We study the strictness of the modal μ-calculus hierarchy over some restricted classes of transition systems. First, we prove that over transitive systems the hierarchy collapses to the alternationfree fragment. In order to do this the finite model theorem for transitive transition systems is proved. Further, we verify that if symmetry is added to transitivity the hierarchy collapses to the purely modal fragment. Finally, we show that the hierarchy is strict over reflexive frames. By proving the finite model theorem for reflexive systems the same results holds for finite models.
A new axiom is proposed, the Ground Axiom, asserting that the universe is not a nontrivial set forcing extension of any inner model. The Ground Axiom is first-order expressible, and any model of ZFC has a class forcing extension which satisfies it. The Ground Axiom is independent of many well-known set-theoretic assertions including the Generalized Continuum Hypothesis, the assertion V=HOD that every set is ordinal definable, and the existence of measurable and supercompact cardinals. The related Bedrock Axiom, asserting that the universe is a set forcing extension of a model satisfying the Ground Axiom, is also first-order expressible, and its negation is consistent.
We show that Shelah's Eventual Categoricity Conjecture for successors follows from the existence of class many strongly compact cardinals. This is the first time the consistency of this conjecture has been proven. We do so by showing that every AEC with LS(K) below a strongly compact cardinal κ is < κ-tame and applying the categoricity transfer of Grossberg and VanDieren . These techniques also apply to measurable and weakly compact cardinals and we prove similar tameness results under those hypotheses. We isolate a dual property to tameness, called type shortness, and show that it follows similarly from large cardinals.