Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a general mathematical model for laminated curved structure of different geometries using higher-order shear deformation theory to evaluate in-plane and out of plane shear stress and strains correctly. Subsequently, the model has to be validated by comparing the responses with developed simulation model (ANSYS) as well as available published literature. It is also proposed to analyse thermal buckling load parameter of laminated structures using Green–Lagrange type non-linear strains for excess thermal distortion under uniform temperature loading. Design/methodology/approach – Laminated structures known for their flexibility as compared to conventional material and the deformation behaviour are greatly affected due to combined thermal/aerodynamic environment. The vibration/buckling behaviour of shell structures are very different than that of the plate structures due to their curvature effect. To model the exact behaviour of laminated structures mathematically, a general mathematical model is developed for laminated shell geometries. The responses are evaluated numerically using a finite element model-based computer code developed in MATLAB environment. Subsequently, a simulation model has been developed in ANSYS using ANSYS parametric design language code to evaluate the responses. Findings – Vibration and thermal buckling responses of laminated composite curved panels have been obtained based on proposed model through a customised computer code in MATLAB environment and ANSYS simulation model using ANSYS parametric design language code. The convergence behaviour are tested and compared with those available in published literature and ANSYS results. Finally, the investigation has been extended to examine the effect of different parameters (thickness ratios, curvature ratios, modular ratios, number of layers and support conditions) on the free vibration and thermal buckling responses of laminated curved structures. Practical implications – The present paper intends to give sufficient amount of numerical experimentation, which may lead to help in designing of finished product made up of laminated composites. Most of the aerospace, space research and defence organisation intend to develop low cost and high durable products for real hazard conditions by taking combined loading and environmental conditions. Further, case studies might lead to a lighter design of the laminated composite panels used in high-performance systems, where the weight reduction is the major parameter, such as aerospace, space craft and missile structures. Originality/value – In this analysis, the geometrical distortion due to temperature is being introduced through Green–Lagrange sense in the framework of higher-order shear deformation theory for different types of laminated shells (cylindrical/spherical/hyperboloid/elliptical). A simulation-based model is developed using ANSYS parametric design language in ANSYS environment for different geometries and loading condition and compared with the numerical model.
Purpose This paper aims to deal with the experimental estimation of both longitudinal- and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics of a new twin-engine, 11-seat commuter aircraft. Design/methodology/approach Wind tunnel tests have been conducted on a 1:8.75 scaled model. A modular model (fuselage, wing, nacelle, winglet and tail planes) has been built to analyze both complete aircraft aerodynamic characteristics and mutual effects among components. The model has been also equipped with trailing edge flaps, elevator and rudder control surfaces. Findings Longitudinal tests have shown the goodness of the aircraft design in terms of aircraft stability, control and trim capabilities at typical clean, take-off and landing conditions. The effects of fuselage, nacelles and winglets on lift, pitching moment and drag coefficients have been investigated. Lateral-directional stability and control characteristics of the complete aircraft and several aircraft component combinations have been tested to estimate the aircraft components’ interactions. Research limitations/implications The experimental tests have been performed at a Reynolds number of about 0.6e6, whereas the free-flight Reynolds number range should be between 4.5e6 and 9.5e6. Thus, all the measured data suffer from the Reynolds number scaling effect. Practical implications The study provides useful aerodynamic database for P2012 Traveller commuter aircraft. Originality/value The paper deals with the experimental investigation of a new general aviation 11-seat commuter aircraft being brought to market by Tecnam Aircraft Industries and it brings some material on applied industrial design in the open literature.
