After union dissolution, the question of who stays in the joint home and who moves to a new place is of great importance to the life courses of the separating adults as well as any children involved. Drawing on a unique Belgian data set linking Census and Register data (N = 56,931), this study addresses the role of heterosexual partners' absolute and relative educational attainment by means of diagonal reference models. Results for absolute education, which are based on the homogamous couples, show that the man is more likely to move when the couple has many educational resources, while the woman or both partners are more likely to move in couples with low levels of education. Results for relative education, which are based on the heterogamous couples, show that the partner with the highest education level is more likely to stay, particularly when the difference is large. In line with predictions based on women's greater perceived vulnerability after separation, who moves and who stays is more strongly associated with the woman's than with the man's education. This indicates that human capital may insure women against poverty by reinforcing their position not only in the labour market but also in the housing market.
Recent evidence from large-scale field experiments has shown that employers use job candidates' unemployment duration as a sorting criterion. In the present study, we investigate what underlies this pattern. To this end, we conduct a survey experiment in which employers make hiring decisions concerning fictitious job candidates who have experienced spells of unemployment of different length. In addition, candidates are rated on several statements that are central to four signals often associated with unemployment: (i) a signal of trainability, (ii) a signal of other fixed skills, (iii) a signal of skill loss, and (iv) a signal of negative evaluation by other employers. We use these ratings to estimate a multiple mediation model, in which the effect of the duration of unemployment on hiring intentions is mediated by the four signals. Our findings indicate that longer unemployment spells are mainly perceived by employers as a signal of lower motivation and, as a result, the long-term unemployed (LTU) have lower chances to be hired or even be invited to a job interview. Understanding the reasons why employers are reluctant to hire the LTU is crucial to devise proper activation measures to facilitate their re-employment. Our study is a contribution in this direction.
A number of recent studies by sociologists have sought to discover whether a person's status (typically their social class, education, or socio-economic status) is directly affected by the status of their grandparents, once the effects of parents' status are controlled. The results have been ambiguous, with some studies finding a direct effect of grandparents on their grandchildren, while others find no effect. I use causal graphical methods to demonstrate some of the methodological problems that occur in trying to identify this direct effect, and I offer some suggestions as to how they might be addressed.
Abstract This study examines contextual effects on support for the Partij voor de Vrijheid (PVV), a Dutch populist radical right-wing party. It examines the two most frequently researched contextual effects, that of the local ethnic composition and of local economic conditions. Furthermore, it investigates the effect of the local normative context, through which people are hypothesised to be influenced by their neighbours' political views. Analysing survey data from The Netherlands Longitudinal Lifecourse Study using multilevel logistic regression, no effects are found for the local ethnic composition and local economic conditions after controlling for individual characteristics. In addition, PVV support is much lower in districts with higher shares of highly educated residents, which is in line with theories on consensual neighbourhood effects. This effect is found to be non-linear and only turns negative when around 25 per cent of the population of a district is highly educated. Additional analyses show that contact with neighbours, which is often assumed to explain this effect, is not a prerequisite for the effect to occur.
Abstract This work presents a direct empirical test of the Breen–Goldthorpe (BG) rational choice model applied to social inequalities in access to university in Italy. In particular, we assess to what extent secondary effects of social background on university enrolment are accounted for by families’ economic resources and relative risk aversion (RRA), among a recent cohort of high school graduates. We also assess the role played by students’ numeric expectations and general perceptions of university costs, the returns to university degrees, and their chances of successfully completing university. Compared with existing research, our contribution is based on a large-scale longitudinal study covering different areas of a new national case, includes a larger set of indicators measuring rational choice mechanisms, and proposes a novel measurement strategy for the indicator of RRA. The core finding is that rational choice mechanisms account for around one fifth of secondary effects of social origin in university enrolment. Family’s economic resources and RRA, the two explanatory mechanisms of the BG model, have a limited explanatory power, whereas the perception of the indirect costs associated to attending university is more important. Overall, high school track plays the most prominent role, thereby indicating that—despite the formal ‘openness’ of the system—a large part of inequalities in access to university in Italy are already produced when tracking first occurs in upper secondary education.
