Since the discovery of mechanically exfoliated graphene in 2004, research on ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials has grown exponentially in the fields of condensed matter physics, material science, chemistry, and nanotechnology. Highlighting their compelling physical, chemical, electronic, and optical properties, as well as their various potential applications, in this Review, we summarize the state-of-art progress on the ultrathin 2D nanomaterials with a particular emphasis on their recent advances. First, we introduce the unique advances on ultrathin 2D nanomaterials, followed by the description of their composition and crystal structures. The assortments of their synthetic methods are then summarized, including insights on their advantages and limitations, alongside some recommendations on suitable characterization techniques. We also discuss in detail the utilization of these ultrathin 2D nanomaterials for wide ranges of potential applications among the electronics/optoelectronics, electrocatalysis, batteries, supercapacitors, solar cells, photo catalysis, and sensing platforms. Finally, the challenges and outlooks in this promising field are featured on the basis of its current development.
In this review, we highlight the use of organic photoredox catalysts in a myriad of synthetic transformations with a range of applications. This Overview is arranged by catalyst class where the photophysics and electrochemical characteristics of each is,discussed to underscore the differences and advantages to each type of single electron redox agent. We highlight both net reductive and oxidative as well as redox neutral transformations that can be accomplished using purely organic photoredoxactive catalysts. An overview of the basic photophysics and electron transfer theory is presented in order to provide a comprehensive guide for employing this class Of catalysts in photoredox manifolds.
The recent advances in electrocatalysis for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are thoroughly reviewed. This comprehensive Review focuses on the low- and non-platinum electrocatalysts including advanced platinum alloys, core shell structures, palladium-based catalysts, metal oxides and chalcogenides, carbon-based non-noble metal catalysts, and metal-free catalysts. The recent development of ORR electrocatalysts with novel structures and compositions is highlighted. The understandings of the correlation between the activity and the shape, size, composition, and synthesis method are summarized. For the carbon based materials, their performance and stability in fuel cells and comparisons with those of platinum are documented. The research directions as well as perspectives on the further development of more active and less expensive electrocatalysts are provided.
The lithium metal battery is strongly considered to be one of the most promising candidates for high-energy-density energy storage devices in our modern and technology-based society. However, uncontrollable lithium dendrite growth induces poor cycling efficiency and severe safety concerns, dragging lithium metal batteries out of practical applications. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the lithium metal anode and its dendritic lithium growth. First, the working principles and technical challenges of a lithium metal anode are underscored. Specific attention is paid to the mechanistic understandings and quantitative models for solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation, lithium dendrite nucleation, and growth. On the basis of previous theoretical understanding and analysis, recently proposed strategies to suppress dendrite growth of lithium metal anode and some other metal anodes are reviewed. A section dedicated to the potential of full-cell lithium metal batteries for practical applications is included. A general conclusion and a perspective on the current limitations and recommended future research directions of lithium metal batteries are presented. The review concludes with an attempt at summarizing the theoretical and experimental achievements in lithium metal anodes and endeavors to realize the practical applications of lithium metal batteries.
The halogen bond occurs when there is evidence of a net attractive interaction between an electrophilic region associated with a halogen atom in a molecular entity and a nucleophilic region in another, or the same, molecular entity. In this fairly extensive review, after a brief history of the interaction, we will provide the reader with a snapshot of where the research on the halogen bond is now, and, perhaps, where it is going. The specific advantages brought up by a design based on the use of the halogen bond will be demonstrated in quite different fields spanning from material sciences to biomolecular recognition and drug design.
Colloidal nanoparticles are being intensely pursued in current nanoscience research. Nanochemists are often frustrated by the well-known fact that no two nanoparticles are the same, which precludes the deep understanding of many fundamental properties of colloidal nanoparticles in which the total structures (core plus surface) must be known. Therefore, controlling nanoparticles with atomic precision and solving their total structures have long been major dreams for nanochemists. Recently, these goals are partially fulfilled in the case of gold nanoparticles, at least in the ultrasmall size regime (1-3 nm in diameter, often called nanoclusters). This review summarizes the major progress in the field, including the principles that permit atomically precise synthesis, new types of atomic structures, and unique physical and chemical properties of atomically precise nanoparticles, as well as exciting opportunities for nanochemists to understand very fundamental science of colloidal nanoparticles (such as the stability, metal-ligand interfacial bonding, ligand assembly on particle surfaces, aesthetic structural patterns, periodicities, and emergence of the metallic state) and to develop a range of potential applications such as in catalysis, biomedicine, sensing, imaging, optics, and energy conversion. Although most of the research activity currently focuses on thiolate-protected gold nanoclusters, important progress has also been achieved in other ligand-protected gold, silver, and bimetal (or alloy) nanoclusters. All of these types of unique nanoparticles will bring unprecedented opportunities, not only in understanding the fundamental questions of nanoparticles but also in opening up new horizons for scientific studies of nanoparticles.
