We report the discovery of an in-situ natural moissanite as an inclusion in the Cr-spinel from the dunite envelope of a chromitite deposit in Luobusa ophiolite,Tibet.The moissanite occurs as a twin crystal interpenetrated by two quadrilateral signal crystals with sizes of 17 pm × 10 μm and 20 μm × 7 μm,respectively.The moissanite is green with parallel extinction.The absorption peaks in its Raman spectra are at 967-971 cm-1,787-788 cm-1,and 766 cm-1.The absorption peaks in the infrared spectra are at 696 cm-1,767 cm-1,1450 cm-1,and 1551 cm-1,which are distinctly different from the peaks for synthetic silicon carbide.Moissanites have been documented to form in ultra-high pressure,high temperature,and extremely low fO2 environments and their 13C-depleted compositions indicate a lower mantle origin.Combined with previous studies about other ultra-high pressure and highly reduced minerals in Luobusa ophiolite,the in-situ natural moissanite we found indicates a deep mantle origin of some materials in the mantle sequence of Luobusa ophiolite.Further,we proposed a transformation model to explain the transfer process of UHP materials from the deep mantle to ophiolite sequence and then to the supra-subduction zone environment.Interactions between the crown of the mantle plume and mid-ocean ridge are suggested to be the dominant mechanism.
The Dongpu sag is located in the south of the Bohai Bay basin,China,and has abundant oil and gas reserves.To date,there has been no systematic documentation of its geothermal fields.This study measured the rock thermal conductivity of 324 cores from 47 wells,and calculated rock thermal conductivity for different formations.The geothermal gradient and terrestrial heat flow were calculated for 192 wells on basis of 892 formation-testing data from 523 wells.The results show that the Dongpu sag is characterized by a medium-temperature geothermal field between stable and active tectonic areas,with an average geothermal gradient of 32.0℃/km and terrestrial heat flow of 65.6 mW/m2.The geothermal fields in the Dongpu sag is significantly controlled by the Changyuan,Yellow River,and Lanliao basement faults.They developed in the Paleogene and the Dongying movement occurred at the Dongying Formation depositional period.The geothermal fields distribution has a similar characteristic to the tectonic framework of the Dongpu sag,namely two subsags,one uplift,one steep slope and one gentle slope.The oil and gas distribution is closely associated with the present geothermal fields.The work may provide constraints for reconstructing the thermal history and modeling source rock maturation evolution in the Dongpu sag.
The recent deep prospecting results in the Jiaojia area of Eastern Shandong Province indicate that the Jiaojia ore field composed of several individual gold deposits as previously suggested is actually an ultra-large gold deposit.This deposit covers an area of ～40 km2,and shows a structural control by the Jiaojia fault and its secondary faults.Gold orebodies generally occur along the same mineralization-alteration belt,and the main orebodies intersect with each other or exhibit a parallel or overlapping distribution.This deposit＇s reserves are estimated to be 1,200t of gold,being the first gold deposit of more than 1000t gold reserves in China.The No.Ⅰ-1 orebody in the Shaling-deep Sizhuang ore blocks holds gold reserves greater than 350 t,or 29 percent of the total reserves,followed by the No.