Purpose To design a robust attitude control system for the ascent flight phase of satellite launch vehicles (SLVs). Design/methodology/approach The autopilot is based on generalized dynamic inversion (GDI). Dynamic constraints are prescribed in the form of differential equations that encapsulate the control objectives, and are generalized inverted using the Moore-Penrose Generalized Inverse (MPGI) based Greville formula to obtain the control law. The MPGI is modified via a dynamic scaling factor for assuring generalized inversion singularity-robust tracking control. An additional sliding mode control (SMC) loop is augmented to robustify the GDI closed-loop system against model uncertainties and external disturbances. Findings The robust GDI control law allows for two cooperating controllers that act on two orthogonally complement control spaces: one is the particular controller that realizes the dynamic constraints, and the other is the auxiliary controller that is affined in the null control vector, and is used to enforce global closed-loop stability. Practical implications Orthogonality of the particular and the auxiliary control subspaces ensures noninterference of the two control actions, and thus, it ensures that both actions work toward a unified goal. The robust control loop increases practicality of the GDI control design. Originality/value The first successful implementation of GDI to the SLV control problem.
Purpose Presently, the materials used in light combat aircraft structures are aluminium alloys and composites. These structures are joined together through riveted joints. The weight of these rivets for the entire aircraft is nearly one ton. In addition to weight, the riveted connection requires a lot of tools, equipments, fixtures and manpower, which makes it an expensive and time-consuming process. Moreover, Al alloy is also welded using tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process by proper control of process parameters. This process has limitations such as porosity, alloy segregation and hot cracking. To overcome the above limitations, an alternative technology is required. One such technology is friction stir welding (FSW), which can be successfully applied for welding of aluminium alloy in LCA structures. Therefore, this paper aims to compare the load carrying capabilities of FSW joints with TIG welded and riveted joints. Design/methodology/approach FSW joints and TIG welded joints were fabricated using optimized process parameters, followed by riveted joints using standard shop floor practice in the butt and lap joint configurations. Findings The load-carrying capabilities of FSW joints are superior than those of other joints. FSW joints exhibited 75 per cent higher load-carrying capability compared to the riveted joints and TIG-welded joints. Practical implications From this investigation, it is inferred that the FSW joint is suitable for the replacement of riveted joints in LCA and TIG-welded joints. Originality/value Friction stir butt joints exhibited 75 per cent higher load-carrying capability than riveted butt joints. Friction stir welded lap joints showed 70 per cent higher load-carrying capability than the riveted lap joints. Friction stir butt joints yielded 41 per cent higher breaking load capabilities than the TIG-welded butt joints. Moreover, Friction stir lap weld joints have 57 per cent more load-carrying capabilities than the TIG-welded lap joints.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop a general mathematical model for the evaluation of the theoretical flexural responses of the functionally graded carbon nanotube-reinforced composite doubly curved shell panel using higher-order shear deformation theory with thermal load. It is well-known that functionally graded materials are a multidimensional problem, and the present numerical model is also capable of solving the flexural behaviour of different shell panel made up of carbon nanotube-reinforced composite with adequate accuracy in the absence of experimentation. Design/methodology/approach In this current paper, the responses of the single-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced composite panel is computed numerically using the proposed generalised higher-order mathematical model through a homemade computer code developed in MATLAB. The desired flexural responses are computed numerically using the variational method. Findings The validity and the convergence behaviour of the present higher-order model indicate the necessity for the analysis of multidimensional structure under the combined loading condition. The effect of various design parameters on the flexural behaviour of functionally graded carbon nanotube doubly curved shell panel are examined to highlight the applicability of the presently proposed higher-order model under thermal environment. Originality/value In this paper, for the first time, the static behaviour of functionally graded carbon nanotube-reinforced composite doubly curved shell panel is analysed using higher-order shear deformation theory. The properties of carbon nanotube and the matrix material are considered to be temperature dependent. The present model is so general that it is capable of solving various geometries from single curve to doubly curved panel, including the flat panel.