External water pressure around tunnels is a main influential factor in relation to the seepage safety of underground chambers and powerhouses which make managing external water pressure crucial to water conservation and hydropower projects. Theequivalent continuous medium model and the discrete fracture network (DFN) model were, respectively, applied to calculate the seepage field of the study domain. Calculations were based on the integrity and permeability of rocks, the extent of fracture development, and the combination of geological and hydrogeological conditions in theHuizhou pump-storage hydropower station. The station generates electricity from the upper reservoir and stores power by pumping water from the lower to the upper reservoir. In this paper, the external water pressure around the cavern and variations in pressure with only one operational and one venting powerhouse were analyzed to build a predictive model. The results showed that the external water pressure was small with the current anti-seepage and drainage system that normal operation of the reservoir can be guaranteed. The results of external water pressure around the tunnels provided sound scientific evidence for the future design of antiseepage systems.
The stability of the operation of a tailing dam is affected by reservoir water level, phreatic line, and mechanical parameters of tailings. The values of these factors are not a definite value in different situations. Meanwhile, the existence of the phreatic line makes it a more complex issue to analyze the stability of the tailing dam. Additionally, it is very hard to give a definite limit to the state of tailing dam from security to failure. To consider the uncertainty when calculating the stability of the tailing dams, interval values are used to indicate the physical and mechanical parameters of tailings. An interval nonprobabilistic reliability model of the tailing dam, which can be used when the data is scarce, is developed to evaluate the stability of the tailing dam. The interval nonprobabilistic reliability analysis model of tailing dam is established in two cases, including with and without considering phreatic line conditions. The proposed model was applied to analyze the stability of two tailing dams in China and the calculation results of the interval nonprobabilistic reliability are found to be in agreement with actual situations. Thus, the interval nonprobabilistic reliability is a beneficial complement to the traditional analysis method of random reliability.
Selecting appropriate governing equations for fluid flow in fractured rock masses is of special importance for estimating the permeability of rock fracture networks. When the flow velocity is small, the flow is in the linear regime and obeys the cubic law, whereas when the flow velocity is large, the flow is in the nonlinear regime and should be simulated by solving the complex NavierStokes equations. The critical conditions such as critical Reynolds number and critical hydraulic gradient are commonly defined in the previous works to quantify the onset of nonlinear fluid flow. This study reviews the simplifications of governing equations from theNavier-Stokes equations, Stokes equation, and Reynold equation to the cubic law and reviews the evolutions of critical Reynolds number and critical hydraulic gradient for fluid flow in rock fractures and fracture networks, considering the influences of shear displacement, normal stress and/or confining pressure, fracture surface roughness, aperture, and number of intersections. This review provides a reference for the engineers and hydrogeologists especially the beginners to thoroughly understand the nonlinear flow regimes/mechanisms within complex fractured rock masses.
A model of the flow-vibration-electrical circuit multiphysical coupling system for solving square column vortex-induced vibration piezoelectric energy harvesting (VIVPEH) is proposed in this paper. The quasi steady state theory is adopted to describe the fluid solid coupling process of vortex-induced vibration based on the finite volume method coupled Gauss equation. The vibrational response and the quasi steady state form of the output voltage are solved by means of the matrix coefficient method and interactive computing. The results show that attack angles play an important role in the performance of square column VIVPEH, of which alpha = 45 degrees is a relatively ideal attack angle of square column VIVPEH.
The Beauvoir granite (Massif Central, France) represents an exceptional case in the European Variscan belt of a peraluminous raremetal granite crosscutting an early W stockwork. The latter was strongly overprinted by rare-metal magmatic-hydrothermal fluids derived from the Beauvoir granite, resulting in a massive topazification of the quartz-ferberite vein system. This work presents a complete study of primary fluid inclusions hosted in quartz and topaz from the Beauvoir granite and the metasomatized stockwork, in order to characterize the geochemical composition of the magmatic fluids exsolved during the crystallization of this evolved rare-metal peraluminous granite. Microthermometric and Raman spectrometry data show that the earliest fluid (L1) is of high temperature (500 to >600 degrees C), high salinity (17-28 wt.% NaCl eq), and Li-rich (T-e 100 m) and interaction with external fluids.