Ⅰ orebody in Matang-Jiaojia ore blocks with exceeding 150t gold reserves.This deposit mainly occurs in the footwall of the Jiaojia fault,and presents zoned patterns in mineralization,alteration and structures.The strongly mineralized zones agree with strongly altered and tectonically fractured zones.These orebodies display strataform-like,veinlike or lenticular shapes,and generally show characteristics of pinching out and reappearing,branching and converging,expanding and shrinking.The orebodies commonly occur along positions where the fault strike changes and in gentle locations with dips changing from steep to gentle.The main orebodies are parallel to the main plane of the orecontrolling fault,and tend to be gentle from the surface to the deep.The orebodies mainly plunge to the southwest,with plunge angle of 45°-606° Orebodies near the main plane of the ore-controlling fault have more gold resource than those away from main fault zone.The slant depth of orebodies is generally larger than the length along its strike direction; orebodies become thick and gold grades become low from the shallow area to the deep area.Ore-forming fluids are H2O-CO2-NaCl±CH4 type with medium-temperature and moderate to low salinity.Sulfur isotopic values （δ34SCDT） for gold ores range between 11.08‰ and 12.58‰,indicating mixed sulfur sources; hydrogen isotopic values （δDVSMOW） range from-83.68‰ to-116.95‰ and oxygen isotopic values （δ18OV-SMOW） range between 12.04‰ and 16.28‰.The hydrogen and oxygen isotopes suggest that ore-forming fluids originated from primary magma,and mixing with a large amount of atmospheric water during the late stage.The Eastern Shandong Province gold deposits are associated with magmatic activities which have mantle crust-mixed source,and also share some similarities with orgenic and epithermal hydrothermal golddeposits.Because Eastern Shandong Province gold deposits with unique metailogenic features and formation setting which are different from other gold deposit types in the world,we call it the Jiaojiatype gold deposits.The kiloton class Jiaojia gold deposit is related to fluid activities,extension and detachment resulted from thermal upweiling of magmas.The strong magmatic activities in the middle to late stage of early Cretaceous in Eastern Shandong Province lead to active fluids,and provided abundant ore-forming materials for gold depsoits.Moreover,many extensional structures resulting from crustal extension provided favourable space for orebody positioning.
Two new genera with two new species of sawflies, Cathayxyela extensa gen. et sp. nov. and Aequixyela immensa gen. et sp. nov., from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of southeastern Inner Mongolia, China, are assigned to the subfamily Xyelinae (Hymenoptera, Xyelidae). Cathayxyela gen. nov. can be distinguished by the third antennal article longer than the head; mesoprescutum and mesoscutellum nearly equal in length; the forewing with Sc meeting C before the junction of 1‐M and 1‐Rs; a weak and narrow pterostigma; and 3‐Cu at least 1.5 times longer than the 1m‐cu. Aequixyela gen. nov. is characterized by the third antennal article nearly as long as the head; the forewing with Rs+M approximately equal to 2‐Rs in length; 2m‐cu inclined toward the wing base and nearly reaching the middle of cell 3rm; 1m‐cu as long as the 2‐Cu and 3‐Cu; and the cell 2cua of regular hexagonal shape.
The Andaman Forearc Basin （AFB） is asymmetric in configuration and filled with a-6 km-thick pile of Neogene to Recent sediments （-4 s in two-way travel time： TWT） with distinct zonation. It shows gradual thinning up to -3 km （0.8 s in TWT） towards the eastern end with a seabed gradient of 1：30. Thick deformed sediments -2 s （TWT） of the Outerarc are associated with intense faulting and occasional folding caused by recent tectonics. Development of a series of faults within the upwarped sedimentary column of Oligocene top to Recent is observed with a rotated fault block. These features are manifestations of Recent igneous intrusion, and reveal the presence of a mild N-S compressional regime. Its effect on the AFB resulted in further uplift of sediments, which can now be seen as the Invisible Bank. Forward gravity modelling supporting our seismic interpretation reveals that it is associated with igneous intrusion from the Moho （-9 km depth）, and also suggests that continental crust underlies the AFB. Strong Bottom Simulating Reflector （BSR）-like features in the Miocene sediments of Outerarc and Forearc basin at a depth of 0.6 s below the seabed suggest the inferred probable occurrence of gas hydrates in the AFB.