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop a general mathematical model for the evaluation of the bending and vibration responses of the skew sandwich composite plate using higher-order shear deformation theory. The sandwich structural components are highly preferable in modern engineering application because of their desirable structural advantages despite the manufacturing and analysis complexities. The present model is developed to solve the bending and vibration problem of the skew sandwich composite plate with adequate accuracy numerically in the absence of the experimental analysis. Design/methodology/approach The skew sandwich composite plate structure is modelled in the present analysis by considering laminated face sheet in conjunction with isotropic and/or orthotropic core numerically with the help of the higher-order mathematical model. Further, the responses are computed numerically with the help of in-house computer code developed in matrix laboratory (MATLAB) environment in conjunction with finite element (FE) steps. The system governing equations are derived via variational technique for the computation of the static and the frequency responses. Findings The skew sandwich composite plate is investigated using the higher-order kinematic model where the transverse displacement through the thickness is considered to be linear. The convergence and the validation study of the bending and the frequency values of the sandwich structure indicate the necessary accuracy. Further, the current model has been used to highlight the applicability of the higher-order kinematics for the evaluation of the sandwich structural responses (frequency and static deflections) for different design parameters. Originality/value In the present paper, the bending and the vibration responses of the skew sandwich composite plate are analysed numerically using the equivalent single-layer higher-order kinematic theory for the isotropic and the orthotropic core numerically with the help of isoparametric FE steps. Finally, it is understood that the present model is capable of solving the sandwich structural responses with less computation cost and adequate accuracy.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to document an efficient and accurate approach to generate aerodynamic tables using computational fluid dynamics. This is demonstrated in the context of a concept transport aircraft model. Design/methodology/approach Two designs of experiment algorithms in combination with surrogate modelling are investigated. An adaptive algorithm is compared to an industry-standard algorithm used as a benchmark. Numerical experiments are obtained solving the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations on a large computational grid. Findings This study demonstrates that a surrogate model built upon an adaptive design of experiments strategy achieves a higher prediction capability than that built upon a traditional strategy. This is quantified in terms of the sum of the squared error between the surrogate model predictions and the computational fluid dynamics results. The error metric is reduced by about one order of magnitude compared to the traditional approach. Practical implications This work lays the ground to obtain more realistic aerodynamic predictions earlier in the aircraft design process at manageable costs, improving the design solution and reducing risks. This may be equally applied in the analysis of other complex and non-linear engineering phenomena. Originality/value This work explores the potential benefits of an adaptive design of experiment algorithm within a prototype working environment, whereby the maximum number of experiments is limited and a large parameter space is investigated.
Purpose The purpose of this study is to show the potentials of a cost-effective unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) system for agriculture industry. The current population growth rate is so vast that farming industry must be highly efficient and optimized. As a response for high quality food demands, the new branch of the agriculture industry has been formed – the precision agriculture. It supports farming process with sensors, automation and innovative technologies. The UAV advantages over regular aviation are withering. Not only they can fly at lower altitude and are more precise but also offer same high quality and are much cheaper. Design/methodology/approach The main objective of this project was to implement an exemplary cost-effective UAV system with electronic camera stabilizer for gaining useful data for agriculture. The system was based on small, unmanned flying wing able to perform fully autonomous missions, a commercially available camera and an own-design camera stabilizer. The research plan was to integrate the platform and run numerous experimental flights over farms, fields and woods collecting aerial pictures. All the missions have been planned to serve for local farming and forest industries and cooperated with local business authorities. Findings In preliminary flight tests, the variety of geodetic, forest and agriculture data have been acquired, placed for post processing and applied for the farming processes. The results of the research were high quality orthophoto maps, 3D maps, digital surface models and images mosaics with normalized difference vegetation index. The end users were astonished with the high-quality results and claimed the high importance for their business. Originality/value The case study results proved that this kind of a small UAV system is exceptional to manage and optimize processes at innovative farms. So far only professional, high-cost UAV platforms or traditional airships have been applied for agriculture industry. This paper shows that even simple, commercially available equipment could be used for professional applications.