The way faults control upward fluid flow in nonmagmatic hydrothermal systems in extensional context is still unclear. In the Eastern Pyrenees, an alignment of twenty-nine hot springs (29 degrees C to 73 degrees C), along the normal Tet fault, offers the opportunity to study this process. Using an integrated multiscale geological approach including mapping, remote sensing, and macro-and microscopic analyses of fault zones, we show that emergence is always located in crystalline rocks at gneiss-metasediments contacts, mostly in the Tet fault footwall. The hot springs distribution is related to high topographic reliefs, which are associated with fault throw and segmentation. In more detail, emergence localizes either (1) in brittle fault damage zones at the intersection between the Tet fault and subsidiary faults or (2) in ductile faults where dissolution cavities are observed along foliations, allowing juxtaposition of metasediments. Using these observations and 2D simple numerical simulation, we propose a hydrogeological model of upward hydrothermal flow. Meteoric fluids, infiltrated at high elevation in the fault footwall relief, get warmer at depth because of the geothermal gradient. Topography-related hydraulic gradient and buoyancy forces cause hot fluid rise along permeability anisotropies associated with lithological juxtapositions, fracture, and fault zone compositions.
Carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) is a gas injection technology that enables the storage of CO2 underground. The aims are twofold, on one hand to reduce the emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere and on the other hand to increase oil/gas/heat recovery. Different types of CCUS technologies and related engineering projects have a long history of research and operation in the USA. However, in China they have a short development period ca. 10 years. Unlike CO2 capture and CO2-EOR technologies that are already operating on a commercial scale in China, research into other CCUS technologies is still in its infancy or at the pilot-scale. This paper first reviews the status and development of the different types of CCUS technologies and related engineering projects worldwide. Then it focuses on their developments in China in the last decade. The main research projects, international cooperation, and pilot-scale engineering projects in China are summarized and compared. Finally, the paper examines the challenges and prospects to be experienced through the industrialization of CCUS engineering projects in China. It can be concluded that the CCUS technologies have still large potential in China. It can only be unlocked by overcoming the technical and social challenges.
Porous media like hydrocarbon reservoirs may be composed of a wide variety of rocks with different porosity and permeability. Our study shows in algorithms and in synthetic numerical simulations that the flow pattern of any particular porous medium, assuming constant fluid properties and standardized boundary and initial conditions, is not affected by any spatial porosity changes but will vary only according to spatial permeability changes. In contrast, the time of flight along the streamline will be affected by both the permeability and porosity, albeit in opposite directions. Atheoretical framework is presented with evidence from flow visualizations. A series of strategically chosen streamline simulations, including systematic spatial variations of porosity and permeability, visualizes the respective effects on the flight path and time of flight. Two practical rules are formulated. Rule 1 states that an increase in permeability decreases the time of flight, whereas an increase in porosity increases the time of flight. Rule 2 states that the permeability uniquely controls the flight path of fluid flow in porous media; local porosity variations do not affect the streamline path. The two rules are essential for understanding fluid transport mechanisms, and their rigorous validation therefore is merited.
Gas hydrates are expected to be a potential energy resource with extensive distribution in the permafrost and in deep ocean sediments. The marine gas hydrate drilling explorations at the Eastern Nankai Trough of Japan revealed the variable distribution of hydrate deposits. Gas hydrate reservoirs are composed of alternating beds of sand and clay, with various conditions of permeability, porosity, and hydrate saturation. This study looks into the multiphase flow behaviors of layered methane hydrate reservoirs induced by gas production. Firstly, a history matching model by incorporating the available geological data at the test site of the Eastern Nankai Trough, which considers the layered heterogeneous structure of hydrate saturation, permeability, and porosity simultaneously, was constructed to investigate the production characteristics from layered hydrate reservoirs. Based on the validated model, the effects of the placement of production interval on production performance were investigated. The modeling results indicate that the dissociation zone is strongly affected by the vertical reservoir's heterogeneous structure and shows a unique dissociation front. The beneficial production interval scheme should consider the reservoir conditions with high permeability and high hydrate saturation. Consequently, the identification of the favorable hydrate deposits is significantly important to realize commercial production in the future.