Abstract Growing up in a disadvantaged parental neighbourhood is related to long-term exposure to similar neighbourhoods as adults. However, there are multiple socio-spatial contexts besides the residential neighbourhood to which individuals are exposed over the life course, such as households, schools, and places of work and leisure, which also influence their outcomes. For children and adolescents, the school environment is especially important. We argue that leaving these contexts out of consideration in models of neighbourhood effects could lead to a misspecification of the relevance of the residential environment in determining individual outcomes. This study examines the joint influence of the parental background, the parental neighbourhood, and a compositional measure of the childhood school environment, on individual neighbourhood trajectories later in life. We use Dutch longitudinal register data to study a complete cohort of adolescents from 1999 to 2012. We fit cross-classified multilevel models to partition the variance of schools and parental neighbourhoods over time. We find that parental neighbourhood quality strongly determines children’s residential outcomes later in life. The variation in individual neighbourhood outcomes at the school level is explained by the ethnicity, parental income, and personal income of the research population, suggesting grouping of children from particular backgrounds into specific school environments.
Abstract This study applies exchange theory to transnational marriages between descendants of migrants to Europe, and partners from their (grand)parents’ country of origin. Such marriages could offer socio-economic benefits for the European partner/family, if the opportunity of migration attracts a more highly educated spouse. The translation of educational capital into socio-economic benefits, however, is mediated by the labour market position of migrant spouses. In this study we explore the relationships between transnational marriage, education, and employment, by comparing the characteristics of spouses in transnational couples with those in intranational couples. Analyses are based on UK Labour Force Survey data (2004–2014) for two groups in which transnational marriage is common—Pakistani Muslims and Indian Sikhs. We find that educational homogamy is the dominant pattern in both intranational and transnational couples, and that migrant spouses have a disadvantaged labour market position compared to non-migrant spouses with the same level of education—with variation across gender and ethnic groups. Our findings do not support a view of transnational marriage as socio-economic exchange but do suggest education plays a role in spousal choice in these marriages.
Abstract Previous research from the United States suggests that volunteers’ time contributions have declined during a period when participation rates have risen. Scholars have offered various possible explanations for this trend, including generational differences, socio-economic changes, and family life changes. In Europe, previous research has shown that participation rates have risen in most countries, but little work has addressed trends in volunteers’ time contributions. In this article, we use survey data from Denmark merged with data from administrative registers covering the 2004–2012 period to show that, similar to the trend in the United States, Danish volunteers’ time contributions have declined as participation rates have risen. Our results suggest that this decline is partially explained not by socio-economic or family life changes but by weakening organizational attachment measured by a decline in volunteers’ propensities to be members of the organizations for which they volunteer. On these grounds, we argue that an important consequence of weakening organizational attachment is that volunteers’ contributions of time decline.
Abstract This study examines the risk of separation over union duration. Previous research reports a rising-falling pattern of divorce risk over marriage duration consistent with psychological notions of ‘honeymoon’ and ‘seven-year itch’. Little is known about the variation of the separation risk over cohabitation duration or over marriage duration when the length of partnership is measured from the beginning of coresidence. We include data on non-marital and marital unions and propose a novel way of treating cohabitation and marriage as episodes of the same union. We use Finnish large-scale register data and control for individuals’ observed and unobserved characteristics. Our results show that in cohabitations, the separation rate is highest at the beginning of union. Entry into marriage is followed by a significant drop in separation levels and a modest rising-falling pattern, which is independent of the length of pre-marital cohabitation. Marriage entails permanence, with a short ‘honeymoon’ effect and a long-term ‘effect’, much of which probably reflects self-selection of committed and satisfied cohabiters to marriage.
The role of trade unions for public policy, public policy outcomes, and political behaviour is a well-studied topic. A serious shortcoming in this literature is that unions are usually treated as unitary actors. This is striking since not least the Scandinavian countries saw the membership growth in independent white-collar unions and their federations at the expense of the traditional blue-collar (and thus textbook-style) union federations. The growth of independent white-collar unions implies that the traditional assumptions about unions as advocates of redistribution and state intervention do not necessarily hold because this type of union represents potential 'losers' of redistribution and intervention. Moreover, their members do support less redistribution and more market-based allocation of incomes as well as privatization, since the solidarity effect fostered by traditional unionism is weakened if the higher-income strata are organized in separate federations. Consequently, this study addresses an important gap in the literature on union membership and political preferences by analysing the attitudes towards redistribution and state-market relations in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden across union federation membership in the past three decades. The findings demonstrate that members of independent academic/professional unions support market allocation of incomes and less state intervention, while the opposite is true for members of traditional blue-collar union federations. The effect of income on attitudes towards state and market is also consistently stronger in the independent white-collar federations in the three countries, which supports the muted solidarity effect in this type of union.