Purpose The risk of hail-impact occurrence that can decrease local strength property must be taken into account in the design of primary airframe structures in aviation, energy and space industries. Because of the high-speed of hail impact in operation, it can affect the load carrying capacity. Testing all impact scenarios onto real structure is expensive and impractical. The purpose of this paper is to present a cost-effective hybrid testing regime including experimental tests and FEM-based simulations for airframe parts that are locally exposed to the impacting hail in flight. Design/methodology/approach Tested samples (specimens) are flat panels of laminated and sandwich carbon/epoxy composites that are used in designing lightweight new airframes. The presented numerical simulations provide a cost effective and convenient tool for investigating the hail impact scenarios in the design process. The smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) technique was selected for the simulation of projectiles. The most commonly used shape of projectiles in hail impact tests is the ice ball with a defined diameter. The proposed simulation technique was verified and validated in tests on flat composite panels (specimens). Findings Integration of the numerical analyses with high-speed impact tests of hail onto flat laminated and sandwich composite shells has been presented, and a developed simulation model for impact results assessment was obtained. Originality/value The tested coupons (specimens) are flat panels as representative of structural design deployed in real aircraft structures. These numerical simulations provide a cost effective and convenient tool for hail impact scenarios in the design process.
Purpose Major changes of an aircraft configuration are conducted during the early design stage. It is important to include the airworthiness regulations at this stage while there is extensive freedom for designing. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an efficient design framework that integrates airworthiness guidelines and documentation at the early design stage. Design/methodology/approach A new design and optimization process is proposed that logically includes the airworthiness regulations as design parameters and constraints by constructing a certification database. The design framework comprises requirements analysis, preliminary sizing, conceptual design synthesis and loads analysis. A design certification relation table (DCRT) describes the legal regulations in terms of parameters and values suitable for use in design optimization. Findings The developed framework has been validated and demonstrated for the design of a Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) 23 four-seater small aircraft. The validation results show an acceptable level of accuracy to be applied during the early design stage. The total mass minimization problem has been successfully solved while satisfying all the design requirements and certification constraints specified in the DCRT. Moreover, successful compliance with FAR 23 subpart C is demonstrated. The proposed method is a useful tool for design optimization and compliance verifications during the early stages of aircraft development. Practical implications The new certification database proposed in this research makes it simpler for engineers to access a large amount of legal documentation related to airworthiness regulations and provides a link between the regulation text and actual design parameters and their bounds. Originality/value The proposed design optimization framework integrates the certification database that is built of several types of legal documents such as regulations, advisory circulars and standards. The Engineering Requirements and Guide summarizes all the documents and design requirements into a single document. The DCRT is created as a summary table that indicates the design parameters affected by a given regulation(s), the design stage at which the parameter can be evaluated and its value bounds. The introduction of the certification database into the design optimization framework significantly reduces the engineer’s load related for airworthiness regulations.
Purpose This paper aims to develop a novel trajectory optimization algorithm which is capable of producing high accuracy optimal solution with superior computational efficiency for the hypersonic entry problem. Design/methodology/approach A two-stage trajectory optimization framework is constructed by combining a convex-optimization-based algorithm and the pseudospectral-nonlinear programming (NLP) method. With a warm-start strategy, the initial-guess-sensitive issue of the general NLP method is significantly alleviated, and an accurate optimal solution can be obtained rapidly. Specifically, a successive convexification algorithm is developed, and it serves as an initial trajectory generator in the first stage. This algorithm is initial-guess-insensitive and efficient. However, approximation error would be brought by the convexification procedure as the hypersonic entry problem is highly nonlinear. Then, the classic pseudospectral-NLP solver is adopted in the second stage to obtain an accurate solution. Provided with high-quality initial guesses, the NLP solver would converge efficiently. Findings Numerical experiments show that the overall computation time of the two-stage algorithm is much less than that of the single pseudospectral-NLP algorithm; meanwhile, the solution accuracy is satisfactory. Practical implications Due to its high computational efficiency and solution accuracy, the algorithm developed in this paper provides an option for rapid trajectory designing, and it has the potential to evolve into an online algorithm. Originality/value The paper provides a novel strategy for rapid hypersonic entry trajectory optimization applications.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to mount Gurney flaps at the trailing edges of the canards and investigate their influence on aerodynamic characteristics of a simplified canard-configuration aircraft model. Design/methodology/approach A force measurement experiment was conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel. Hence, the height and shape effects of the Gurney flaps on the canards were investigated. Findings Gurney flaps can increase the lift and pitching-up moment for the aircraft model tested, thereby increasing the lift when trimming the aircraft. The dominant parameter to influence aerodynamic characteristics is the height of Gurney flaps. When the flap heights are the same, the aerodynamic efficiency of the triangular Gurney flaps is higher than that of the rectangular ones. Moreover, the canard deflection efficiency will be reduced with Gurney flaps equipped, but the total aerodynamic increment is considerable. Practical implications This paper helps to solve the key technical problem of increasing take-off and landing lift coefficients, thus improving the aerodynamic performance of the canard-configuration aircraft. Originality/value This paper recommends to adopt triangular Gurney flaps with the height of 3 per cent chord length of the canard root (c) for engineering application.
