There has been a renaissance of interest in exploring highly efficient thermoelectric materials as a possible route to address the worldwide energy generation, utilization, and management. This review describes the recent advances in designing high-performance bulk thermoelectric materials. We begin with the fundamental stratagem of achieving the greatest thermoelectric figure of merit ZT of a given material by carrier concentration engineering, including Fermi level regulation and optimum carrier density stabilization. We proceed to discuss ways of maximizing ZT at a constant doping level, such as increase of band degeneracy (crystal structure symmetry, band convergence), enhancement of band effective mass (resonant levels, band flattening), improvement of carrier mobility (modulation doping, texturing), and decrease of lattice thermal conductivity (synergistic alloying, second-phase nanostructuring, mesostructuring, and all-length-scale hierarchical architectures). We then highlight the decoupling of the electron and phonon transport through coherent interface, matrix/precipitate electronic bands alignment, and compositionally alloyed nanostructures. Finally, recent discoveries of new compounds with intrinsically low thermal conductivity are summarized, where SnSe, BiCuSeO, MgAgSb, complex copper and bismuth chalcogenides, pnicogen-group chalcogenides with lone-pair electrons, and tetrahedrites are given particular emphasis. Future possible strategies for further enhancing ZT are considered at the end of this review.
The preparation, structure, and chemistry of hypervalent iodine compounds are reviewed with emphasis on their synthetic application. Compounds of iodine possess reactivity similar to that of transition metals, but have the advantage of environmental sustainability and efficient utilization of natural resources. These compounds are widely used in organic synthesis as selective oxidants and environmentally friendly reagents. Synthetic uses of hypervalent iodine reagents in halogenation reactions, various oxidations, rearrangements, aminations, C–C bond-forming reactions, and transition metal-catalyzed reactions are summarized and discussed. Recent discovery of hypervalent catalytic systems and recyclable reagents, and the development of new enantioselective reactions using chiral hypervalent iodine compounds represent a particularly important achievement in the field of hypervalent iodine chemistry. One of the goals of this Review is to attract the attention of the scientific community as to the benefits of using hypervalent iodine compounds as an environmentally sustainable alternative to heavy metals.
Photochemistry, bearing significant applications in natural and man-made events such as photosynthesis, vision, photolithography, photodynamic therapy, etc., is yet to become a common tool during the synthesis of small molecules in a laboratory. Among other rationale, the inability to influence photochemical reactions with temperature, solvent, additives, etc., dissuades chemists from employing light-initiated reactions as a routine synthetic tool. This review highlights how diverse, highly organized structures such as solvent-free crystals and water-soluble host–guest assemblies can be employed to control and manipulate photoreactions and thereby serve as an efficient tool for chemists, including those interested in synthesis. The efficacy of the media in modifying the excited-state behavior of organic molecules is illustrated with photocycloaddition in general and [2 + 2] photocycloaddition in particular, reactions widely employed in the synthesis of complex natural products as well as highly constrained molecules, as exemplars. The reaction media, highly pertinent in the context of green sustainable chemistry, include solvent-free crystals and solids such as silica, clay, and zeolite and water-soluble hosts that can solubilize and preorganize hydrophobic reactants in water. Since no other reagent would be more sustainable than light and no other medium greener than water, we believe that the supramolecular photochemistry expounded here has a momentous role as a synthetic tool in the future.
Presented herein is a comprehensive account of the electronic structure of corrole derivatives. Our knowledge in this area derives from a broad range of methods, including UV–vis–NIR absorption and MCD spectroscopies, single-crystal X-ray structure determination, vibrational spectroscopy, NMR and EPR spectroscopies, electrochemistry, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and quantum chemical calculations, the latter including both density functional theory and ab initio multiconfigurational methods. The review is organized according to the Periodic Table, describing free-base and main-group element corrole derivatives, then transition-metal corroles, and finally f-block element corroles. Like porphyrins, corrole derivatives with a redox-inactive coordinated atom follow the Gouterman four-orbital model. A key difference from porphyrins is the much wider prevalence of noninnocent electronic structures as well as full-fledged corrole•2– radicals among corrole derivatives. The most common orbital pathways mediating ligand noninnocence in transition-metal corroles are the metal(d z2)–corrole(“a2u”) interaction (most commonly observed in Mn and Fe corroles) and the metal(d x2–y2)–corrole(a2u) interaction in coinage metal corroles. Less commonly encountered is the metal(dπ)–corrole(“a1u”) interaction, a unique feature of formal d5 metallocorroles. Corrole derivatives exhibit a rich array of optical properties, including substituent-sensitive Soret maxima indicative of ligand noninnocence, strong fluorescence in the case of lighter main-group element complexes, and room-temperature near-IR phosphorescence in the case of several 5d metal complexes. The review concludes with an attempt at identifying gaps in our current knowledge and potential future directions of electronic–structural research on corrole derivatives.
Tetrazole derivatives are a prime class of heterocycles, very important to medicinal chemistry and drug design due to not only their bioisosterism to carboxylic acid and amide moieties but also to their metabolic stability and other beneficial physicochemical properties. Although more than 20 FDA-approved drugs contain 1 H- or 2 H-tetrazole substituents, their exact binding mode, structural biology, 3D conformations, and in general their chemical behavior is not fully understood. Importantly, multicomponent reaction (MCR) chemistry offers convergent access to multiple tetrazole scaffolds providing the three important elements of novelty, diversity, and complexity, yet MCR pathways to tetrazoles are far from completely explored. Here, we review the use of multicomponent reactions for the preparation of substituted tetrazole derivatives. We highlight specific applications and general trends holding therein and discuss synthetic approaches and their value by analyzing scope and limitations, and also enlighten their receptor binding mode. Finally, we estimated the prospects of further research in this field.