To analyze the associations between pregnancy-related anxiety and the prevalence of subthreshold autism trait (SAT) in preschool children.
Baseline data came from the Ma'anshan Birth Cohort Study, a part of the China-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (C-ABCS). All the participants were enrolled among pregnant women who received prenatal health care in 4 municipal medical centers during Oct. 2008 to Oct. 2010. A total of 5 084 pregnant women were recruited at the beginning and 4 669 singleton live births were included until childbirth. The situation about pregnancy-specific anxiety during trimester and third trimester of women were evaluated by Pregnancy-specific Anxiety Questionnaire (PAQ). Between April 2014 and April 2015, the cohort was followed up again, and the Clancy Autism Behavior Scale (CABRS) filled out by parents was used for telling the SAT children from the healthy children among 3 663 preschool children. Univariate and binary regression model was used to estimate associations between the pregnancy-related anxiety during trimester and third trimester and the subthreshold autism trait in children.
During the pregnancy, the detected rates of women with pregnancy-specific anxiety in trimester and the third trimester were 25.5%(935/3 663), 13.9%(501/3 592) respectively, and the detected rate of maternal pregnancy-specific anxiety in both periods was 7.7%(278/3 592). There were 290 positive children with SAT and the detection rate was 7.9%. After controlling possible confounding factors including children's genders, place of residence, supplement folic acid during pregnancy, preterm birth, exposure to second-hand smoke during pregnancy, the father (mother) cultural levels, the father (mother) nature of work and family income, the results of multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that maternal pregnancy-specific anxiety in trimester was the risk factor for SAT in preschool children (OR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.11-2.04), and there was no association between maternal pregnancy-specific anxiety in the third trimester and SAT in preschool children (OR=1.36, 95% CI: 0.82-2.22). Compared with the single function of maternal pregnancy-specific anxiety in trimester or the third trimester for SAT in preschool children, maternal pregnancy-specific anxiety in both periods presented a joint action that increasing the risk for SAT (OR=2.02, 95% CI: 1.36-2.98).
Maternal pregnancy-related anxiety was a risk factor for subthreshold autism trait in preschooler children. Pregnant women should try to keep a good mental state to create a good environment for fetal growth.
To investigate the association between out-of-home eating (OH eating) and overweight/obesity among adults in China.
A total of 33 828 subjects aged 18-60 years old from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey were selected to calculate their daily consumption of food and nutrition, when people eating at home or out-of-home. The 24-hour dietary recall method for 3 consecutive days was used to collect food intake information ( not including the condiment intake). The logistic regression method was used to analyze the relationship between OH eating and overweight/obesity.
The prevalence of OH eating among Chinese adults aged 18-60 years old was 28.3% (9 562/33 828) in 2002. Overall, the prevalence of OH eating was significantly greater among men compared to women (P < 0.05) , and the rate for men was 32.4% (5 117/15 805), and the rate for women was 24.7% (4 445/18 023). Besides, men who ate out of home showed a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity than those who ate at home (P < 0.05) , and the prevalence of overweight and obesity among them were 38.9% (1 991/5 117) and 31.7% (3 389/10 684), respectively. While women who ate at home showed a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity than those who ate out of home, and the prevalence of overweight and obesity among them were 38.1% (5 174/13 571) and 35.6% (1 581/4 445), respectively. Compared with at-home eating group, 130.4 kJ energy, 12.2 g fat, 6.2 g protein and 67.1 mg sodium were excessively consumed per day for men, and 102.5 kJ energy, 8.6 g fat, 3.4 g protein and 60.6 mg sodium were excessively consumed per day for women. To sum up, OH eating was positively associated with overweight and obesity among men (OR = 1.18, 95% CI:1.09-1.27) , but not among women (OR = 0.94, 95% CI:0.87-1.01).
OH eating was positively associated with overweight and obesity among men in China.
To elucidate the natural occurrence of masked deoxynivalenol (DON-3-G) and other multi-mycotoxins in cereals from parts of China.
A total of 446 corn and wheat samples harvested in 2007 and 2008 collected from Henan, Hebei, Guangxi, Anhui, Sichuan, Chongqing and Jiangsu provinces were analyzed for DON-3-G and other multi-mycotoxins (including deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), nivalenol (NIV), et al) by UPLC-MS/MS.
Corn and wheat samples were mainly contaminated by DON and its derivatives as well as ZEN.88% (169/192) of wheat samples were positive for DON (range: 1.5 - 590.7 µg/kg; median: 30.8 µg/kg); 22.9% (44/192) of wheat samples were contaminated with ZEN (range: 1.7 - 3425.0 µg/kg; median: 8.0 µg/kg) and six samples contained ZEN concentration higher than the ZEN tolerance limit of 60 µg/kg. DON was detected in 50.5% (103/204) corn samples (range: 1.6 - 4374.4 µg/kg; median: 94.9 µg/kg); Seven samples contained DON exceeding the tolerance limit of 1000 µg/kg for DON. Additionally, ZEN was found in 41.7% (85/204) corn samples with the concentration between 1.6 µg/kg and 4808.7 µg/kg (median: 48.5 µg/kg) and there were 37 corn samples with ZEN level in the excess of tolerance limit for ZEN (60 µg/kg). DON-3-G was detected in corn and wheat samples for the first time in China with the median level of 21.4 µg/kg and 34.6 µg/kg for wheat and corn, respectively. Wheat was more heavily contaminated with DON-3-G than both 3-acetyl-DON (3-A-DON, median: 4.1 µg/kg) and 15-acetyl-DON (15-A-DON, median: 3.1 µg/kg) (t values were 5.111 and 5.966, respectively, both P values < 0.01). While, the level of 15-A-DON (median: 48.6 µg/kg) in corn was higher than 3-A-DON (median: 6.8 µg/kg) (t = -3.579, P < 0.01). The concentration of DON, DON-3-G, 3-A-DON, 15-A-DON and ZEN in corn were higher than that in wheat (Z values were -3.492, -1.960, -2.467, -8.711 and -6.272, respectively, all P values < 0.05). Wheat (median: 29.0 µg/kg) contained higher NIV in comparison with corn (median: 18.2 µg/kg, Z = -2.086, P < 0.05).