Purpose The purpose of this study is to improve life prediction of certain components. Fatigue of the high-stressed structural elements is an essential parameter that affects the lifetime of such components. In particular, aviation engines are devices whose failure due to fatigue failure of one of the important components can lead to fatal consequences. Design/methodology/approach In this study, two analyses in the turbine disk of the jet engine during the simulated operating load were performed: The first one was the analysis of the heat-induced stresses using the finite element method. The goal of the second analysis was to determine the residual fatigue strength of a loaded disk by the software tool using the Palmgren - Miner Linear Damage Theory. Findings The results showed a high degree of similarity with the real tests performed on the aircraft engine and revealed the weak points in the design of the jet engine. Research limitations/implications It should be mentioned that without appropriate experiments, results of this analysis could not be verified. Practical implications These results are helpful in the re-designing of the jet engines to increase their technical feasibility. Originality/value Such analysis has been realized in the DV-2 jet engine research and development program for the first time in the history of jet engine manufacturing process in Slovakia and countries of Eastern Europe region.
Purpose This paper aims to analyze the application of remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) for remote oil spill sensing. Design/methodology/approach This paper is an analysis of RPA strong points. Findings To increase the accuracy and eliminate potentially false contamination detection, which can be caused by external factors, an oil thickness measurement algorithm is used with the help of the multispectral imaging that provides high accuracy and is versatile for any areas of water and various meteorological and atmospheric conditions. Research limitations/implications SWOT analysis of implementation of RPA for remote sensing of oil spills. Practical implications The use of RPA will improve the remote sensing of oil spills. Social implications The concept of oil spills monitoring needs to be developed for quality data collection, oil pollution control and emergency response. Originality/value The research covers the development of a method and design of a device intended for taking samples and determining the presence of oil contamination in an aquatorium area; the procedure includes taking a sample from the water surface, preparing it for transportation and delivering the sample to a designated location by using the RPA. The objective is to carry out the analysis of remote oil spill sensing using RPA. The RPA provides a reliable sensing of oil pollution with significant advantages over other existing methods. The objective is to analyze the use of RPA employing all of their strong points. In this paper, technical aspects of sensors are analyzed, as well as their advantages and limitations.
Purpose This paper aims to investigate the problem of on-line orbit planning and guidance for an advanced upper stage. Design/methodology/approach The double impulse optimal transfer orbit is planned by the Lambert algorithm and the improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) method, which can reduce the total velocity increment of the transfer orbit. More specially, a simplified formula is developed to obtain the working time of the main engine for two phases of flight based on the theorem of impulse. Subsequently, the true anomalies of the start position and the end position for both two phases are planned by the Newton iterative algorithm and the Kepler equation. Finally, the first phase of flight is guided by a novel iterative guidance (NIG) law based on the true anomaly update with respect to the geometrical relationship. Also, a completely analytical powered explicit guidance (APEG) law is presented to realize orbital injection for the second phase of flight. Findings Simulations including Monte Carlo and three typical orbit transfer missions are carried out to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed scheme. Originality/value A novel on-line orbit planning algorithm is developed based on the Lambert problem, IPSO optimization method and Newton iterative algorithm. The NIG and APEG are presented to realize the designed transfer orbit for the first and second phases of flight. Both two guidance laws achieve higher orbit injection accuracies than traditional guidance laws.