Fossil bamboo leaves and pollen from Upper Miocene deposits of the Shengxian Formation in Tiantai and Ninghai counties, eastern Zhejiang, China represent a rare record in Asia. The distinctive pseudopetiole and parallel venation of the leaf blades and the clearly thickened annulus of the pollen aperture place them in the subfamily Bambusoideae. Morphological analysis supports the determination of these fossil leaves as belonging to the genus Bambusium and two new species are described. Bambusium latipseudopetiolus Q.J. Wang et B.N. Sun sp. nov. has a distinctly wide pseudopetiole of 0.23 cm in width and 0.40 cm in length, several vascular bundles on parallel veins, and 5-8 lateral veins on both sides of the midrib. Bambusium longipseudopetiolus Q.J. Wang et B.N. Sun sp. nov. has a distinctly long pseudopetiole of 0.60 cm in length and 0.10 cm in width, several vascular bundles on the pseudopetiole, and 6 lateral veins on both sides of the midrib. Pollen grains from the same layer provide additional evidence of bamboos. They are characterized by 32.0-51.0 μm in diameter, a round pore 3.0-4.0 μm in diameter with a broad thickened annulus 2.5-3.5 μm around, and several conspicuous secondary folds on the exine surface. The morphological analysis leads to their assignment to Graminidites bambusoides Stuchlik. These fossils are important for the study of bamboo phytogeography in China. They demonstrate that there were bamboos growing in southeastern China during the Late Miocene and that bamboos in Zhejiang begin to diversify no later than the Late Miocene. In combination with bamboo fossils from other places, it seems that bamboos had a wide distribution across southern China during the Miocene, ranging from southwestern Yun＇nan to southeastern Zhejiang.
A new locality bearing ichnofossils of the Cruziana Assemblage Zone-Ⅲ from the Mussoorie syncline,Lesser Himalaya,is located in rocks of Member-B of the Dhaulagiri Formation,Tal Group,exposed along the Maldewta-Chhimoli fresh road cut section.The site yielded ichnofossils Bergaueria perata,Cochlichnus anguineus,？Diplocraterion isp.,Dimorphichnus obliquus,diplichnitiform Cruziana bonariensis,Diplichnites gouldi,Glockeria isp.,Helminthopsis isp.,Monomorphichnus lineatus,Phycodes palmatum,Palaeophycus striatus,Planolites beverleyensis,Planolites montanus,Treptichnus cf.T.pedum,scratch marks and an undetermined worm impression.An Early Cambrian age （Cambrian Series 2） is assigned to the ichnofossil-bearing strata based on the stratigraphic position between the Drepanuroides and Palaeoolenus trilobite zones.A revised Cambrian ichnofossil zonation is presented for the Tal Group of the Mussoorie syncline.Together with their occurrence on rippled surfaces,and the lateral displacement of some trackways （due to current action）,a sub-aqueous shallow-marine depositional setting is proposed for the rocks of Member-B.
With the analysis of the sources and formation mechanism of the clay minerals in the sediment core from the Dalianhai lake in the Gonghe Basin,northeastern Tibet-Qinghai Plateau,clay mineral composition proxies,grain-size and carbonate contents have been employed for high-resolution study in order to reconstruct East Asian Summer Monsoon （EASM） over the northeastern Tibet-Qinghai Plateau during the lastdeglacial.The study also extended to establish a relationship between vegetation cover changes and erosion during the last 14.5 ka with pollen record and clay mineral proxies.Smectite/kaolinite and smectite/（illite＋chlorite） ratios allow us to assess hydrolysis conditions in lowlands and/or physical erosion process in highlands of the Gonghe Basin.Before 12.9 Cal ka BP,both mineralogical ratios show low values indicative of strong physical erosion in the basin with a dominant cold and dry phase.After 12.9 Cal ka BP,an increase in both mineralogical ratios indicates enhanced chemical weathering in the basin associated with a warm and humid climate.The beginning of Holocene is characterized by high smectite/（illite＋chlorite） and smectite/kaolinite ratios that is synchronous as with deposition of many peat laminae,implying the best warm and humid conditions specifically between 8.0 to 5.5 Cal ka BP.The time interval after 5.0 Cai ka BP is characterized by a return to high physical erosion and low chemical weathering with dry climate conditions in the basin.Comparing variations of clay mineral assemblages with previous pollen results,we observe a rapid response in terms of chemical weathering and physical erosion intensity to a modification of the vegetation cover in the basin.
