal lipid metabolism and vitamin D deficiency. There is no doubt that the studies on the vitamin D supplement
To determine the effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from different sources on glucolipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic patients with dyslipidemia. We recruited participants from the diabetes specialist clinic at the Guanlin hospital in Yixing city, Jiangsu Province from February 2017 to March 2017. A total of 180 subjects were randomly assigned to 3 g/day fish oil (FO), perilla oil (PO), or fish oil mixed with linseed oil (FLO) for 6 months. The basic conditions and fasting venous blood sample were obtained from each study subject at baseline, after 6 months of intervention. Serum glucose and lipid metabolism were investigated. A total of 156 subjects aged (62.6±8.6) years completed the final follow-up after 6 months (FO,54 subjects; PO,52 subjects; FLO,50 subjects). Among them,59 patients (37.8%) were male. Serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin, C peptide, insulin and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance were not significantly different among the three groups after 6 months. Serum triglycerid
To systematically review available risk prediction models evidence on construction and verification of colorectal cancer risk prediction models. "Colorectal neoplasms", "risk assessment", "colorectal cancer", "colorectal tumor", "colon cancer", "colon tumor", "rectal cancer", "rectal tumor", "anal cancer", "anal tumor", "risk prediction", "malignancy", "carcinogenesis", "model" were used as search keywords. Journal papers and grey literature were searched from Chinese electronic databases (CNKI and Wanfang) and English electronic databases (PubMed and Embase) from their inception to 30 Apr 2018. The language of literature was restricted to Chinese and English. The inclusion criteria were human-oriented researches with complete information for model construction,verification and evaluation. The exclusion criteria were informal publications such as conference abstracts, Chinese disertation papers, and non-primary research materials such as reviews,letters,and news reports. Descriptive characteristics,targeted p
To investigate the relationship of plasma albumin and hypersensitive C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) with 5-year all-cause mortality among Chinese older adults aged 65 and older. Data was collected in 8 longevity areas of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) study conducted by Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and Peking University at baseline survey in 2012 and 2014, the participants enrolled in 2012 was followed-up in 2014 and 2017, the participants enrolled in 2014 was followed-up in 2017 only. Finally, 3 118 older adults aged 65 and older with complete information on albumin, Hs-CRP and body mass index (BMI) were included in this study. Plasma samples of older adults were collected for the detection of albumin and Hs-CRP at baseline survey. Survival status and follow-up time was recorded for all participants. All older adults were divided into 4 groups according to the levels of plasma albumin and Hs-CRP, and Cox proportional hazard models were constructed to assess their
To assess the effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine among children aged 6 to 72 months. The test-negative case control study was conducted based on available surveillance data which was from China Influenza Surveillance Information system (CSIS). From October 2016 to April 2017 and from October 2017 to April 2018,1 161 cases aged 6-72 months with influenza-like illness in Yongkang and Yiwu city, were selected as the study subjects, and the cases with influenza test-positive were selected as the case group (403 cases). Test-negative subjects were selected as control group (758 cases). The etiology and immunization data of the subjects were obtained from CSIS and Immune Information and Management System (IIMS) respectively. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated using multivariate logistic regression model,and the mixed effects of non-randomized control in TNCC study were equalized by using the propensity score (PS) method in the statistical analysis. The age of the subjects was (2.44±1.60) years,and there w
To investigate the association between plasma selenium exposure and the risk of impaired glucose regulation (IGR). A case-control study was conducted to select IGR patients who were admitted to the outpatient clinic of the Department of Endocrinology to perform oral glucose tolerance test(OGTT) at the Tongji Hospital affiliated to the Tongji Medical College from September 2004 to 2016 as a case group. Participants with normal glucose tolerance recruited from an unselected group of population undergoing routine health examinations in the same hospital were selected as a control group. The control group was matched according to the age (±5 years old) and sex of the case group. The inclusion criteria for subjects recruited were as follows: age ≥30 years, body mass index (BMI) <40 kg/m(2), no history of a diagnosis of IGR or type 2 diabetes, and no history of receiving pharmacological treatment for hyperlipidemia or hypertension. Patients with any clinically systemic disease such as neurological or endocrine dise
Excessive salt intake is an important risk factor of diseases such as hypertension, stroke, and stomach cancer. China is one of countries with high salt intake in the world. Recently, the intake of sodium from pre-packaged foods in China has been increasing, and the situation of salt control is rigorous. Based on the summary of the domestic and international experience of salt reduction, the "Guidelines for Salt Reduction in Chinese Food Industry" presents the basic principles, targets at different stages within various categories, technical routes, steps and measures, and social environment co-construction of salt reduction in Chinese food industry. This article focuses on the background, basis, process, key content and promotion of the guideline. The implementation of this guideline will contribute to the vigorous advancement of salt reduction action in Chinese food industry.