To study and prevent water-mud-outburst disasters of tectonic fracture zones in geotechnical engineering, we tested seepage stability of confined broken mudstones with consideration of mass loss using syringe seepage method and a self-designed seepage testing system, obtained the variation laws of seepage instable duration, total mass loss, and mass loss rate of broken mudstones under different pressure gradients and Talbol power exponents (simplified as Talbol hereafter), and explained their instable seepage behaviors. The results showed that the mass loss is the internal cause of seepage-induced instability of broken rocks and pressure gradient is the external cause, and the persistent migration and loss of particles result in progressive failure process, while the large enough pressure gradient causes sudden overall instability. The seepage instable duration shortens with pressure gradient increasing, with the longest and shortest duration at Talbol of 0.5 and 0.1, respectively. In general, mass loss increases with pressure gradient increasing and with Talbol decreasing. Mass loss rate increases with pressure gradient increasing but shows no monotonic changes with Talbol. Their expressions can be used to establish dynamic model in the further seepage stability researches.
Water flow and hydromechanical coupling process in fractured rocks is more different from that in general porous media because of heterogeneous spatial fractures and possible fracture-dominated flow; a saturated-unsaturated hydromechanical coupling model using a discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA) similar to FEM and DEM was employed to analyze water movement in saturated-unsaturated deformed rocks, in which the Van-Genuchten model differently treated the rock and fractures permeable properties to describe the constitutive relationships. The calibrating results for the dam foundation indicated the validation and feasibility of the proposed model and are also in good agreement with the calculations based on DEM still demonstrating its superiority. And then, the rainfall infiltration in a reservoir rock slope was detailedly investigated to describe the water pressure on the fault surface and inside the rocks, displacement, and stress distribution under hydromechanical coupling conditions and uncoupling conditions. It was observed that greater rainfall intensity and longer rainfall time resulted in lower stability of the rock slope, and larger difference was very obvious between the hydromechanical coupling condition and uncoupling condition, demonstrating that rainfall intensity, rainfall time, and hydromechanical coupling effect had great influence on the saturated-unsaturated water flow behavior and mechanical response of the fractured rock slopes.
In deep geological disposal for high-level radioactive waste, the generated gas can potentially affect the sealing ability of bentonite buffers. There is a competition between water and gas: the former provides sealing by swelling bentonite, and the latter attempts to desaturate the bentonite buffer. Thus, this study focused on numerically modelling the coupling effects of water and gas on the water saturation and sealing efficiency of compacted bentonite-sand samples. Different gas pressures were applied to the top surface of an upper sample, whereas the water pressure on the bottom side of the lower sample was maintained at 4 MPa. The results indicated that gas pressure did not significantly affect the saturation of the bentonite-sand sample until 2 MPa. At 2 MPa, the degree of water saturation of the upper sample was close to 1.0. As the gas pressure increased, this influence was more apparent. When the gas pressure was 6 MPa or higher, it was difficult for the upper sample to become fully saturated. Additionally, the lower sample was desaturated due to the high gas pressure. This indicated that gas pressure played an important role in the water saturation process and can affect the sealing efficiency of bentonite-based buffer materials.