A Kubergandian （Kungurian） fusuline fauna from the lower part of the Lugu Formation in the Cuozheqiangma area,central Qiangtang Block is described.This fusuline fauna belongs to the Southern Transitional Zone in palaeobiogeography,and is characterised by the presence of the distinctive bi-temperate genus Monodiexodina and many genera common in lower latitude Tethyan areas such as Parafusulina and Pseudodoliolina.The occurrence of Monodiexodina in the fauna confirms that the seamount-type carbonates of the Lugu Formation did not originate from the Palaeotethys Ocean,but rather from a branch of the Neotethys Ocean after the rifting of the Qiangtang Block from the Tethys Himalaya area in the Artinskian.
Early Miocene stratigraphy,major structural systems,magmatic emplacement,volcanic eruption,vegetation change and paleo-elevation were analyzed for the Tibetan Plateau after regional geological mapping at a scale of 1：250,000 and related researches,revealing much more information for tectonic evolution and topographic change of the high plateau caused by Indian-Asian continental collision.Lacustrine deposits of dolostone,dolomite limestone,limestone,marl,sandstone and conglomerate of weak deformation formed extensively in the central Tibetan Plateau,indicating that vast lake complexes as large as 100,000-120,000 km2 existed in the central plateau during Early Miocene.Sporopoilen assemblages contained in the lacustrine strata indicate the disappearance of most tropical-subtropical broad-leaved trees since Early Miocene and the flourishing of dark needle-leaved trees during Early Miocene.Such vegetation changes adjusted for latitude and global climate variations demonstrate that the central Tibetan Plateau rose to ca.4,000-4,500 m and the northeastern plateau uplifted to ca.3,500-4,000 m before the Early Miocene.Intensive thrust and crustal thickening occurred in the areas surrounding central Tibetan Plateau in Early Miocene,formed Gangdise Thrust System （GTS） in the southern Lhasa block,Zedong-Renbu Thrust （ZRT） in the northern Himalaya block,Main Central Thrust （MCT） and Main Boundary Thrust （MBT） in the southern Himalaya block,and regional thrust systems in the Qaidam,Qilian,West Kunlun and Songpan-Ganzi blocks.Foreland basins formed in Early Miocene along major thrust systems,e.g.the Siwalik basin along MCT,Yalung-Zangbu Basin along GTS and ZRT,southwestern Tarim depression along West Kunlun Thrust,and large foreland basins along major thrust systems in the northeastern margin of the plateau.Intensive volcanic eruptions formed in the Qiangtang,Hoh-Xil and Kunlun blocks,porphyry granites and volcanic eruptions formed in the Nainqentanglha and Gangdise Mts.,and leucogranites and granites formed in the Himalaya and Longmenshan Mts.in Early Miocene.The K2O weight percentages of Early Miocene magmatic rocks in the Gangdise and Himlayan Mts.are found to increase with distance from the MBT,indicating the genetic relationship between regional magmatism and subduction of Indian continental plate in Early Miocene.
Shale gas is a resource of emerging importance in the energy field.Many countries in the world have been making big financial investments in this area.Carboniferous shale in the eastern Qaidam Basin shows good exploration prospects,but limited research and exploration work for shale oil and gas resources has been undertaken.Geochemical analyses were performed on shale derived from the Upper Carboniferous Hurleg Formation in the eastern Qaidam Basin,Qinghai Province,and secondary electron imaging capability of a Field Emission scanning electron microscope （FE-SEM） was used to characterize the microstructure of the shale.The reservoir and exploitation potential of the studied shale was assessed by comparison with research results obtained from the Barnett Formation shale in Fort Worth Basin,North America and the Basin shale of Sichuan province.The results indicate that the eastern Qaidam Basin Carboniferous shale is high-quality source rock.There are four major microstructural types in the study area：matrix intergranular pores,dissolution pores,intergranular pores,and micro-fractures.The size of the micropores varies from 6-633 nm,the majority of which is between 39-200 nm,with a relatively small number of micro-scale pores ranging from 0.13-1 μtm.The pore characteristics of the studied shales are similar to the North American and Sichuanese shales,indicating that they have good reservoir potential.No micropores are present in the organic matter,which is induced by its composition; instead we found an important lamellar structure in the organic matter.These micropores and microfractures are abundant,and are connected to natural visible cracks that form the network pore system,which controls the storage and migration of shale gas.This connectivity is favorable for shale gas exploitation,providing great scientific potential and practical value.
