Urban population has been increasing and it is estimated to reach 70% of the total population in the world by 2050. Governments are facing greater challenges every time in providing inhabitants with a good quality of life in their cities. Many cities around the world have developed sustainable urban development plans for leading their urbanization process towards a desired status of urban sustainability. Urban sustainability indicators have been selected as main elements for communicating the status of the practice, which help to determine how successful strategies and policies enforced have been in the attainment of sustainability goals. Different practices use different indicators according to their particular needs, and these have been selected under different methods. However, whilst there are cases where urban sustainability indicators are effectively in use, the experiences gained from each practice have not been shared and used for the development of new urban development plans and for improving the decision-making process in the selection of indicators. This paper examines 9 different practices and proposes a comparative basis, namely, International Urban Sustainability Indicators List (IUSIL), for allowing the better understanding of drivers and goals of each practice and identifying under what circumstances various practices selected their indicators. Discussions made on the comparative analysis are categorized in four different dimensions: environmental, economic, social and governance. Research results show how comparative basis can lead to knowledge sharing between different practices, which can be used to guide the selection of indicators of sustainable urbanization plans and improve the effective communication of the status of practices. The study not only reveals how different indicators are selected but also suggests the need for consistent processes of choosing indicators based on the benchmarks obtained from best practices.
Many uncontrollable risks and uncertainties emerge during transitions pathways. Previous studies have examined the “formula” of successful sustainable initiatives (SIs), while there have been few attempts to explore the reciprocities amongst them. Therefore, this study is to investigate the linkages among and mutual benefits among SIs at different urban scales for tackling their risks and uncertainties. The low-carbon eco-city, green university and green building in China are selected as the representatives at city, community and building scales for elaborating their linkages. In the city-community-building system, the GB implementation builds up the internal momentum that can lead to the changes of sustainable interests, rules and beliefs at the community scale, which then results in the changes on city structures, according to the theory of multi-level perspective. Akin to living organisms, cities witness the energy and materials flowing across different urban scales. Resources during SI implementation at a specific level can be shared by SIs at other levels. Meanwhile, the output of an SI can be transferred as the input of SIs at other levels. The commonalities among assessment systems of LCEC, GU and GB can upscale or downscale the successful experiments across different scales, contributing to the overcome of political, financing and operating risks and certainties. This paper can inform people with understandings of the vertical integration of SIs for sustainability transitions on the one hand and can practically provide decision-makers with an approach to overcoming the barriers in SI implementation on the other.
There has been a significant transformation in the urbanization and economic growth in post-reform China. The nature and degree of urbanization is a subject of some controversy. This paper examines empirical data for 110 counties and employs a quadrant plots method involving estimation of several parameters to analyze empirically the evolvement of urbanization in China during 1960–2010. There are three periods of China's urbanization in the pattern of world, which is the rapid decline stage (1960–1978), the stable stage of ascension (1979–1995) and rapid promotion stage (1996–2010). Over the entire period, compared to the rest of the world, urbanization and economic growth in China appears to be coordinated and at moderate levels. However, China's urbanization process has progressed faster than economic growth since 2004, and it is right time that China should rethink under-urbanization and it's countermeasure in development strategy. And the core of new stage of urbanization is to improve the quality of urbanization and to take little count of urbanization quantity. ► A simple and quantitative method was developed based on empirical data of 110 counties. ► The method provides a visualized, continuous and objective analysis during 1960–2010. ► China's urbanization process has progressed faster than economic growth since 2004. ► The core of China's future urbanization is to improve the quality of urbanization.
