Among the highly developed countries, demographic ageing is particularly advanced in Germany. Accentuated by migration, there is great regional variation in the progress of demographic change. Within urban areas, residential neighbourhoods differ considerably in their demographic composition and perspectives. Based on municipal data, this paper examines regional variability in the diversity and pace of neighbourhood-level ageing. Focusing on the Rhine-Ruhr conurbation in North Rhine-Westphalia, the analysis outlines at what pace ageing proceeds in a variety of neighbourhoods, which attract no constant influx of working-age migrants. After decades of suburbanisation, in the period from 1998 to 2008 regional migration concentrated on the central districts of large cities. More profoundly in the most prosperous cities growing in population than in other cities, childless working-age adults separate from other age groups and family types in selected central city quarters. The findings suggest that spatial differentials in ageing are likely to affect future location decisions and, thereby, regional and local prosperity.
This paper undertakes to explore the gerontological and social science literature for the purpose of highlighting that while ageing is a common phenomenon across all world societies it nevertheless remains a unique personal experience. Drawing upon the metaphorical construct of the life journey, the authors use the cultural context of ageing to illustrate how the life-path for each individual, whether long or short, is necessarily unpredictable and involves a dynamic interaction between history and biography within a particular society and cultural framework. The authors challenge prospective readers to use their sociological imagination as proffered by the renowned sociologist C.W. Mills in the interest of moving beyond the biological dimension in order to see more clearly that ‘ageing into old age’ is in essence a unique personal life story. The life story of each individual is seen to represent a compilation of ongoing levels of compliance and /or tension between the individual’s subjective world and external forces the consequence of the individual being a thinking, willing and feeling person, an existential entity with potential for meaning making, self organization and adaptive responses to changing life circumstances. Notwithstanding the diverse cultural, racial and ethnic differences between people worldwide the ageing experience is shown to be a phenomenon displaying cross-cultural variability warranting further ongoing anthropological research. An examination of the many pathways to ageing utilizing a series of interactive factors helps to explain the existence of advantages and disadvantages leading to variations in availability and access to ‘life chances’ resulting in many people experiencing unacceptable levels of ill-health, poverty, racism, ageism, inequality and widespread levels of social injustice and abuse of human rights.
It is now accepted by most societies that education is a fundamental human right, one that all individuals are entitled to, regardless of their personal characteristics or circumstances. Yet it is a right which is beset by inequalities, inequalities between countries and inequalities between the genders. There is overwhelming evidence that education improves health and well being, and reduces levels of both mortality and fertility.
While India is fast catching-up to become an ageing society it poses in many ways a stiff challenge to the Indian governments. In the absence of a comprehensive social security provisioning and safety nets for the olds, they keep working to a much longer span of life and suffer from many serious diseases and disabilities. Using data from major health and labour surveys this paper tries to bring out the participation of elderly workers in various occupational categories and their health statuses to sketch a link between work and health risks. Wage employment tends to decline for the ageing population, forcing them to eke out their livelihood mostly from low quality self-managed employment. Those with higher levels of educational attainment are less likely to fall ill compared to the illiterates. Some of the occupational categories tend to make elderly more prone to ill health though the probability of suffering from tuberculosis goes up for all workers irrespective of the major activity groups. On the whole, the links between occupation and health risks come out sharply, suggesting health interventions to be made occupation-specific.