This study focuses on the zircon U–Pb geochronology and geochemistry of the Bairiqiete granodiorite intrusion (rock mass) from the Buqingshan tectonic mélange belt in the southern margin of East Kunlun. The results show that the zircons are characterized by internal oscillatory zoning and high Th/U (0.14–0.80), indicative of an igneous origin. LA–ICP–MS U–Pb dating of zircons from the Bairiqiete granodiorite yielded an age of 439.0 ± 1.9 Ma (MSWD = 0.34), implying that the Bairiqiete granodiorite formed in the early Silurian. Geochemical analyses show that the rocks are medium‐K calc‐alkaline, relatively high in Al 2 O 3 (14.57–18.34 wt%) and metaluminous to weakly peraluminous. Rare‐earth elements have low concentrations (45.49–168.31 ppm) and incline rightward with weak negative to weak positive Eu anomalies (δ5Eu = 0.64–1.34). Trace‐element geochemistry is characterized by negative anomalies of Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf and Ti and positive anomalies of Rb, Th and Ba. Moreover, the rocks have similar geochemical features with adakites. The Bairiqiete granodiorite appears to have a continental crust source and formed in a subduction‐related island‐arc setting. The Bairiqiete granodiorite was formed due to partial melting of the lower crust and suggests subduction in the Buqingshan area of the Proto‐Tethys Ocean.
Tectonic and environmental patterns and evolution of the present North Tibetan Plateau （NTP） prior to the India collision with Asia is significant to understand the formation of the Tibetan Plateau and its influence on the environment.In this study,we integrated and analyzed the tectonostratigraphy and the special sedimentary layers whose climatic implications are clear in the NTP.Additionally,we stressed the tectonic and environmental events and their evolutions from the Mesozoic to the Early Cenozoic.Our results show that four tectonic phases,which sequentially took place during the Triassic,Jurassic,Cretaceous and Paleogene,played an important role on the formation of the North Tibet.The climate was basically dry and hot from the Triassic to the Eocene and became dry and cool since the Oligocene in this region.The climatic evolution was characterized by a transition from a wet and hot phase during the Triassic-Middle Jurassic,to a dry and hot phase during the Late Jurassic-Eocene.Both phases encompassed 5 wet and hot periods followed by 5 dry and hot climate events,respectively.In addition,we found that the tectonic deformation and the climatic conditions were spatially and temporally different.In detail,in the regions north of the PaleoTian Shan and Paleo-Qilian Mts.the tectonic deformation and climatic condition were stronger and wetter than in regions south of the Paleo-Tian Shan and Paleo-Qilian Mts.during the Late Triassic-Jurassic.Whereas in the Cretaceous,the tectonic movement was intensive in the west but steady in the east,and climate was dry in the south but wet in the north of NTP.The formation of the tectonic and climatic patterns in NTP were the consequence of either global climate change or regional tectonics,including the Paleo-Asian Ocean closure and the Qiangtang block,Lhasa block and India plate collision subsequently to Asia.Furthermore,the regional tectonic events occurred before any global climate change and drove the climatic change in the NTP.