With the rapid development of Chinese economy, many negative effects of land use transitions under the pressure of rapid urbanization on local ecological system and environment have occurred. This paper examines the dynamic patterns of land use in Tianjin Binhai New Area experienced rapid urbanization, using high-resolution Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper) data in 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2010, and socio-economic data from both research institutes and government departments, and assesses the changes of ecosystem services value (ESV) by drawing a connection between the observed land use dynamics and the evaluation of ESV, based on the latest research of and some revisions adapted to the situation of China. The outcomes indicated that, during the period 1985–2010, ESV of the study area decreased by 25.9%, from 12,194 to 9037 billion RMB¥, due to the losses of large quantities of ecological land (e.g., farmland and water body) to construction land. Then, some of the major implications for improving the urban planning of Tianjin Binhai New Area were discussed. The authors argue that it is fundamental to meet the demand of construction land for socio-economic development, meanwhile protect regional ecosystem services function and maintain its stability; only in this way can the new developing area of China realize the sustainable use of ecological resources in the process of rapid urbanization, as well as the integration of economic, social and ecological benefits.
China's urbanization process has followed a unique course and transformed the country in a very short period of time. Yet problems have arisen and the New Urbanization Policy 2014–2020 is designed to overcome many of these. This policy note outlines the objectives of the new policy, including a partial relaxation of the strict urban residency ( ) rules, the move toward people-oriented urbanization and the expected changes that will occur in rural areas, particularly with respect to rural land. The paper concludes with a number of questions that do not appear to have been satisfactorily answered by the new policy. Will the differentiated hukou system be effective? Will the rapid urbanization of rural land be curbed? Will the new urbanization make China's cities more or less efficient? What are the plans to reform local government finance? How will the problem of loss of rural collective lands be addressed? The new policy is viewed as an important first step, but unanswered questions remain.
In recent years, green building (GB) has become the flagship of sustainable development, leading to a number of published works on the topic. This paper examines GB research trend in construction management (CM) through analyzing selected GB research papers published in 10 selected CM journals from 1990 to 2015 (as of end of August). The analysis is conducted in terms of the number of annual GB research publications, contributions made by various countries, institutions and authors, and research topics covered. The analysis reveals an increasing GB research interest in recent times, implying that the importance attached to GB by the construction industry is accelerating. The findings also indicate that during the studied period, researchers from developed economies such as the US, Hong Kong, the UK, Singapore, Italy, and Australia contributed most to promoting GB research. Developing countries such as China, Egypt, and Colombia also made good efforts to promote GB research. Research topics covered tend to focus on GB project delivery and developments, GB certifications, energy performance, and advanced technologies. Research gaps are discussed with directions for future research proposed. This study may serve as a valuable platform for both industry practitioners and researchers to appreciate GB research trends and developments.
Construction activities have significant impacts on the community and environment. As a result, green construction has been promoted to mitigate these issues. A questionnaire survey was conducted with major stakeholders of the construction industry in Shanghai to investigate issues associated with the adoption of green construction. The results showed that additional cost, incremental time and limited availability of green suppliers and information are critical barriers. Discussions were made to breakdown these barriers to foster green construction practice. This study provides a useful reference to both policy makers and industry practitioners to implement green construction. ► The status quo of green construction in China was investigated. ► Barriers to implementation of green construction in China were highlighted. ► Initiatives were proposed to engaging stakeholders for green construction.
As a sustainable construction method, prefabricated construction is increasingly being adopted worldwide to enhance productivity and to alleviate the adverse environmental and social effects as a result of conventional construction activities. In addressing management issues of prefabricated construction, an impressive number of studies have been published by internationally renowned journals related to construction management over the past decades. However, it seems that a systematic summary on the research development in the management of prefabricated construction (MPC) discipline is lacking. Therefore, this paper examines the latest research trend in this discipline by analyzing published construction management research in 10 leading journals during the period from 2000 to 2013 (as of end of June) in terms of the annual number of MPC papers, contributions of institutions, adopted data collection and processing methods, and research interest. The analysis reveals that prefabrication is becoming increasingly important to the entire construction industry. Researchers from developed countries, including the US, the UK, Hong Kong, Sweden, and Australia, have made significant contributions to the development of the prefabrication domain, while those from developing countries, including China, Turkey, and Israel where construction remains as their main economic activity, have shown increasing interest in promoting prefabrication-related research. Major research topics in MPC include “industry prospect”, “development and application”, “performance evaluation”, “environment for technology application”, and “design, production, transportation and assembly strategies”. Moreover, some innovative technologies, such as Global Position System (GPS), and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), have been effectively applied in this field and are considered as strong vehicles in improving the performance of future prefabricated construction practices. This study is of value in helping scholars gain an in-depth understanding of the state-of-the-art of MPC research and allows them to continue from the findings of previous studies.
