Option pricing models are an important part of financial markets worldwide. The PDE formulation of these models leads to analytical solutions only under very strong simplifications. For more general models the option price needs to be evaluated by numerical techniques. First, based on an ideal pure diffusion process for two risky asset prices with an additional path-dependent variable for continuous arithmetic average, we present a general form of PDE for pricing of Asian option contracts on two assets. Further, we focus only on one subclass-Asian options with floating strike-and introduce the concept of the dimensionality reduction with respect to the payoff leading to PDE with two spatial variables. Then the numerical option pricing scheme arising from the discontinuous Galerkin method is developed and some theoretical results are also mentioned. Finally, the aforementioned model is supplemented with numerical results on real market data.
The evaluation of option premium is a very delicate issue arising from the assumptions made under a financial market model, and pricing of a wide range of options is generally feasible only when numerical methods are involved. This paper is based on our recent research on numerical pricing of path-dependent multi-asset options and extends these results also to the case of Asian options with fixed strike. First, we recall the three-dimensional backward parabolic PDE describing the evolution of European-style Asian option contracts on two assets, whose payoff depends on the difference of the strike price and the average value of the basket of two underlying assets during the life of the option. Further, a suitable transformation of variables respecting this complex form of a payoff function reduces the problem to a two-dimensional equation belonging to the class of convection-diffusion problems and the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is applied to it in order to utilize its solving potentials. The whole procedure is accompanied with theoretical results and differences to the floating strike case are discussed. Finally, reference numerical experiments on real market data illustrate comprehensive empirical findings on Asian options.
This paper deals with a nonlinear beam model which was published by D.Y.Gao in 1996. It is considered either pure bending or a unilateral contact with elastic foundation, where the normal compliance condition is employed. Under additional assumptions on data, higher regularity of solution is proved. It enables us to transform the problem into a control variational problem. For basic types of boundary conditions, suitable transformations of the problem are derived. The control variational problem contains a simple linear state problem and it is solved by the conditioned gradient method. Illustrative numerical examples are introduced in order to compare the Gao beam with the classical Euler-Bernoulli beam.
We consider the inverse scattering problem of determining the shape and location of a crack surrounded by a known inhomogeneous media. Both the Dirichlet boundary condition and a mixed type boundary conditions are considered. In order to avoid using the background Green function in the inversion process, a reciprocity relationship between the Green function and the solution of an auxiliary scattering problem is proved. Then we focus on extending the factorization method to our inverse shape reconstruction problems by using far field measurements at fixed wave number. We remark that this is done in a non intuitive space for the mixed type boundary condition as we indicate in the sequel.
We calculate self-consistent time-dependent models of astrophysical processes. We have developed two types of our own (magneto) hydrodynamic codes, either the operator-split, finite volume Eulerian code on a staggered grid for smooth hydrodynamic flows, or the finite volume unsplit code based on the Roe’s method for explosive events with extremely large discontinuities and highly supersonic outbursts. Both the types of the codes use the second order Navier-Stokes viscosity to realistically model the viscous and dissipative effects. They are transformed to all basic orthogonal curvilinear coordinate systems as well as to a special non-orthogonal geometric system that fits to modeling of astrophysical disks. We describe mathematical background of our codes and their implementation for astrophysical simulations, including choice of initial and boundary conditions. We demonstrate some calculated models and compare the practical usage of numerically different types of codes.
Poroelastic systems describe fluid flow through porous medium coupled with deformation of the porous matrix. In this paper, the deformation is described by linear elasticity, the fluid flow is modelled as Darcy flow. The main focus is on the Biot-Barenblatt model with double porosity/double permeability flow, which distinguishes flow in two regions considered as continua. The main goal is in proposing block diagonal preconditionings to systems arising from the discretization of the Biot-Barenblatt model by a mixed finite element method in space and implicit Euler method in time and estimating the condition number for such preconditioning. The investigation of preconditioning includes its dependence on material coefficients and parameters of discretization.
The paper focuses on a low-rank tensor structured representation of Slatertype and Hydrogen-like orbital basis functions that can be used in electronic structure calculations. Standard packages use the Gaussian-type basis functions which allow us to analytically evaluate the necessary integrals. Slater-type and Hydrogen-like orbital functions are physically more appropriate, but they are not analytically integrable. A numerical integration is too expensive when using the standard discretization techniques due the dimensionality of the problem. However, it can be effectively performed using the tensor representation of basis functions. Furthermore, this approach can take advantage of parallel computing.
