The Life cycle of maize stem borer, (Swinhoe) was studied in conditions. Development of stem borer undergoes following stages like egg, larvae, pupa and moth. The egg incubation period ranged from 3 to 6 days, larval stage was observed in five instars. The mean value of I, II, III, IV and V instars showed 3.8 ± 0.16, 5.2 ± 0.02, 6.1 ± 0.06, 7.35 ± 1.5, and 10.12 ± 0.29 days, respectively and complete larvae period ranged from 42 to 49 days. Pupae stage was observed in 8–9 days. The pre-mating and mating period was found at 9.10 ± 1.20 and 5.14 ± 1.08 h while egg laying period in 4.1 ± 1.32 days respectively. Fecundity rate of stem borer is from 262 to 657 eggs. The life span of adult male (3-7) and female (3-8) days was observed with a mean of 6.30 ± 0.85 and 5.10 ± 0.69 days respectively. Life cycle of stem borer gets completed in 47 to 51 days. Development of quality insects in required quantities at different developmental stages and their timely supply plays an inevitable role particularly for insect-breeding resistant programs. Hence to meet these challenges we had tried to standardize an artificial diet with cost effective to rear under conditions.
The random disposal of vegetable residues in north China has become an important obstacle for the sustainable development of vegetable industry. The composting treatment technology has been transformed into organic fertilizer by high temperature fermentation, which has become a widely promoted agricultural clean production technology. However, due to the voluntary nature of farmers' adoption and their reluctance to adopt, this study aimed at assessing the factors that influence their adoption will and evaluate the value of willingness to pay (WTP) for composting technology. Data were collected from 142 respondents through a household survey in Gaocheng District by using structural questionnaire of contingent valuation method (CVM). Some qualitative response models (Probit, Logistic and multiple linear regression models) were applied for examining the main factors influencing the vegetable residue compost adoption and estimating the WTP value. The findings showed that social resource factors play an important role in the respondents' behaviors toward composting technology adoption. The empirical results indeed highlighted that subsidy policy, top dressing time, age, scale, investment of irrigation and net income have significant positive influences on the WTP of compost, while work time and information sources have a negative impact. Government subsidy is a necessary premise for implementing the composting program. The governments should subsidize the remaining 97% of the construction costs to ensure the smooth implementation of composting technology. The findings specifically mentioned that the subsidy object should be the disadvantaged peasant groups with lower household income but more environmentally conscious. This paper is believed to not only assess the technical externality of vegetable residues for the first time but also provide decision reference for policymakers, especially in the background of rapid development of agricultural clean production technology, the accuracy and efficiency of subsidies should be improved.
In this study the effects of environmental factors on some vegetative characteristics of was investigated in Kouh gachan, Ilam, West of Iran, using multivariate analysis. Therefore 64 sample plots with a size of 200 m were considered for measuring the vegetative parameters. Some environmental factors such as slope, aspect and soil depth were recorded in all sample plots. The Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) was used to investigate the relation between vegetative parameters and environmental factors. Redundancy analysis (RDA) analysis was also used to interpret the results. The results of DCA analysis showed that the effect of environmental factors on vegetation cover is significant. Slope had the smallest and the soil depth had the biggest effect on vegetative characteristics of . The results also confirmed the usage of RDA analysis for investigating the relationship between environmental factors and vegetative characteristics.
A laboratory bioassay was conducted to determine the allelopathic potentials of aqueous extracts from either roots or leaves of seventeen sweet potato [ L. (Lam)] cultivars (SP0, SP1, SP2, SP3, SP4, SP5, SP6, SP7, SP9, SP10, SP11, SP13, SP14, SP15, SP16, SP18, and SP19). Most inhibitory rates on calculated for leaf or root extracts from the seventeen sweet potato cultivars exhibited positive values and significantly increased with increasing concentration. Germination was totally inhibited at a concentration of 0.05 g·mL for leaf water extracts of SP13, SP15, SP18 and at a concentration of 0.05 g·mL for both leaf and root water extracts of SP19. Inhibition of root length was clearly greater than inhibition of shoot length for both leaf and root water extracts. Biomass inhibition increased with increasing concentration, but some cultivars showed stimulatory effects at low concentrations, and inhibition was generally more pronounced for root water extracts than for leaf water extracts. Moreover, most synthetical inhibitory rates for both leaf and root water extracts from the seventeen cultivars exhibited positive values and significantly increased with increasing concentration. Comparing the synthetical inhibitory rates for both leaf and root water extracts among the seventeen cultivars, SP19, SP6, SP11, and SP7 had the highest allelopathic inhibition. The inhibitory activity on germination index was the greatest, followed by germination rate, root length, biomass, and shoot length in all bioassays. Inhibition by leaf water extracts was generally greater than inhibition by root water extracts, except in the case of shoot length or biomass. Overall, we conclude that all seventeen sweet potato cultivars have strong inhibitory effects on , but that these effects vary with cultivar and plant part, with SP19, SP6, SP11, and SP7 exhibiting the highest rates of allelopathic inhibition.
