To investigate roles of autophagy in ameliorating sepsis-induced acute lung injury by allicinin in mice. Methods: A total of 152 male Balb/c mice (8-week old) were randomly divided into a sham group, a septic model group, an allicin treatment group, and an autophagy inhibition group. Septic mouse model was established by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Mice in the allicin treatment group were given allicin (30 mg/kg, intra-peritoneal injection) at 6 and 12 h, while those in the autophagy inhibition group were given autophagy inhibitor 3-MA (15 mg/kg, intra-peritoneal injection) at half an hour after allicin administration. Mice in the model and sham group were administered with the same amount of saline. Twenty mice in each group were randomly chosen to observe the 7 d survival rate. The other 12 mice were killed at 24 h, and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) (n=6) and lung tissues (n=6) were collected. ELISA was used to detect the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the BALF. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was preformed to show the morphological changes in the lung tissues. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the lung tissues were examined. The expression of LC3B and Beclin-1 was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. Results: Compared with the sham group, the 7 d survival rate and lung SOD activity were decreased in the CLP group (P<0.05); the lung morphological damage score, the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in the BALF, MDA content in the lung, and expression of LC3B and Beclin-1 were increased greatly in the CLP group (P<0.05). Compared with the CLP group, the 7 d survival rate, lung SOD activity and the expressions of LC3B and Beclin-1 were increased significantly in the allicin treatment group (P<0.05); the lung morphological damage scores, the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in the BALF and MDA content in the lung were decreased obviously in the allicin treatment group (P<0.05). Compared with the allicin treatment group, the 7 d survival rate, lung SOD activity, and the expressions of LC3B and Beclin-1 were decreased in the 3-MA group (P<0.05); the lung morphological damage scores, the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in the BALF, and MDA content in the lung were increased significantly in the 3-MA group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Allicin may ameliorate sepsis-induced acute lung injury in mice by enhancing the level of autophagy.
To explore the relationship between air pollution and the number of pneumonia hospitalization in a children's hospital in Changsha. Methods: Children who have been in this hospital for the treatment of pneumonia between December 2013 and December 2015 were enrolled in this study. Based on daily meteorological data and air pollution data from December 2013 to December 2015 in Changsha, we constructed a generalized additive model to analyze the relationship between air pollution and the number of pneumonia hospitalization. Results: During the research, the average concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 exceeded the Grade II national standards for air quality. The average concentration of SO2 exceeded the Grade I national standards. The change of all the 3 main air pollution indexes showed strong statistical relationship with the change of the number of pneumonia hospitalization (P0.05). Conclusion: The concentrations of SO2, PM2.5 and PM10 are positively correlated with pneumonia hospitalization number of children, and their effect on boys is more obvious than that in the girls.
Translation control in eukaryotes contributes significantly to gene expression regulation during cellular processes, which enables rapid changes of specific proteins to maintain cellular homeostasis. Eukaryotic translation is a multiple-step process that comprised of four phases: initiation, elongation, termination and ribosome recycling. The initiation phase is rate-limiting and orchestrated by a set of eukaryotic translation initiation factors (eIFs). Defects in translation initiation can result in a series of diseases. Among all eIFs, eIF3 is the largest and less-known initiation factor due to its intrinsic complexity. Aberration in eIF3A, the largest subunit of eIF3, is known to contribute to carcinogenesis and protection against evolution into higher-grade malignancy, and the altered expression or mutation of eIF3A affects the responses of cancer patients to platinum-based chemotherapy. Besides its role in cancinogenesis, eIF3A is also implicated in fibrosis, and the agents inhibiting eIF3A delay the progression of this disorder. The dual roles of eIF3A in tumorigenesis are probably due to the regulation of translation of different mRNAs at different stages of tumor progression by eIF3A. In turn the encoded products serve as pro-tumor or anti-tumor proteins at different stages.