Recent studies have indicated that the relationship between education and health differs between men and women. In line with the resource substitution theory, these studies demonstrate that women receive greater health returns to an additional year of schooling than men do. In this article, we argue that this female advantage in the effect of education can change across different socio-historical contexts. In particular, we investigate the impact of the reversal of the gender gap in education on gender differences in the relationship between education and health. Using data from the European Social Survey (eight waves: 2002-2016) for individuals of age 25-75 years (N = 265,299) in 31 European countries, we find evidence for our central hypothesis: it appears that the female advantage in the effect of education on health decreases as the gender gap reverses. According to our results, however, this situation could be seen as a cost that does not outweigh the benefits provided by the unprecedented gains that female education has brought about in terms of population health.
This article probes the role of two potential dynamic influences on the occurrence of violence against refugees in Germany throughout the years 2015 and 2016. First, it tests whether three kinds of threatening events spark anti-refugee violence: (i) violence or crime committed by refugees, (ii) police raids against Islamic fundamentalists, (iii) terrorist attacks and warnings in Germany and terrorist attacks in neighbouring countries. Second, it investigates whether such violence is mobilized through public statements by politicians of anti-immigration parties. Our results suggest that such negative public cueing indeed boosts the probability of attacks. Yet, these statements also seem to be prompted in part by preceding threatening events. Among these threatening events, terrorist attacks in neighbouring countries, which included particularly severe and strongly mediatized events, exert a robust influence on violence against refugees. Altogether, having examined the 2 years with the largest influx of asylum seekers in modern German history, the analysis underscores the importance of situational influences for explaining the occurrence of attacks against refugees.
Focusing on the dominant group's (Sunni-Turks) attitudes towards the largest ethnic and religious minorities (Kurds and Alevis, respectively) in the Turkish social landscape, this study investigates the determining factors of ethnic and religious prejudices in intergroup relations. The study draws several hypotheses about out-group rejection from social identity and ethnic competition theories and tests them utilizing new, original public opinion survey data. The empirical findings confirm the presence of a substantial degree of ethnic and religious prejudices in the Turkish social setting. Furthermore, statistical analyses show that unlike economic factors, political and cultural variables, such as ideological orientations, nationalist tendencies, and religiosity, perform much better in terms of predicting Sunni-Turks' exclusionary attitudes towards ethnic and religious out-group members. Thus, intergroup prejudice or intolerance in the Turkish setting is deeply ingrained in cultural and political divisions rather than in economic factors. The study also discusses some major theoretical and practical implications of the empirical findings.
The fact that highly educated individuals are significantly more likely to self-identify as Europeans than those with lower levels of educational attainment is one of the most robust findings in the scholarship on individual Europeanization. Previous work also shows that this cleavage in supranational identification varies cross-nationally and over time. We contribute to the existing literature by examining the country-level, socio-structural conditions that influence the education cleavage. Focusing on how the educational environment influences identity formation, we test two divergent predictions of how societal education-i.e. the average national level of educational attainment-shapes the cleavage between individuals of differing education levels with respect to their self-identification as European. According to Welzel's (2013) 'cross-fertilization approach', societal education should widen the education divide. By contrast, our alternative 'cross-attenuating approach' posits that societal education should instead help to close it. Using a cross-national time-series dataset that includes 28 EU member states and 28 Eurobarometers covering 1992-2015, as well as between-within multilevel models, we find a significantly narrower education cleavage in countries where societal education increased the most during the period of our study. This result provides strong support for the cross-attenuating approach presented here. We theorize that societal education helps to narrow the individual-level education cleavage through a discursive and a network mechanism.
We compare the predictions of contact theory with those of social identity theory (SIT), as they pertain to intergroup relations between Jews and Arabs in multicultural and assimilationist schools. In accordance with contact theory, it can be assumed that multicultural schools would promote interethnic friendships as compared to assimilationist schools. According to SIT, however, multicultural schools, in which ethnic identity is constantly acknowledged and therefore salient, would be expected to be a hindrance to interethnic friendships. We collected and analysed student networks in 61 integrated classrooms and compared the extent to which Arabs and Jews prefer same-ethnic over interethnic friendships in multicultural and assimilationist schools. We analysed the data using graph-level segregation indices, as well as exponential random graph models. Contrary to expectations from contact theory, we found a much larger degree of ethnic segregation in friendship networks in multicultural than in assimilationist schools. Findings are robust to various methods of analysis and alternative explanations. Our results challenge the assumptions that multicultural education is conducive to intergroup contact. The policy implications of these findings are discussed.