There are high numbers of endangered birds in Iran. Birds also are indicators of biodiversity in different landscapes and using birds as indicator give us a complete overview about the ecological status of the landscape. In the present study migratory waterfowls were used to identify biodiversity hotspots in Iran. Iran is an interesting place for ornithologists because it is in fact a crossroads of flyways for migratory waterfowls coming from Europe, southern Asia, and Siberia. We predicted the habitat distributions for 27 bird species of Anseriformes in Iran using an ensemble forecasting framework to identify biodiversity hotspots. Moreover, we measured the percentage of overlap between hotspots and protected areas including Ramsar sites. The results showed that suitable habitats for different bird species greatly varied among different ecosystems and they showed dissimilar responses to environmental variables. However, for most species digital elevation model (DEM) was the most important variable in predicting suitable habitats. Our study also revealed that 36.02% of Iran can be considered as suitable habitats for the species and the highest suitability belongs to areas along Zagros and Alborz mountain ranges. Furthermore, the suitable habitats had 7.10% overlap with protected areas and 75% with Ramsar sites. The low overlap between hotspots and protected areas demonstrated the shortage of biodiversity protection in Iran. Therefore, it is essential to select new protected areas based on biodiversity hotspots, and to develop a network of protected areas within those hotspots in Iran.
In the World urbanization is a serious problem especially in developing countries which creates serious environmental problems like climatic and ecological changes in the ecosystem. The present paper aims to explain urbanization that causes loss of agriculture lands, biodiversity, soil erosions and grazing in District Dir. Urbanization decreased species richness such as and in the last few years in the local area. Soil of local area was divided into three different zones and was tested for soil texture and mineral percentage. Zone I soil showed sandy loamy texture with a pH of 8.3, Nitrogen 0.012%, Phosphorus 5.0% and organic matter was 0.74 (ppm). Zone II soil was loamy sand in texture with pH 8.1, Nitrogen 0.011%, Phosphorus 6.2%, and organic matter was 0.24 (ppm) while Zone III soil texture was silty clay loam with a pH of 8.1, Nitrogen 0.032%, Phosphorus 11.3%, and organic matter was 0.60 (ppm). The current work concludes that urbanizations affect natural biodiversity and agriculture lands, and that soil erosion and watering-points trampled by livestock is one of the significant problems in district Dir, and that the main degrading factor is the overexploitation of vegetation for fuel-wood and livestock grazing.
The present study investigates the variation in the relative growth, biomass and nutrient allocation in two threatened tree species . Hook.f. & Th. and Wall. ex Müll. Berol. grown under three different levels of irradiance. The irradiance ranged between 1 and 12 mol m d . Results showed that the highest relative growth rate (RGR) was achieved under the intermediate light treatment for both the species (mean: 0.005 mg mg d ). The growth response coefficient (GRC) model revealed that net assimilation rate (NAR) was the factor driving the RGR in both species. A significant positive correlation was found between NAR and RGR (R = 0.33, = 0.000) whereas specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf mass fraction (LMF) was negatively correlated to RGR. Overall, multiple regression of the studied species based on the independent variables . NAR, SLA, and LMF showed a significant relation with RGR (F(3,50,53 = 13.001, = 0.000, R = 0.43). The biomass distribution in the studied species is in agreement with the “balanced-growth hypothesis” where high irradiance increased allocation to below ground biomass fraction and decreased irradiance increased allocation to the above ground fraction. The highest nitrogen concentration in leaves was observed under the intermediate light treatment. Overall seedlings growth under intermediate light had a higher mean RGR indicating the species' preference for partial light conditions. Long-term experiments under varied light conditions as in the present study would provide useful insight into plant growth strategies in varied environmental conditions.