Purpose Aviation has multi-cultural business environment in all aspects as operational and management. Managing aviation requires high awareness on human factor risk which includes organizational behavior-related topics. The greatest risk to an enterprise’s ability to achieve its strategic goals and objectives is the human factor. Both organizational behavior and corporate culture behavior with social psychology are the most vital aspects of management and strategy in terms of human resources. Related risks, including organizational behavior and culture, have the potential to directly impact on both business performance and corporate sustainability. Therefore, in this paper, the most prominent risks were determined in accordance with social psychology, and after identification of human factor-based risks, these have prioritized and prepared risk mapping with fresh approach. For this reason, this study aims to develop risk mapping model for human factors that takes into account interrelations among risk factors three dimensional based new approach. This approach includes both identification of human factor based risks, prioritization them and setting risk mapping according to corporate based qualifications via tailoring risk list. Developed risk map in this paper will help to manage corporate risks to achieve improved performance and sustainability. Design/methodology/approach This new organizational behavior- and culture-focused risk mapping model developed in this study has the potential to make significant contribution to the management of the human factor for modern management and strategy. In enterprise risk management system, risk mapping is both strong and effective strategic methodology to manage ergonomics issue with strategic approach. Human factor is both determinative and also strategic element to both continuity and performance of business operations with safely and sound. In view of management and strategy, vitally, the human factor determines the outcome in both every business and every decision-making. Findings It is assumed that, if managers manage human risk you may get advantages to achieving corporate strategies in timely manner. Aviation is sensitive sector for its ingredients: airports, airlines, air traffic management, aircraft maintenance, pilotage and ground handling. Aim of this paper is to present risk management approach to optimize human performance while minimizing both failures and errors by aircraft maintenance technician (AMT). This model may apply all human factors in other departments of aviation such as pilots and traffic controllers. AMT is key component of aircraft maintenance. Thus, errors made by AMTs will cause aircraft accidents or incidents or near miss incidents. In this study, new taxonomy model for human risk factors in aircraft maintenance organizations has been designed, and also new qualitative risk assessment as three dimensions is carried out by considering the factors affecting the AMT’s error obtained from extensive literature review and expert opinions in the field of aviation. Human error risks are first categorized into two main groups and sub three groups and then prioritized using the risk matrix via triple dimension as probability, severity and interrelations ratio between risks. Practical implications Risk mapping is established to decide which risk management option they will apply for managers when they will look at this map. Managers may use risk map to both identify their managerial priorities and share sources to managing risks, and make decisions on risk handling options. This new model may be a useful new tool to manage ergonomic human factor-based risks in developing strategy in aviation business management. In addition, this paper will contribute to department of management and strategy and related literature. Originality/value This study has originality via new modeling of risk matrix. In this study, dimension of risk analysis has been improved as three dimensions. This study has new approach and new assessment of risk with likelihood (probability), impact (severity) and interrelations ratio. This new model may be a useful new tool to both assess and prioritize mapping of ergonomic-based risks in business management. In addition, this research will contribute to aviation management and strategy literature and also enterprise risk management literature.