The Liyuan gold deposit is hosted within Archean basement metamorphic rocks and controlled by the NNE-trending faults in the central North China Craton. The ore-forming processes can be divided into three stages (early, middle, and late). Three types of primary fluid inclusions (FIs) are identified in the Liyuan, including pure carbonic, carbonic-aqueous, and aqueous inclusions. The primary FIs of three stages are mainly homogenized at temperatures of 318-408 degrees C, 201-329 degrees C, and 136-229 degrees C, with salinities of 2.1-8.9, 0.5-12.4, and 0.4-6.3 wt.% NaCl equivalent, respectively. The main Au mineralization is related to the middle stage, and water-rock interaction caused rapid precipitation of gold in this stage. The initial ore-forming fluids were likely magmatic water or metamorphic fluid and mixed with meteoric water at later stages. Due to the lack of granite body at the present mining levels, we speculate that it was magmatic water that might have been exsolved from a concealed granite body at greater depth or it was metamorphic fluid that was directly transported from depth via deep faults. Based on all the available geological and geochemical evidence, we suggest that the Liyuan deposit belongs to orogenic gold deposit that located in the interior North China Craton.
During the scientific expedition GAZCOGNE2 at the Bay of Biscay nine gas seeps were sampled for the first time and their flux was measured using an in situ pressure-preservation sampler (PEGAZ, (c) IFREMER). Overall, three sites were investigated to determine the nature and the origin of the gases bubbling at the seafloor and forming acoustic plumes into the water column, as this was the question raised from the first geologic study of the area. This has guided our study and accordingly corresponds to the main purpose of the present article. Thus, the molecular and isotopic (delta D and delta C-13) analyses revealed that the gas seeps were primarily composed of methane. Both methane and ethane are of microbial origin, and the former has been generated by microbial reduction of carbon dioxide. Heavier hydrocarbons accounted for less than 0.06% mol of the total amount. Despite the microbial origin of methane, the samples exhibit subtle differences with respect to the delta C-13(CH4) values, which varied between -72.7 and -66.1 parts per thousand. It has been suggested that such a discrepancy was predominantly governed by the occurrence of anaerobic methane oxidation. The PEGAZ sampler also enabled us to estimate the local gas fluxes from the sampled streams. The resulting values are extremely heterogeneous between seeps, ranging from 35 to 368 mLn.min(-1). Assuming a steady discharge, the mean calculated methane emission for the nine seeps is of 38 kmol.yr(-1). Considering the extent of the seep area, this very local estimate suggests that the Aquitaine Shelf is a very appropriate place to study methane discharge and its fate on continental shelves.
Thermal-hydromechanical (THM) coupling process is a key issue in geotechnical engineering emphasized by many scholars. Most existing studies are conducted at macroscale or mesoscale. This paper presents a pore-scale THM coupling study of the immiscible two-phase flow in the perfect-plastic rock. Assembled rock matrix and pore space models are reconstructed using micro-CT image. The rock deformation and fluid flow are simulated using ANSYS and CFX software, respectively, in which process the coupled physical parameters will be exchanged by ANSYS multiphysics platform at the end of each iteration. Effects of stress and temperature on the rock porosity, permeability, microstructure, and the displacing mechanism of water flooding process are analyzed and revealed.
Due to the ultralow permeability of shale gas reservoirs, stimulating the reservoir formation by using hydraulic fracturing technique and horizontal well is required to create the pathway of gas flow so that the shale gas can be recovered in an economically viable manner. The hydraulic fractured formations can be divided into two regions, stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) region and non-SRV region, and the produced shale gas may exist as free gas or adsorbed gas under the initial formation condition. Investigating the recovery factor of different types of shale gas in different region may assist us to make more reasonable development strategies. In this paper, we build a numerical simulation model, which has the ability to take the unique shale gas flow mechanisms into account, to quantitatively describe the gas production characteristics in each region based on the field data collected from a shale gas reservoir in Sichuan Basin in China. The contribution of the free gas and adsorbed gas to the total production is analyzed dynamically through the entire life of the shale gas production by adopting a component subdivision method. The effects of the key reservoir properties, such as shale matrix, secondary natural fracture network, and primary hydraulic fractures, on the recovery factor are also investigated.