To determine bacteriostatic abilities of Artemisia argyi extracts, and to explore the effect of Artemisia argyi extracts on oral ulcer in rats. Methods: We extracted the mixture of Artemisia argyi volatile oils and water-extraction by leaching method and evaluated the anti-microbial effect of Artemisia argyi extracts on common oral floras in vitro. The rat cheeks were burnt by NaOH to establish the models of oral ulcer. The curative effects of crude drug of Artemisia argyi extracts at 2.0, 1.0, 0.5 g/mL on oral ulcer in rats were evaluated by measuring the oral ulcer healing time. Serum TNF-α level and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were analyzed by ELASA and immunohistochemical staining. Results: Artemisia argyi extracts obviously inhibited the Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus. NaOH-made oral ulcer in rats were successfully established. The crude drug at 2.0 and 1.0 g/mL obviously reduced healing time, significantly inhibited the release of TNF-α, and improved the PCNA level in the ulcer tissues (All P<0.01). The extracts obviously reduced the local inflammatory reaction and promoted tissue repair of oral ulcer. Conclusion: Artemisia argyi extracts promote tissue repair of oral ulcer via inhibiting bacterial growth, reducing the release of TNF-α and improving the PCNA level.
To explore the effectiveness and safety of pie-crusting the medial collateral ligament release (MCL) in treating posterior horn of medial meniscus (PHMM) tear in tight medial tibiofemoral compartment of knee joint. Methods: Thirty-two consecutive patients with PHMM tear in tight medial tibiofemoral compartment of knee joint were admitted to our department from January, 2013 to December, 2014. All patients were performed pie-crusting the MCL release at its tibial insertion with 18-gauge intravenous needle. All patients were evaluated by valgus stress test and bilateral valgus stress radiograph at postoperative 1st day, 4th week and 12th week. Visual Analogue Scales (VAS), Lysholm scores, Tegner scores and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores were recorded at the 1st, 3th, 6th month follow-up, then follow-up every 6 months. Results: The mean follow-up was 28 (24-36) months. All cases were negative in valgus stress test. MCL rupture, femoral fracture, articular cartilage lesion and neurovascular injury were not found at the last follow-up. The median medial joint space width of affected side and unaffected side for valgus stress radiographs were 6.8 mm and 4.3 mm (P0.05) at the 12th week, respectively. VAS scores was changed from 4.5±1.5 preoperatively to 1.7±1.0 at the final follow-up (t=16.561, P<0.05). Lysholm scores was changed from 52.3±5.8 preoperatively to 93.2±6.3 at the final follow-up (t=-41.353, P<0.05). Tegner scores was changed from 4.1±1.1 preoperatively to 5.5±0.6 at the final follow-up (t=-18.792, P<0.05). IKDC scores was changed from 54.5±6.2 preoperative to 93.8±4.5 at the final follow-up (t=-38.253, P<0.05). Conclusion: Pie-crusting the medial collateral ligament release is a safe, minimal invasive and effective surgical option for posterior horn of medial meniscus tear in tight medial tibiofemoral compartment of knee joint.
To build a social aging scale for healthy people, and get the accuracy and feasibility of the scale to judge the aging of healthy people on the basis of the empirical research. Methods: Stratified random sampling was conducted according to the nine different age groups, and the age-related social function information was collected for healthy people by using the scale, which was made in our own plant; the distribution of the score, the correlations between the score and age or telomere length were analyzed by statistical software. Results: A total of 2 297 subjects were collected for the analysis. The ratio of male to female was 0.8:1. Social function of aging score was in the range of 3.00-12.90; aging score of personal ability was in the range of 1.00-4.45; aging score of social participation was in the range of 1.00-4.52; and aging score of organizational communication was in the range of 1.00-5.00. The correlation coefficient of aging scores with age was 0.696 (P<0.001). The result of telomere length showed that the relative telomere length was 1.056±0.261. The telomere length in different groups were significantly different (F=35.803, P<0.001). The telomere length was negatively correlated with aging (r=-0.964, P<0.001) and social function of aging (r=-0.857, P<0.001), respectively. Conclusion: The scores of age-related social function, personal ability, social participation, and organizational communication are increased with age. The telomere length is negatively correlated to aging score. The scale is applicable to measure social function of aging, which can provide reference for evaluation of the comprehensive of aging.
The traditional primary culture methods of human normal epithelial cells have disadvantages of low activity of cultured cells, the low cultivated rate and complicated operation. To solve these problems, researchers made many studies on culture process of human normal primary epithelial cell. In this paper, we mainly introduce some methods used in separation and purification of human normal epithelial cells, such as tissue separation method, enzyme digestion separation method, mechanical brushing method, red blood cell lysis method, percoll layered medium density gradient separation method. We also review some methods used in the culture and subculture, including serum-free medium combined with low mass fraction serum culture method, mouse tail collagen coating method, and glass culture bottle combined with plastic culture dish culture method. The biological characteristics of human normal epithelial cells, the methods of immunocytochemical staining, trypan blue exclusion are described. Moreover, the factors affecting the aseptic operation, the conditions of the extracellular environment, the conditions of the extracellular environment during culture, the number of differential adhesion, and the selection and dosage of additives are summarized.