Differential evolution algorithms represent an up to date and efficient way of solving complicated optimization tasks. In this article we concentrate on the ability of the differential evolution algorithms to attain the global minimum of the cost function. We demonstrate that although often declared as a global optimizer the classic differential evolution algorithm does not in general guarantee the convergence to the global minimum. To improve this weakness we design a simple modification of the classic differential evolution algorithm. This modification limits the possible premature convergence to local minima and ensures the asymptotic global convergence. We also introduce concepts that are necessary for the subsequent proof of the asymptotic global convergence of the modified algorithm. We test the classic and modified algorithm by numerical experiments and compare the efficiency of finding the global minimum for both algorithms. The tests confirm that the modified algorithm is significantly more efficient with respect to the global convergence than the classic algorithm.
Numerical analysis of a model Stokes interface problem with the homogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition is considered. The interface condition is interpreted as an additional singular force field to the Stokes equations using the characteristic function. The finite element method is applied after introducing a regularization of the singular source term. Consequently, the error is divided into the regularization and discretization parts which are studied separately. As a result, error estimates of order h 1/2 in H 1 × L 2 norm for the velocity and pressure, and of order h in L 2 norm for the velocity are derived. Those theoretical results are also verified by numerical examples.
Two-by-two block matrices of special form with square matrix blocks arise in important applications, such as in optimal control of partial differential equations and in high order time integration methods.Two solution methods involving very efficient preconditioned matrices, one based on a Schur complement reduction of the given system and one based on a transformation matrix with a perturbation of one of the given matrix blocks are presented. The first method involves an additional inner solution with the pivot matrix block but gives a very tight condition number bound when applied for a time integration method. The second method does not involve this matrix block but only inner solutions with a linear combination of the pivot block and the off-diagonal matrix blocks.Both the methods give small condition number bounds that hold uniformly in all parameters involved in the problem, i.e. are fully robust. The paper presents shorter proofs, extended and new results compared to earlier publications.
Bounds on the spectrum of the Schur complements of subdomain stiffness matrices with respect to the interior variables are key ingredients in the analysis of many domain decomposition methods. Here we are interested in the analysis of floating clusters, i.e. subdomains without prescribed Dirichlet conditions that are decomposed into still smaller subdomains glued on primal level in some nodes and/or by some averages. We give the estimates of the regular condition number of the Schur complements of the clusters arising in the discretization of problems governed by 2D Laplacian. The estimates depend on the decomposition and discretization parameters and gluing conditions. We also show how to plug the results into the analysis of H-TFETI methods and compare the estimates with numerical experiments. The results are useful for the analysis and implementation of powerful massively parallel scalable algorithms for the solution of variational inequalities.
We deal with a posteriori error control of discontinuous Galerkin approximations for linear boundary value problems. The computational error is estimated in the framework of the Dual Weighted Residual method (DWR) for goal-oriented error estimation which requires to solve an additional (adjoint) problem. We focus on the control of the algebraic errors arising from iterative solutions of algebraic systems corresponding to both the primal and adjoint problems. Moreover, we present two different reconstruction techniques allowing an efficient evaluation of the error estimators. Finally, we propose a complex algorithm which controls discretization and algebraic errors and drives the adaptation of the mesh in the close to optimal manner with respect to the given quantity of interest.
A new weighted version of the Gompertz distribution is introduced. It is noted that the model represents a mixture of classical Gompertz and second upper record value of Gompertz densities, and using a certain transformation it gives a new version of the two-parameter Lindley distribution. The model can be also regarded as a dual member of the log-Lindley-X family. Various properties of the model are obtained, including hazard rate function, moments, moment generating function, quantile function, skewness, kurtosis, conditional moments, mean deviations, some types of entropy, mean residual lifetime and stochastic orderings. Estimation of the model parameters is justified by the method of maximum likelihood. Two real data sets are used to assess the performance of the model among some classical and recent distributions based on some evaluation goodness-of-fit statistics. As a result, the variance-covariance matrix and the confidence interval of the parameters, and some theoretical measures have been calculated for such data for the proposed model with discussions.
The aim of this paper is to analyze mathematically the method of fundamental solutions applied to the biharmonic problem. The key idea is to use Almansi-type decomposition of biharmonic functions, which enables us to represent the biharmonic function in terms of two harmonic functions. Based on this decomposition, we prove that an approximate solution exists uniquely and that the approximation error decays exponentially with respect to the number of the singular points. We finally present results of numerical experiments, which verify the sharpness of our error estimate.