In the current context of climate change, improving groundwater monitoring and management is an important issue for human communities in arid environments. The exploitation of groundwater resources can trigger land subsidence producing damage in urban structures and infrastructures. Alto Guadalentin aquifer system in SE Spain has been exploited since 1960 producing an average piezometric level drop of 150 m. This work presents a groundwater model that reproduces groundwater evolution during 52 years with an average error below 10%. The geometry of the model was improved introducing a layer of less permeable and deformable soft soils derived from InSAR deformation and borehole data. The resulting aquifer system history of the piezometric level has been compared with ENVISAT deformation data to calculate a first-order relationship between groundwater changes, soft soil thickness, and surface deformation. This relationship has been validated with the displacement data fromERS and Cosmo-SkyMed satellites. The resulting regression function is then used as an empirical subsidence model to estimate a first approximation of the deformation of the aquifer system since the beginning of the groundwater extraction, reaching 1 to 5.5m in 52 years. These rough estimations highlight the limitations of the proposed empirical model, requiring the implementation of a coupled hydrogeomechanical model.
We explore the evolution of friction and permeability of a propped fracture under shear. We examine the effects of normal stress, proppant thickness, proppant size, and fracture wall texture on the frictional and transport response of proppant packs confined between planar fracture surfaces. The proppant-absent and proppant-filled fractures show different frictional strength. For fractures with proppants, the frictional response is mainly controlled by the normal stress and proppant thickness. The depth of shearing-concurrent striations on fracture surfaces suggests that the magnitude of proppant embedment is controlled by the applied normal stress. Under high normal stress, the reduced friction implies that shear slip is more likely to occur on propped fractures in deeper reservoirs. The increase in the number of proppant layers, from monolayer to triple layers, significantly increases the friction of the propped fracture due to the interlocking of the particles and jamming. Permeability of the propped fracture is mainly controlled by the magnitude of the normal stress, the proppant thickness, and the proppant grain size. Permeability of the propped fracture decreases during shearing due to proppant particle crushing and related clogging. Proppants are prone to crushing if the shear loading evolves concurrently with the normal loading.
Hydromechanical modeling of a geological formation under shearing by the nonuniform crust movement during 10000 years was carried out to investigate the solid stress and pore pressure coupling processes of the formation from the intact to the fractured or faulted. Two three-dimensional numerical models were built and velocities in opposite directions were applied on the boundaries to produce the shearing due to the nonuniform crust movement. The results show that the stress and pore pressure became more and more concentrated in and around the middle of the formation as time progresses. In Model I with no fault, stress and pore pressure are concentrated in the middle of the model during shearing; however, in Model II with a fault zone of weakened mechanical properties, they are more complex and concentrated along the sides of the fault zone and the magnitudes decreased. The distribution of stress determines pore pressure which in turn controls fluid flow. Fluid flow occurs in the middle in Model I but along the sides of the fault zone in Model II. The results of this study improve our understanding of the rock-fluid interaction processes affected by crustal movement and may guide practical investigations in geological formations.
High dielectric contrast between water and hydrocarbons provides a useful method for distinguishing between producible layers of reservoir rocks and surrounding media. Dielectric response at high frequencies is related to the moisture content of rocks. Correlations between the dielectric permittivity and specific surface area can be used for the estimation of elastic and geomechanical properties of rocks. Knowledge of dielectric loss-factor and relaxation frequency in shales is critical for the design of techniques for effective hydrocarbon extraction and production fromunconventional reservoirs. Although applicability of dielectric measurements is intriguing, the data interpretation is very challenging due to many factors influencing the dielectric response. For instance, dielectric permittivity is determined by mineralogical composition of solid fraction, volumetric content and composition of saturating fluid, rockmicrostructure and geometrical features of its solid components and pore space, temperature, and pressure. In this experimental study, we investigate the frequency dependent dielectric properties of artificial shale rocks prepared from siltclay mixtures via mechanical compaction. Samples are prepared with various clay contents and pore fluids of different salinity and cation compositions. Measurements of dielectric properties are conducted in two orientations to investigate the dielectric anisotropy as the samples acquire strongly oriented microstructures during the compaction process.