Purpose The purpose of this paper aims to investigate an effective algorithm for different types of disturbances rejection. New dynamics are designed based on disturbance. Observer-based sliding mode control (SMC) technique is used for approximation the disturbances as well as to stabilize the system effectively in presence of uncertainties. Design/methodology/approach This research work investigates the disturbances rejection algorithm for fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle. An algorithm based on SMC is introduced for disturbances rejection. Two types of disturbances are considered, the constant disturbance and the sinusoidal disturbance. The comprehensive lateral and longitudinal models of the system are presented. Two types of dynamics, the dynamics without disturbance and the new dynamics with disturbance, are presented. An observer-based algorithm is presented for the estimation of the dynamics with disturbances. Intensive simulations and experiments have been performed; the results not only guarantee the robustness and stability of the system but the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm as well. Findings In previous research work, new dynamics based on disturbances rejection are not investigated in detail; in this research work both the lateral and longitudinal dynamics with different disturbances are investigated. Practical implications As the stability is always important for flight, so the algorithm proposed in this research guarantees the robustness and rejection of disturbances, which plays a vital role in practical life for avoiding any kind of damage. Originality/value In the previous research work, new dynamics based on disturbances rejection are not investigated in detail; in this research work both the lateral and longitudinal dynamics with different disturbances are investigated. An observer-based SMC not only approximates the different disturbances and also these disturbances are rejected in order to guarantee the effectiveness and robustness.
Purpose Conceptual and preliminary aircraft concepts are getting mature earlier in the design process, than ever before. To achieve that advanced level of maturity, multiple multidisciplinary analyses have to be done, often with usage of numerical optimization algorithms. This calls for right tools that can handle such a demanding task. Often the toughest part of a modern design is handling an aircraft’s computational models used for different analysis. Transferring geometry and loads from one program to another, or modifying internal structure, takes time and is not productive. Authors defined the concept of a common computational model (CCM), which couples programs from different aerospace scientific disciplines. Data exchange between the software components is compatible, and multidisciplinary analysis can be automated to high degree, including numerical optimization. Design/methodology/approach The panel method was applied to aerodynamic analysis and was coupled with open-source FEM code within one computational process. Findings The numerical results proved the effectiveness of developed methodology. Practical implications Developed software can be used within the design process of a new aircraft. Originality/value This paper presents an original approach for advanced numerical analysis, as well as for multidisciplinary optimization of an aircraft. The presented results show possible applications.
Purpose The purpose of this paper was to determine the influence of a number of measured points on results of measurements of turbine blades, which are the parts of aircraft engines. The selection of a number of points is the part of a measurement strategy in the coordinate measuring technique and determines the accuracy of measurements. Design/methodology/approach Numerical and experimental investigations were conducted. The measurements were simulated using different numbers of measured points. The simulated measurements were performed for the selected dispersion of measured points. The dispersion reflected the inaccuracy of a manufacturing process of the considered product and the uncertainty of measurements of curvilinear surfaces. To verify the accuracy of the numerical studies, experimental research was conducted. The real measurements were conducted using the selected coordinate measuring machine. Findings The gained results following the simulations can be very useful when selecting the appropriate number of measured points. The chosen number of points may be used during real measurements of turbine blades conducted on coordinate measuring machines. The results of numerical research indicate that there should be used the average radii of leading and trailing edges to increase the accuracy of measurements. The results of real coordinate measurements confirmed the results of simulation studies. Originality/value The main novelty of the paper is the presented methodology for determining the influence of measured points on results of measurements. The presented methodology helps the user of a coordinate measuring system select the appropriate measurement strategy of free-form surfaces applied in the aerospace industry.
Purpose This paper aims to introduce the take-off and landing performance analysis modules of the software library named Java toolchain of Programs for Aircraft Design (JPAD), dedicated to the aircraft preliminary design. An overview of JPAD is also presented. Design/methodology/approach The calculation of the take-off and landing distances has been implemented using a simulation-based approach. This expects to solve an appropriate set of ordinary differential equations, which describes the aircraft equations of motion during all the take-off and landing phases. Tests upon two aircraft models (ATR72 and B747-100B) have been performed to compare the obtained output with the performance data retrieved from the related flight manuals. Findings The tool developed has proven to be very reliable and versatile, as it performs the calculation of the required performance with almost no computational effort and with a good accuracy, providing a less than the 5 per cent difference with respect to the statistical trend and a difference from the flight manual or public brochure data around 10 per cent. Originality/value The use of a simulation-based approach to have a more accurate estimation of the ground performance with respect to classic semi-empirical equations. Although performing the simulation of the aircraft motion, the approach shown is very time-saving and can be easily implemented in an optimization cycle.