In this paper we present new zircon U-Pb ages,whole-rock major and trace element analyses,and zircon Hf isotopic data for magmatic rocks in the Tuotuohe region of the western segment of the Jinshajiang suture.Our aim is to constrain the Early Permian-Late Triassic tectonic evolution of the region.Zircons from the magmatic rocks of the Tuotuohe region are euhedralsubhedral in shape and display fine-scale oscillatory zoning as well as high Th/U ratios （0.4-4.6）,indicating a magmatic origin.The zircon U-Pb ages obtained using LA-ICP-MS are 281 ± 1 Ma,258 ± 1 Ma,244 ± 1 Ma,and 216 ± 1 Ma,which indicate magmatism in the Early Permian-Late Triassic.A diorite from Bashihubei （BSHN） has SiO2 =57.18-59.97 wt％,Al2O3=15.70-16.53 wt％,and total alkalis （Na2O ＋ K2O） =4.46-6.34 wt％,typical of calc-alkaline and metaluminous series.A gabbro from Bashibadaoban （BSBDB） belongs to the alkaline series,and is poor in SiO2 （45.46-54.03 wt％） but rich in Al2O3 （16.19-17.39 wt％） and total alkalis （Na2O ＋ K2O =5.48-6.26 wt％）.The BSHN diorite and the BSBDB gabbro both display an enrichment of LREEs and LILEs and depletion of HFSEs,and they have no obvious Eu anomaly; they have relatively low MgO contents （2.54-4.93 wt％）,Mg# values of 43 to 52,and low Cr and Ni contents （8.07-33.6 ppm and 4.41-14.2 ppm,respectively）,indicating they differentiated from primitive mantle magmas.They have low Nb/U,Ta/ U,and Ce/Pb ratios （1.3-9.6,0.2-0.8,and 0.1-18.1,respectively）,and their initial Hf isotopic ratios range from ＋9.6 to ＋16.9 （BSHN diorite） and ＋6.5 to ＋12.6 （BSBDB gabbro）,suggesting their primary magmas were derived mainly from the partial melting of a mantle wedge that had been metasomatized by subduction fluids.Taking all the new data together,we conclude that the western and eastern segment of the Jinshajiang suture regions underwent identical processes of evolution in the Early Permian-Late Triassic：oceanic crust subduction before the Early Permian,continental collision during the Early-Middle Triassic,and post-collisional extension from the Late Triassic.
The Wenchuan earthquake induced large amounts of debris flows and catastrophic incidents triggered by subsequent rainstorms occurred frequently in the past 6 rainy seasons, and thus resulted in serious casualties, huge economic loss and long-term impact. In this paper, post-seismic debris flows distributed in 10 Wenchuan earthquake extremely stricken counties were verified and debris flow database consisting of 609 debris flows was established based on detailed investigation organized by Land and Resources Department of Sichuan Province. Combined with database and related studies, the impact of Wenchuan earthquake on debris flows was analyzed. And then variation of formation conditions including rainfall threshold and landform condition was analyzed by contrasting pre-seismic and post-seismic debris flows. Followed are some typical viewpoints on initiation mechanism of post-seismic debris flows. In the end of this paper, characteristics of postseismic debris flows triggered by subsequent rainstorms were comprehensively summarized, such as regional group occurrence, high frequency, high viscosity, chain effect, huge dynamics, large scale and long duration. We hope this paper will be helpful in understanding the formation mechanism, disaster characteristics and prevention countermeasures of post-seismic debris flows in Wenchuan earthquake extremely stricken areas.
A new Quercus (Fagaceae) morphospecies is described based on well‐preserved fossil leaves. The fossils were collected from Yangyi Formation of the Upper Pliocene at the Yangyi coalmine, Baoshan, western Yunnan, China. Details of the microstructure of mesophyll tissue are preserved because lithification of the fossils was not complete. The fossil laminas possess typical characteristics of Quercus sect Heterobalanus : quite thick and coriaceous cuticle; secondary veins bifurcating near the margin in the middle and top of the leaf; and upper epidermis with adaxial hypodermis. Based on a detailed morphological and anatomical comparison with all living and fossil species of Quercus sect. Heterobalanus , the fossil leaves prove to be different in their sparse and garland‐shaped multicellular trichomes on the lower epidermis, and so it is described as a new species Quercus yangyiensis He, Li et Sun sp. nov. The much sparser trichomes of our fossils compare well with those of living Quercus sect. Heterobalanus and indicate a more humid climate during the deposition of the Yangyi Formation in the Late Pliocene.