Greening cities, namely installing new parks, rooftop gardens or planting trees along the streets, undoubtedly contributes to an increase in wellbeing and enhances the attractiveness of open spaces in cities. At the same time, we observe an increasing use of greening strategies as ingredients of urban renewal, upgrading and urban revitalization as primarily market-driven endeavours targeting middle class and higher income groups sometimes at the expense of less privileged residents. This paper reflects on the current debate of the social effects of greening using selected examples. We discuss what trade-offs between social and ecological developments in cities mean for the future debate on greening cities and a socially balanced and inclusive way of developing our cities for various groups of urban dwellers. We conclude that current and future functions and features of greening cities have to be discussed more critically including a greater awareness of social impacts.
China's rapid urbanization, characterized by large-scale rural–urban migration and radial expansion of urban built-up areas, produces a new type of urban neighbourhood, namely the “urban village” ( ). This paper considers the urban village as a community of interest for urbanized villagers, a migrant settlement with low-rent housing, and an urban self-organized grassroots unit, respectively related to the ambiguous property rights, an informal rental market, and the vacuum of state regulation. The urban village is therefore viewed as an unregulated asset despite its unruliness and disorder. Meanwhile, the formation and dynamics of the urban village are understood from the perspectives of land use transformation and property rights redistribution, with an additional emphasis on the succession of traditional social norms and networks. In this sense, the urban village can be seen as a transitional neighbourhood, characterized by unstable land rights and a mixture of rural and urban society. Drawing from the empirical data of 11 urban villages from six large Chinese cities, this paper presents the general characteristics of urban villages. This study points out that the vacuum of state regulation in the urban village makes possible a means of subsistence for landless villagers and provides low-cost residential space for migrants. The transformation of the urban village under state regulation would produce complicated results.
The science of climate change is now well established. Predicted weather-related events like sea level rise, increased storm events, and extreme heat waves imply an urgent need for new approaches to settlement design to enable human and non-human species to adapt to these increased risks. A wide variety of policy responses are emerging at local and regional levels – from sustainable urban form, to alternative energy production and new approaches to biodiversity conservation. However, little attempt has been made to ensure that strategies to to the inevitable impacts of enhanced climate change (such as additional open space to enable water inundation) support ongoing policies intended to local contributions to climate change (such as attempts to increase urban densities to reduce car dependency). In some cases mitigation and adaptation are complementary but in other cases these policy goals may conflict. This research examined leading case examples of land-use plans and policies designed to address climate change. Focusing predominantly on cases from the United States and Australia, we identified whether the policies address adaptation, mitigation or both and whether the practices put mitigation and adaptation in potential conflict with each other. We found that half of the actions identified contain potential conflicts to achieving adaptation and mitigation simultaneously.
This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of what drives the adoption of green buliding (GB) practices among construction stakeholders. The review is based on literature that have been published in peer-reviewed journals. Through a systematic review of the literature, authors are able to identify generic drivers for stakeholders to pursue GB. A total of 64 drivers were identified from reviewing 42 selected empirical studies. The paper presents a classification framework for the GB drivers. The framework comprises five main categories of GB drivers: external drivers, corporate-level drivers, property-level drivers, project-level drivers, and individual-level drivers. The US, Australia, UK, India, and China have been the leading countries in GB drivers research. Survey and descriptive statistics have seen widespread use in examining GB drivers. While there is scope for more detailed investigations on GB drivers in developed countries, much more scope exists in developing countries. This paper would enhance policy makers' and advocates' understanding of drivers for GB and help to further promote the GB concept. As a result of the checklist and framework on GB drivers, this paper also lays a solid foundation for researchers to further probe into the topic and add to the knowledge base.