To explore the risk factors, preventive measures and therapeutic methods for bronchopleural fistula (BPF) after lung resections. Methods: A restrospective analysis for 11 patients with BPF after pneumonectomy from April 2012 to June 2016 in Department of Thoracic Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University was performed. Their clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis were analyzed, and the risk factors and effective therapeutic strategies were summarized. Results: Among the 11 patients with BPF, 10 cases were cured finally, and 1 case with conservative treatment was dead. The total mortality rate was 9.09%. The 10 patients treated with positive measures were all cured, including 5 cases with pulmonary lobectomy and pneumonectomy, 4 cases with amplatzer and covered stent, and 1 case with fibrin glue. One case with conservative treatment was dead because of respiratory failure. Conclusion: It is important to intervene BPF as early as possible. Fibrin glue via bronchoscope for tiny BPF after lung resection is preferred to be considered. We recommend to take early positive operation (pulmonary lobectomy and pneumonectomy) after pulmonary resection if the BPF cannot be cured via bronchoscope whereas the patients' condition is allowed. The amplatzer or covered stent should be considered first for the patient with BPF after pneumonectomy.
To understand Chinese gay men's health and life satisfaction in Guanzhou, and to analyze the main factors for life satisfaction. Methods: Male gay participants were recruited through respondent-driven sampling and face-to-face investigations with self-administered questionnaires, including a general demographic questionnaire, a suicide questionnaire, the Depression-Anxiety Stress Scale, the Self-Stigma Scale, the Perceived Social Support Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Results: Surveys were successfully conducted for 420 gay men. High levels of depression, anxiety, and stress were observed among the respondents. A total of 29.3% had suicidal tendency in the past year, 36.5% experienced dating violence, 39.2% had homosexual sex without protection in the past 6 months, and 14.0% were infected with at least one type of infection of sexually transmitted diseases. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that gay men who felt highly satisfied with life exhibited low levels of self-stigma, high self-esteem, and low levels of depression. Moreover, they did not suffer dating violence and playing passive sex roles. Conclusion: The survey confirmed that gay men in Guangzhou, China, have poor health and lower life satisfaction levels. Self-stigma, self-esteem, sex roles, depression, and dating violence are the main factors that influence the life satisfaction of them.
To explore the effect of taxifolin on H2O2-induced pyroptosis in H9C2 cells and the possible mechanisms. Methods: The H9C2 cells was divided into 3 groups: a control group, a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)group and a taxifolin group. The morphology of H9C2 cells was observed by inverted phase contrast microscope. The mitochondrial membrane potential was measured by JC-1 staining and flow cytometry. The alteration of the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected by specific mitochondrial probe. The protein levels of cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-1 (caspase-1)was determined by Western blot. The mRNA levels of interleukin-18 (IL-18), interleukin-1a (IL-1a), interleukin-1b (IL-1b), absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2), apoptosis-associated apeck-like protein (ASC), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3)and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 4 (NLRC4) were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: Compared with the control group, the morphology of H9C2 cells obviously changed in the H2O2-treated group, which was guadually improved in the presence of taxifolin. Compared with the control group, the mitochondrial membrane potential was markedly decreased in the H2O2-treated cells, accompanied by the increase ofROS (both P<0.05). Compared with the H2O2 group, the mitochondrial membrane potential changes in the taxifolin group was increased while the ROS was decreased, with significant difference (both P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the protein level of caspase-1 and the mRNA levels of IL-18, IL-1a, IL-1b, AIM2, ASC, NLRP3 and NLRC4 in the H2O2-treated group were significantly increased (all P<0.05), which were attenuated in the presence of taxifolin (all P<0.05). Conclusion: Taxifolin can protect H9C2 cells from oxidative injury, and it is able to suppress the H2O2-induced H9C2 cell pyroptosis through inhibition of AIM2, NLRP3 and NLRC4 in flammasome.