Since aging-in-place is the preferred choice for many older adults, employing in-home caregivers to look after them is an emerging practice in Canada. The Live-in Caregiver Program (LCP), established by Citizenship and Immigration Canada, allows Canadians to employ qualified foreign workers in their private residence, for care of children, the elderly, the sick and persons with disabilities. While the LCP has been researched from various critical viewpoints focusing on workers’ rights, relatively few studies have examined the program from other perspectives, and even fewer have focused exclusively on LCP caregivers who provide long term care to older adults. This study attempts to enhance our understanding of the characteristics of LCP elder care workers, and their older adult clients. It also explores the care-providers’ job trajectory and their job and life satisfaction over time. Fourteen migrant long term care workers were interviewed in 2009 and five again in 2011. In both the initial and follow-up interviews job satisfaction was assessed through open-ended questions and through administration of a scale adapted by Grau et al. (Journal of Aging and Health 3: 47, 1991). In addition to reflecting the challenges identified in previous research, this study provides a glimpse of the achievements, sense of reward and empowerment workers experienced through participating in the LCP, and its relative attractiveness to care-workers who often have transnational experiences against which to compare its benefits and drawbacks.
South Asia is experiencing rapid demographic changes that accompany age structural transitions creating a window of opportunity for potential demographic dividend. Studies on age-structural changes and their implications for socioeconomic development are rather limited for South Asia. In this paper we critically review, analyse and synthesize the unfolding age structural transition and its potential for demographic dividend in South Asia. After a brief description of demographic transition in the countries of South Asia, we estimate the first demographic dividend using the accounting framework. This is followed by a discussion of the socioeconomic development opportunities and challenges arising from age structural transition in South Asian countries. We focus on the five major South Asian countries, namely Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Among the South Asian countries, India has an added advantage arising from its regional differentials in the timing and pace of age structural transitions which other comparable countries have not had. With rapid reduction in fertility, Bangladesh has had greater potential to benefit from first demographic dividend. Nepal and Pakistan have just began to reap the benefits from the window of opportunity. Sri Lanka is already past the period that was available for first dividend, but opportunities are becoming available to benefit from the second demographic dividend. With the right institutional contexts, social and public policies, there is most likelihood for South Asia to experience high economic growth and increased standard of living.
From 1992 to 2006, dramatic changes took place among older adults in China in terms of living arrangements, household type, and financial support received. Traditional patterns of elder support are changing, as the social security system now provides elders with sources of support other than their children. The trend of population aging and changes in family size has special implications for China’s traditionally filial culture. Despite these changes, family members remain the primary caregivers for older adults. Coresidence of elderly parents with their children is influenced by the number but not the gender of children. In-home care provided by non-family members will strengthen the function of elder support in this filial culture.
This paper aims at understanding the elderly-non-elderly difference in morbidity and utilization of outpatient care and how such differences vary across economic classes by using a population based self reported health survey in the context of Kerala—an Indian state which is in the advanced stage of demographic transition and has the highest share of elderly population in comparison to other Indian states. It is found that for the elderly chronic non-communicable diseases account for four out of five of the most frequently reported illnesses. An elderly belonging to rich or middle classes is more likely to utilize outpatient care in comparison to a rich non-elderly, however such a pattern is not observed for the poor elderly. Experience of Kerala suggests that ageing of the population is going to impose severe challenge to the public health sector in other Indian states which will be entering into the advanced stage of demographic transition shortly and there is a need to examine in greater details the willingness and capacity of the private sector to share this increased burden for health care need.
The old-age dependency ratio and the inadequacy of public pension finance has been a particular focus in theoretical and practical fields. Our paper suggests that the sole use of demographic data to calculate the simple old-age dependency ratio (SOADR) leads to the neglect of some important social factors and the underestimation of the seriousness of the insufficiency of pension funds. We suggest the use of a real old-age dependency ratio (ROADR) that considers students of working age, unemployment, low-income employees and retirees of working age. We use these factors in our new model, which calculates the dependency ratio and the accumulation of pension funds. The results of our simulation are presented in this paper. Comparisons are made between the general and real old-age dependency ratios to indicate the urgent need to adopt the real old-age dependency ratio in analysing pension finance. This is especially important given the assumption that China will extend the current social insurance pension system to the national state pension system covering all rural and urban employees and residents in the near future. Some policies that could be used to address these problems are also suggested in this paper.