China is undergoing an unprecedented urbanization process in which massive amounts of rural land has been converted to urban use. Indeed, rapid urban land expansion in China has generated heightened concerns over consequences of urbanization and challenges to sustainability and public policy. This study applies the triple transition framework of globalization, marketization, and decentralization to study how economic transition influences urban land expansion in China. Using official land use conveyance data from 2005 to 2008, we have found that significant spatial variation at both provincial and prefectural levels exist in urban land expansion. Regression analysis at the prefectural level reveals that the theoretical framework explains urban land expansion. While marketization is more important to overall urban land expansion, globalization plays a critical role in industrial land expansion. Further applying a multi-level modeling analysis, we find that two-level modeling can considerately improve the model and, more importantly, decentralization significantly contributes to the expansion of construction and industrial land. These results indicate that China's process of urban land expansion is influenced by global forces (globalization), the transition from a socialist to a market economy (marketization), and the process of decentralization dismantling totalitarianism of socialism and mobilizing local resources for development. We argue for integrating global and local forces to more fully understand urbanization process and sustainability challenges. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Prosperity and environmental sustainability of cities are inextricably linked. Cities can only maintain their prosperity when environmental and social objectives are fully integrated with economic goals. Sustainability assessment helps policy-makers decide what actions they should and should not take to make our cities more sustainable. There are numerous models available for measuring and evaluating urban sustainability; they focus their analysis on a specific scale—i.e., micro, mezzo, or macro. In most cases, these results are inadequate for the other scales, though generating reliable results for that particular scale. The paper introduces a multiscalar urban sustainability approach by linking two sustainability assessment models evaluate sustainability performances in micro- and mezzo-levels and generate multiscalar results for the macro-level. The paper tests this approach in Gold Coast, Australia, and sheds light on the development of a more accurate sustainability analysis that may be interconnected with UN-Habitat's City Prosperity Index.
This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of what drives the adoption of green building (GB) practices among construction stakeholders. The review is based on literature that have been published in peer-reviewed journals. Through a systematic review of the literature, authors are able to identify generic drivers for stakeholders to pursue GB. A total of 64 drivers were identified from reviewing 42 selected empirical studies. The paper presents a classification framework for the GB drivers. The framework comprises five main categories of GB drivers: external drivers, corporate-level drivers, property-level drivers, project-level drivers, and individual-level drivers. The US, Australia, UK, India, and China have been the leading countries in GB drivers research. Survey and descriptive statistics have seen widespread use in examining GB drivers. While there is scope for more detailed investigations on GB drivers in developed countries, much more scope exists in developing countries. This paper would enhance policy makers' and advocates' understanding of drivers for GB and help to further promote the GB concept. As a result of the checklist and framework on GB drivers, this paper also lays a solid foundation for researchers to further probe into the topic and add to the knowledge base. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) as the emerging leading powers in the world have great influence on the world development. Urbanization process has been a significant engine for development in these countries, which has important effect on the sustainable development globally. However, rapid urbanization has induced various problems, such as air pollution, traffic congestion, habitat destruction, and loss of arable land. These problems present the threats to the sustainable development of urbanization in these countries. This paper presents an evaluation on the dynamic sustainability performance during urbanization process in these countries by applying an elastic coefficient method and a new-type McKinsey matrix. The data used for analysis are collected from World Bank database for the period of 1990–2011. The findings from this study suggest that during the surveyed period the Brazil, Russia and India have been engaging a sustainable urbanization practice, whilst the urbanization processes in China and South Africa are unsustainable. The study provides valuable reference in searching for solutions to further promote sustainable urbanization practice globally.