This Review summarizes the advancements in Pd-catalyzed C(sp(3))-H activation via various redox manifolds, including Pd(0)/Pd(II), Pd(II)/Pd(W), and Pd(II)/Pd(0). While few examples have been reported in the activation of alkane C -H bonds, many C(sp(3))-H activation/C-C and C-heteroatom bond forming reactions have been developed by the use of directing group strategies to control regioselectivity and build structural patterns for synthetic chemistry. A number of mono- and bidentate ligands have also proven to be effective for accelerating C(sp(3))-H activation, directed by weakly coordinating auxiliaries, which provides great opportunities to control reactivity and selectivity (including enantioselectivity) in Pd-catalyzed C-H functionalization reactions.
Catalytic transformation of ubiquitous C-H bonds into valuable C-N bonds offers an efficient synthetic approach to construct N-functionalized molecules. Over the last few decades, transition metal catalysis has been repeatedly proven to be a powerful tool for the direct conversion of cheap hydrocarbons to synthetically versatile amino-containing compounds. This Review comprehensively highlights recent advances in intra- and intermolecular C-H amination reactions utilizing late transition metal based catalysts. Initial discovery, mechanistic study, and additional applications were categorized on the basis of the mechanistic scaffolds and types of reactions. Reactivity and selectivity of novel systems are discussed in three sections, with each being defined by a proposed working mode.
Schneider et al examine the mechanisms and materials of understanding titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalysis. They focus on topics such as time-resolved analysis of the photocatalytic process, the synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles and nanoparticulate structures, and titanium-based single-site photocatalysts.
Lee et al explore one-dimensional titanium oxide (TiO2) nanotubes. They focus on the growth techniques for TiO2 nanotubes, ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays, the properties of TiO2 nanotubes, and the modification and applications of TiO2 nanotubes.
The interaction between an electronically excited photocatalyst and an organic molecule can result in the genertion of a diverse array of reactive intermediates that can be manipulated in a variety of ways to result in synthetically useful bond constructions. This Review summarizes dual-catalyst strategies that have been applied to synthetic photochemistry. Mechanistically distinct modes of photocatalysis are discussed, including photoinduced electron transfer, hydrogen atom transfer, and energy transfer. We focus upon the cooperative interactions of photocatalysts with redox mediators, Lewis and Bronsted acids, organocatalysts, enzymes, and transition metal complexes.
This Review focuses on noncovalent functionalization of graphene and graphene oxide with various species involving biomolecules, polymers, drugs, metals and metal oxide-based nanoparticles, quantum dots, magnetic nanostructures, other carbon allotropes (fullerenes, nanodiamonds, and carbon nanotubes), and graphene analogues (MoS2, WS2). A brief description of pi-pi interactions, van der Waals forces, ionic interactions, and hydrogen bonding allowing noncovalent modification of graphene and graphene oxide is first given. The main part of this Review is devoted, to tailored functionalization for applications in drug delivery, energy materials, solar cells, water splitting, biosensing, bioimaging, environmental, catalytic, photocatalytic, and biomedical technologies. A significant part of this Review explores the possibilities of graphene/graphene oxide-based 3D superstructures and their use in lithium-ion batteries. This Review ends with a look at challenges and future prospects of noncovalently modified graphene and graphene oxide.
Although known since the late 19th century, organic-inorganic perovskites have recently received extraordinary research community attention because of their unique physical properties, which make them promising candidates for application in photovoltaic (PV) and related optoelectronic devices. This review will explore beyond the current focus on three-dimensional (3-D) lead(II) halide perovskites, to highlight the great chemical flexibility and outstanding potential of the broader class of 3-D and lower dimensional organic-based perovskite family for electronic, optical, and energy-based applications as well as fundamental research. The concept of a multifunctional organic-inorganic hybrid, in which the organic and inorganic structural components provide intentional, unique, and hopefully synergistic features to the compound, represents an important contemporary target.