Wheat and corn samples from parts of China were contaminated with multi-mycotoxins and DON was the predominant;in comparison of wheat, corn was more heavily contaminated with DON, DON-3-G, 3-A-DON, 15-A-DON and ZEN.
To develop a suitable fat intake behavior of psychological measurement scales for the Chinese adolescents and evaluate its validity and reliability.
According to the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling principle, a total of 3 600 junior students were recruited from the classes in 12 selected high schools in Hangzhou, Wuhan and Xi'an from March to May, 2012. Based on introducing and translating the original scale abroad, Chinese version of adolescent fat intake behavior of psychological measurement scales was utilized in field investigations. The reliability was assessed, using Cronbach's α and split-half reliability; while exploratory factor analysis used to test its validity, with entries-dimension correlation coefficient (IIC), correlation coefficient between the scores and the dimension, and the dimension of correlation coefficient test content validity.
The valid subject of the study was 3 448(of whom males were 52.4% (1 806/3 448) and female were 47.6% (1 642/3 448)), while the mean age was (14.85 ± 1.46) years old. The internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α) for total scale score and four domains were 0.922,0.933, 0.660, 0.773 and 0.869 respectively, whose split-efficacy reliability were separately 0.927, 0.933, 0.790, 0.624 and 0.889. Data from the exploratory factor analysis revealed the following dimensions:the entries were all inclusive, with the cumulative contribution rate at 59.453%, 56.062% and 52.668%, respectively. The results of IIC showed that in the four dimensions, the contained entries between Spearman correlation coefficient have statistically significant, with the r value range of 0.584-0.793, 0.665-0.818, 0.654-0.765 and 0.622-0.747 severely, while other dimensions from weak to moderate relationships, the r value ranged from -0.028 to 0.614.
The reliability and validity of the adolescent fat intake behavior of psychological measurement scales (Chinese version) were good, and could be used to measure the fat intake behavior of psychological conditions in Chinese adolescents.
The aim of the study was to investigate the positivity of human papillomavirus (HPV) and the possible related risk factors for HPV infection in certain district government in Daqing city, Heilongjiang province.
A total of 2015 female staffs who participated cervical cancer screening were selected as subjects, in certain district government in Daqing city, Heilongjiang province, from June to October, 2010. First of all, a standardized questionnaire was used for collection of subject's demographic information and possible risk factors. Afterwards, cervical cytological and HPV DNA testing were applied to all participants. Subjects with suspected cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or cervical cancer were recalled for taking biopsy under colposcopy for further histopathological diagnosis. Standardized HPV positivity by Segi's world population and compared the difference of HPV positivity of different types. The positivity of HPV between women with and without cervical abnormalities were compared by unconditional logistic regression. And the possible risk factors for HPV infection were also investigated.
A total of 1759 out of 2015 subjects had gynecological examination, among which 152 subjects were HPV positive. The positivity of HPV was 8.64% (95%CI: 7.37% - 10.05%), and it was 8.47% (95%CI: 7.93% - 9.03%) after age standardization. Finally, 57 (3.24%) and 1702 (96.76%) subjects had abnormal (≥ CIN1 or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL)) and normal cervix, respectively. The HPV positivity between women with and without cervical abnormalities were 73.68% (42/57) and 6.46% (110/1702), respectively. There was a significant difference (χ(2) = 307.23, P < 0.05) in HPV positivity between women with and without cervical abnormalities. The risk of cervical abnormalities for women with HPV positivity was 40.52 times (95%CI: 21.79 - 75.36) higher than that for women with HPV negativity. Among women with cervical abnormalities, the most three common HPV types, in descending order, were HPV16 (28.07% (16/57)), HPV52 (14.04% (8/57)) and HPV58 (12.28% (7/57)). While among women with normal cervix, the most three common HPV types were HPV52 (1.23% (21/1702)), HPV16 (1.00% (17/1702)) and HPV58 (0.71% (12/1702)). The positivity of HPV clade A9 among women with and without cervical abnormalities were 59.65% (34/57) and 3.23% (55/1702), which were higher than that of other clades. Analysis for risk factors of HPV infection showed that smoking (OR = 2.71, 95%CI: 1.00 - 7.33), late age (≥ 15 years old) of menarche (OR = 1.44, 95%CI: 1.00 - 2.05), early age (≤ 20 years old) of marriage (OR = 3.09, 95%CI: 1.30 - 7.35), multiple (≥ 2) sexual partners (OR = 2.69, 95%CI: 1.46 - 4.95), husband's extramarital sexual behaviors (OR = 2.77, 95%CI: 1.25 - 6.12) and multiple (≥ 2 times) parity (OR = 1.77, 95%CI: 1.03 - 3.03) would increase the risk of HPV positivity.
HPV positivity among women with cervical abnormalities was significantly higher than that among women with normal cervix. HPV16, 52, 58 were the major genotypes among the study population. Smoking, late age of menarche, early age of marriage, multiple sexual partners, husband extramarital sexual behaviors and multiple parity increase the risk of HPV infection.