Cane is one of the important forest products after timber, form an integral part of a rural and tribal population of many of the tropical countries of South East Asia, Africa and America. Becc. has been recognized as endemic and threatened cane to the North East region of India. The plant is restricted to only two pockets of Assam with a poor population size. Therefore, conservation of this plant through proper scientific investigation is utmost necessary. The present investigation has as its objectives to study the distribution, estimation of population size, standardization of suitable micropropagation methods for reintroduction and reinforcement in suitable wild habitat as determined by ecological niche modelling (ENM) for the purposes of conservation. For improving the conservation status of the species, potential area and habitat for reintroduction was determined using maximum entropy (MaxEnt) distribution modelling algorithm. The population size in both the site was found to be very poor mean density, frequency of occurrence and abundance in relation to other associated species was 0.600, 29.26 and 2.307 in Nambor Reserve Forest whereas 0.526, 27.407 and 2.112 respectively in Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary. Macropropagation of was standardized here through seed germination which was found to be more efficient in terms of time and cost which revealed 87% germination in treated seeds, followed by 61% only for untreated seeds till 90 days. It was also observed that seedlings in the hilly slope of Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary (reinforcement) showed high survivability than that of the hilly slop of Lahorijan Reserve Forest (reintroduction). Further, survival rate was measured for 24 months, which revealed significantly very high on an average of 97.85% in both the locations, while 1200 numbers of plantlets were transferred to the field. The present study could change the population size of in its natural habitat, proving effective means for preventing extinction and improving conservation status of the plant.
In order to examine germination characters, seedling parameters, water relative content, tolerance index and enzyme activities of seven Hungarian wheat landraces varieties (Tiszadadai, Riscsei, Komloi, Leweucei, Mateteleki, Mikebudai and Nyiradi) under five concentrations of water stress (0, 6, 12, 18, and 24%) of polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000). A laboratory experiment has been conducted through Factorial Experiment in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four repetitions at Research Institute of Nyiregyhaza, Hungary. From the obtained results, Leweucei variety was surpassed other studied verities under study and recorded the highest values of all studied characters followed by Mateteleki, Komloi, Nyiradi, Riscsei, Tiszadadai and Mikebudai. Increasing water stress (PEG-6000) from 0 to 6, 12, 18 and 24% significantly reduced germination characters, seedlings parameters, water relative content (WRC), tolerance index and α and β-amylases activities. Generally, under water stress condition, Leweucei and Mateteleki varieties were recorded the highest values of water relative content (WRC), tolerance index (TI) and α and β-amylases activities as well as able to prompt better drought tolerance and could be suggested as a good resource for breeding programs and cultivation under drought stress conditions compared with other wheat landraces varieties.
Poyang Lake wetland is an important wintering habitat of migratory birds with a complexity of coupled nature and human systems. Reported studies suggested that habitat indices were mostly developed based on single-class factors and scale-dependent. Therefore the indices might not be sufficient and applicable to predict regional changes for population and abundance of migratory birds (PMB and AMB) in Poyang Lake wetland at watershed and basin scales. In order to explore an efficient habitat index for predicting PMB and AMB, an integrated and scale-independent habitat index was proposed by integration of landscape and environmental temperature variables at basin and watershed scales. The landscape index and environmental temperature index based on single-class dominant factors, were also evaluated by weighted additive method. Multi-source data, including multi-spatial and temporal remote sensing images and field survey data, was used in this study. Results indicated that the average 10-night temperature in July (TN-Jul.) had dominant influence on PMB and the environmental temperature index was a better predictor for predicting PMB; AMB was influenced by both landscape and temperature variables and the proposed integrated habitat index was better for prediction of AMB in Poyang Lake wetland. The proposed integrated habitat index is a supplement of the single-class habitat index, which provides a more scientific technique for the study of biodiversity.
Floristic inventory of wild plants comprised of total 129 plant species belonging to 42 families and 101 genera. Location wise UAP contributed greater amount of plant species (53%), followed by PFI (29%), UoP (15%) and Islamia College (3%). Majority of the plants were annual herbs (58%), followed by perennial herbs (29%), trees (10%) and shrubs (3%), respectively. The leading families included Poaceae, contributed 18% of all the plant species. Habitat wise, 44% of them grew in grassy plains, abandoned lands and mismanaged lawns, followed by roadsides (34%), undulating grassy plains (15%) and stony grounds with uneven topography along with stream banks and drainage ditches (7%). Still some of plant species were used as ornamentals, while some shrubs were use in fencing around fields; others were utilized as green manure, for fishing, sheltering and religious purposes. Exploring and identifying the wild flora of the campus and compiling as a handbook would help to monitor new plants introductions particularly of noxious invasive weeds in the campuses in future.