To investigate the relationship between the magnesium intake and patterns of diary and the risk of type 2 diabetes in Harbin residents. On April 2010, 24 communities in 7 districts of Harbin were selected as research sites using multi-stage stratified random cluster sampling method. A total of 9 734 residents aged 20-74 years was investigated using general questionnaire survey, dietary survey and biochemical indicators test. A total of 9 376 subjects were included in the study. Factor analysis was used to analyze dietary patterns. According to the quartile of dietary magnesium intake, the subjects were divided into four groups, from (1) to (4) group. The multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the relationship between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes within different dietary patterns. A total of 998 subjects with type 2 diabetes were screened. The median age of the diabetic group and the non-diabetic group were 54.8 and 50.8, respectively, and the males accounted for
A total of 1 685 school-age children selected from Hangzhou received lung function testing to evaluate the short-term effects of air pollution on their lung function. The results showed that in every 10 μg/m(3) increase of average concentration of PM(2.5) and PM(10) on the day of the test and the day before the test,peak expiratory flow (PEF) decreased 0.039 (95 : 0.012-0.067) L/s and 0.031 (95% 0.011-0.051) L/s,respectively. When the average concentration of SO(2) increased 10 μg/m(3) on the day of test and the day prior to the test, PEF and 75% of the forced vital capacity that has not been exhaled (MEF(75)) decreased 0.437 (95 : 0.217-0.658) L/s and 0.396 (95 : 0.180-0.613) L/s. After being adjusted for NO(2),with every 10 μg/m(3) increase of average concentration of PM(2.5) and PM(10) on the day of the test and the day before the test,PEF and MEF(75) decreased 0.056 (95 : 0.028-0.085), 0.053(95 : 0.027-0.081) and 0.047 (95% 0.026-0.068) L/s,0.044 (95% 0.023-0.065) L/s on the day before the test, respectiv
Dioxins, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and benzo(a)pyrene are common organic pollutants in food. They have been of concern to academics and government administrations due to high residue and persistence, easy accumulation and strong harmful effects. The National Research Council of the United States of America published in 2007, which proposed a new concept of toxicity testing that toxicity testing should take full consideration of population exposure data and base on tests, human cell lines, toxicity pathways and high-throughput screening. Meanwhile, systems biology, bioinformatics and rapid assay technologies will be used to better understand toxicity pathways-the cellular response pathways that can lead to adverse health effects when sufficient perturbing induced by chemicals exposure. The new toxicity testing strategy has changed the traditional testing pattern and has brought a wide impact on the international relevant fields. The European Union, the World Health Organization, and the United States Env
To investigate the aluminium content in unprocessed grains from different areas of China. From June 2013 to December 2014, nine provinces (Jilin, Shandong, Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Henan, Anhui and Jiangsu) were selected as sampling areas using stratified random sampling method. Three cities, counties or townships were randomly selected from each sampling area. Grain stations, grain depots, planting areas or farmers' markets located in non-aluminium mining areas or non-aluminium-involved industrial pollution areas were selected from each sampling area using a purposive sampling method. A total of 470 unprocessed grain samples (500 g per sample) including wheat, rice, corn, millet and soybean were collected from local grain stations, grain depots, planting areas and farmers' markets. The dried grains samples were analysed for aluminium content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Bootstrap resampling method was applied to calculate the upper bound values of 95 of (99) of aluminium contents