* There is no coordination between urbanization and industrialization in China. * This could be interpreted from perspective of population redistribution. * Lack of coordination is demonstrated by the spatial mismatch between floating and Hukou population. * It is mainly due to the Hukou system which limits urbanization's ability of sustaining population in cities.
Using integrated official land use statistics and remote sensing data, this study investigated the processes and mechanisms of urban land expansion in the Nanjing metropolitan area, which is a major city in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD). Using sector, concentric and gradient analyses, we determined that urban land has expanded dramatically during the past three decades with an average annual growth of 3.14%. In addition, a transition from a monocentric to polycentric city after 2001 was detected. The rise of development zones and new towns has been the primary cause of urban land expansion in Nanjing. Regarding the transitional mechanisms, the panel data regression results show that urban land expansion is highly related to increases in the non-agricultural population, foreign direct investment (FDI) and tertiary sector at the county-level. In the context of decentralization, the metropolitan government can exert tight control over land use using the tools of urban planning and the allocation of land-use quotas. Our study confirms that the transitional framework, which includes urbanization, globalization, marketization and decentralization, can enable better understanding of rapid urban growth in China.
The effect of urban expansion on transportation in growing megacities has become a key issue in the context of global climate change as motorized mobility is a major source of domestic greenhouse gas emissions. The management of forms of urban development on the city fringe in order to encourage a sustainable transport system is usually overlooked in China, although it is increasingly attracting attention in developed countries. Examining the case of Beijing, this paper aims to reveal the policy implications of urban growth management for sustainable transportation in China's megacities. The analysis shows that in the rapid urban expansion process there has been obvious urban sprawl on the fringe of Beijing, characterized by low density and dispersed development in its physical aspect and a low degree of local mixed land use in its functional aspect. Trip distance and car use for travel on the city fringe have increased greatly due to urban sprawl. The results of the analysis suggest that urban growth management designed to curb urban sprawl would contribute to containing the growth in vehicle miles travelled in the suburbs. In addition, since urban sprawl has been greatly fuelled by increasing local government autonomy and fiscal responsibility, the negative effects of sprawling development on transportation certainly reflect the government's failure to manage growth in the current transformation process. To achieve sustainable urban expansion, stronger metropolitan development management measures should be enforced to control local development on the city fringe and promote sustainable transportation.
This paper provides an assessment of residential satisfaction of newly designed public low-cost housing dwellers of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, with forty-five variables grouped into five components – dwelling unit features, dwelling unit support services, public facilities, social environment and neighbourhood facilities. Findings from the study indicate that the residents are moderately satisfied with dwelling unit support services, followed by public and neighbourhood facilities than dwelling unit features and social environment, which have higher percentage of respondents with low level of satisfaction. Residential satisfaction index has high positive correlations with dwelling unit features, social environment, support services and public facilities, and low positive correlation with neighbourhood facilities. Socio-economic attributes of the residents such as age, family size, working wives, previous residence are negatively correlated with residential satisfaction, whereas residents' race, employment type, floor level and length of residency are positively correlated with residential satisfaction. A Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) model has been estimated for the study and the model provides 76% explanations to determine residential satisfaction with ten predictor variables. The high beta coefficients of the model suggest that residential satisfaction of public low-cost housing can be enhanced through improving the management of security control, perimeter roads, cleanliness of garbage house and garbage collection, by the Local authority (KLCH). Moderate beta coefficient values of the model suggest that improvement of housing design is necessary to enhance residents' satisfaction with the predictor variables such as dry area, bedroom-1, dinning space, socket points and bedroom-3. From socio-economic analysis, it was found that the size of existing low-cost unit does not satisfy the needs of 29.4% inhabitants with large (6+) families and high bedroom occupancy rates (2.5). Furthermore, the location of future low-cost housing estates should also consider their closeness to the shopping centres. Public agencies for low-cost housing should pay proper attention to the management of support and public facilities to enhance residential satisfaction of the inhabitants and also adopt a policy to build different sizes of units to cater the needs of residents with large families in order to enhance quality of life of the low-income urban community in the country.