Field surveys indicate lateral variation in peat humification levels （von Post） in dominantly occurring fibric,fibric to hemic,sapric and hemie to sapric peats across a gradient from the margin towards the centre of tropical lowland peat domes.Cement-peat stabilisation can be enhanced by adding mineral soil fillers （silt,clays and fine sands） obtained from Quaternary floodplain deposits and residual soil （weathered schist）.The unconfined compressive strength （UCS） of the stabilised cement-mineral soil fifler-peat mix increases with the increased addition of selected mineral soil filler.Lateral variation in the stabilised peat strength （UCS） in the top 0 to 0.5 m layer was found from the margin towards the centre of the tropical lowland peat dome.The variations in the UCS of stabilised tropical lowland peats along a gradient from the periphery towards the centre of the peat dome are most likely caused by a combination of factors due to variations in the mineral soil or ash content of the peat and horizontal zonation or lateral variation in the dominant species of the plant assemblages （due to successive vegetation zonation of the peat swamp forest from the periphery towards the centre of the tropical lowland peat dome）.
Through a comprehensive study of magnetostratigraphy and sedimentology of several basins in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau,we reveal that the study area mainly experienced six tectonic uplift stages at approximately 52 Ma,34-30 Ma,24-20 Ma,16-12 Ma,8-6 Ma,and 3.6-2.6 Ma.Comprehensive analyses of pollen assemblages from the Qaidam,Linxia,Xining,and West Jiuquan Basins show that the northeastern Tibetan Plateau has undergone six major changes in vegetation types and climate：50-40 Ma for the warm-humid forest vegetation,40-23 Ma for the warm-arid and temperate-arid forest steppe vegetation,23-18.6 Ma for the warm-humid and temperate-humid forest vegetation,18.6-8.5 Ma for the warm-humid and cool-humid forest steppe vegetation,8.6-5 Ma for the temperate sub-humid savanna steppe vegetation,and 5-1.8 Ma for the cold-arid steppe vegetation.Comprehensive comparisons of tectonic uplift events inferred from sedimentary records,climatic changes inferred from pollen,and global climate changes show that in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau the climate in the Paleogene at low altitude was mainly controlled by the global climate change,while that in the Neogene interval with high altitude landscapes of mountains and basins is more controlled by altitude and morphology.
Marine strata in the Jianghan Plain area are widely distributed with a total depth of more than 8,000 m from the Upper Sinian to the Middle Triassic. Six reservoir caprock units, named Z-C2, C2-O, S, DC, P and T1, can be identified with each epoch. The geology, stratigraphy, drilling, oil testing and other basic data as well as the measured inclusion and strontium isotope data in the study area are used in the analysis of the formation and evolution process of marine petroliferous reservoirs in the Jianghan Plain area. This study aims to provide a scientific basis for the further exploration of hydrocarbons in the Jianghan Plain and reduce the risks by analyzing the key factors for hydrocarbon accumulation in the marine strata. Our findings show that in the Lower Palaeozoic hydrocarbon reservoir, oil/gas migration and accumulation chiefly occurred in the early period of the Early Yanshanian, and the hydrocarbon reservoir was destroyed in the middle-late period of the Early Yanshanian. In the Lower Triassic-Carboniferous hydrocarbon reservoir, oil/gas migration and accumulation chiefly occurred in the Early Yanshanian, and the hydrocarbon reservoir suffered destruction from the Late Yanshanian to the Early Himalayanian. The preservation conditions of the marine strata in the Jianghan Plain area have been improved since the Late Himalayanian. However, because all source beds have missed the oil/gas generation fastigium and lost the capacity to generate secondary hydrocarbon, no reaccumulation of hydrocarbons can be detected in the study area＇s marine strata. No industrially exploitable oil/gas reservoir has been discovered in the marine strata of Jianghan Plain area since exploration began in 1958. This study confirms that petroliferous reservoirs in the marine strata have been completely destroyed, and that poor preservation conditions are the primary factor leading to unsuccessful hydrocarbon exploration. It is safely concluded that hydrocarbon exploration in the marine strata of the study area is quite risky.