Abstract Mass media has long been discussed as an essential determinant of the threat perceptions leading to anti-immigration attitudes. The field of empirical research on such media effects is still comparatively young, however, and lacks studies examining precise measures of the media environment an individual is likely to be actually exposed to. We employ a nuanced research design which analyses individual differences in the yearly levels of both media salience and attitudes in panel data of 25,000 persons, who were at least interviewed twice, and a time span over 15 years, from 2001 to 2015. We find a substantive and stable positive effect: comparing periods of vivid discussions with times where the issue was hardly discussed in the German media results in an increase in the predicted probability of being very concerned by about 13 percentage points. Deeper investigations reveal that the media effect is most potent for individuals living in areas with lower share of ethnic minorities and for those with lower education or conservative ideology, stressing the importance of individual receptiveness. In sum, our findings strengthen the line of reasoning stressing the importance of discursive influences on public opinion and cast doubt on the argument that threat perceptions stem primarily from the size of ethnic out-groups.
Abstract This article presents evidence of ethnic discrimination in the recruitment process from a field experiment conducted in the Danish labour market. In a correspondence experiment, fictitious job applications were randomly assigned either a Danish or Middle Eastern-sounding name and sent to real job openings. In addition to providing evidence on the extent of ethnic discrimination in the Danish labour market, the study offers two novel contributions to the literature more generally. First, because a majority of European correspondence experiments have relied solely on applications with male aliases, there is limited evidence on the way gender and ethnicity interact across different occupations. By randomly assigning gender and ethnicity, this study suggests that ethnic discrimination is strongly moderated by gender: minority males are consistently subject to a much larger degree of discrimination than minority females across different types of occupations. Second, this study addresses a key critique of previous correspondence experiments by examining the potential confounding effect of socio-economic status related to the names used to represent distinct ethnic groups. The results support the notion that differences in callbacks are caused exclusively by the ethnic traits.
Abstract The majority of studies on social and educational mobility neglect the role of the extended family. We argue that this misses important ways in which extended family members may help compensate disadvantage in children’s immediate family. Moreover, existing studies on extended family members have focused on grandparents, with only a couple of studies considering aunts and uncles. We examine the role of both grandparents’ and aunts and uncles’ resources in Finland and the United States using longitudinal panel data (Finnish Census Panel and the Panel Study for Income Dynamics (PSID)). Our results suggest that aunts and uncles’ resources contribute more than those of grandparents. Moreover, we find evidence for extended family compensation in completing upper secondary education and the avoidance of low pay in both countries. The results suggest that compensation by aunts and uncles takes place for the avoidance of marginalization and is particularly likely when both parents and grandparents have low resources.
Abstract We study ethnic discrimination in the sharing economy using the example of online carpooling marketplaces. Based on a unique data set of 16,624 real rides from Germany, we estimate the effects of drivers’ perceived name origins on the demand for rides. The results show sizable ethnic discrimination—a discriminatory price premium of about 32 per cent of the average market price. Further analyses suggest that additional information about actors in this market decreases the magnitude of ethnic discrimination. Our findings broaden the perspective of ethnic discrimination by shedding light on subtle, everyday forms of discrimination in social markets, inform ongoing discussions about ways to address discrimination in an era in which markets gradually move online, and respond to increasingly recognized limitations of experimental approaches to study discrimination.
Abstract This data brief gives an overview of the background, design, and content of the multi-actor OKiN survey (Ouders en Kinderen in Nederland; Parents and Children in The Netherlands). The purpose of OKiN is to examine the individual consequences of family complexity for intergenerational relations, intergenerational reproduction, and individual health and well-being. Another goal of OKiN is to generate detailed and nationally representative descriptive information on the types and degrees of family complexity that contemporary adult generations in The Netherlands (adults born between 1971 and 1991) have experienced when they were growing up. Unique features of the OKiN data are (i) the oversample of persons who grew up with separated and/or widowed parents, and persons who grew up with a step-parent; (ii) the double multi-actor design (i.e. primary respondents (anchors) report about multiple parent figures and parent figures (alters) report about multiple children); and (iii) the systematic probing of relations to and characteristics of all parent figures in the respondent’s life. The brief provides the first descriptive findings about the OKiN respondents.