The aim of this study is to answer the question of whether improvements in the health of the elderly in European countries could compensate for population ageing on the supply side of the labour market. We propose a state-of-health-specific (additive) decomposition of the old-age dependency ratio into an old-age healthy dependency ratio and an old-age unhealthy dependency ratio in order to participate in a discussion of the significance of changes in population health to compensate for the ageing of the labour force. Applying the proposed indicators to the Eurostat’s population projection for the years 2010–2050, and assuming there will be equal improvements in life expectancy and healthy life expectancy at birth, we discuss various scenarios concerning future of the European labour force. While improvements in population health are anticipated during the years 2010–2050, the growth in the number of elderly people in Europe may be expected to lead to a rise in both healthy and unhealthy dependency ratios. The healthy dependency ratio is, however, projected to make up the greater part of the old-age dependency ratio. In the European countries in 2006, the value of the old-age dependency ratio was 25. But in the year 2050, with a positive migration balance over the years 2010–2050, there would be 18 elderly people in poor health plus 34 in good health per 100 people in the current working age range of 15–64. In the scenarios developed in this study, we demonstrate that improvements in health and progress in preventing disability will not, by themselves, compensate for the ageing of the workforce. However, coupled with a positive migration balance, at the level and with the age structure assumed in the Eurostat’s population projections, these developments could ease the effect of population ageing on the supply side of the European labour market.
In Hungary until recently there are no research data on undocumented migrants working in the field of eldercare. Qualitative research conducted in 2009–2011 examined this ‘invisible’ segment working in long-term care. One of the target groups this study was families employing undocumented migrants including ethnic Hungarians from neighbouring Romania (Transylvania) and Ukraine (Subcarpathia). The paper explores this data to address where the employment of invisible migrants appears in the long-term eldercare strategies of Hungarian families. In addition, this paper examines the role of Hungarian non-migrant carers who are also present on the illegal (black) labour market providing eldercare. Based on analysis of macro data and empirical research, the paper identifies several care strategies utilised by families caring for older people in Hungary: 1. Active family carer; 2. Inactive family carer; 3. Family carer receiving a care allowance; 4. Family care with shared responsibility; 5. Family employing legal carer; 6. Family employing undocumented non-migrant carer; 7. Family carer also with earnings on the black market; and 8. Family employing undocumented migrant carer. This paper also highlights that a decline in the trend of migration in the near future will bring an erosion of the existing care source that has not been anticipated by policy related to eldercare. The increase in the retirement age causes women’s later exit from the labour market, aggravating the problem of balancing care and work. This increase in the retirement age, considered to be essential for ensuring the sustainability of the pension system, will inevitably result in a shortage of services with all its financial and structural implications. As women will no longer be able to perform care tasks, the formal care system will be unable to cope with the extra demand.
This paper is an examination of the recent restructuring and subsequent convergence of European long-term care models. This paper also aims to highlight the increased role of migrant care workers and the need for great social and governmental recognition for all care providers. The provision of long term care is complex, divided between state, market and family providers; the state alone could not and does not act as the sole provider of care (Banks 1998). The extent to which different sectors are relied upon is largely dependent on the ideology of the country's welfare state (Timonen and Doyle 2007). [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT
This paper analyses the consequences of international migration for work on families who remain at home in a Romanian rural sample. Five types of effects were identified: financial; on spousal relations; on children; on old family members and on composition of the population. The most important are the financial impacts, but there are also invisible side-effects, such as deterioration in the relations between spouses and the decrease of the parents’ roles for children. The importance of the old family members is re-evaluated; they are key social links between migrants and the family members that have remained at home.
This paper is an examination of the recent restructuring and subsequent convergence of European long-term care models. This paper also aims to highlight the increased role of migrant care workers and the need for great social and governmental recognition for all care providers. The provision of long term care is complex, divided between state, market and family providers; the state alone could not and does not act as the sole provider of care (Banks 1998). The extent to which different sectors are relied upon is largely dependent on the ideology of the country's welfare state (Timonen and Doyle 2007).