Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to address the dangers for a highly trained group of professionals - academic librarians - in responding to the challenge of divesting their libraries of a very large amount of printed material.Design methodology approach - The approach takes the form of a general view of the current state-of-play in library management vis-à-vis the e-revolution, in terms of the corresponding preservation of printed materials.Findings - Traditionally, the majority stock of any library, rarely used printed books and journals seem to have become a liability and a burden in this web-spun, e-raddled world. Academic librarians are becoming active participants in the rush to achieve a "print→less" heaven. For the first time in history on such a scale and in any period of war or peace, the next 20 years could witness a huge and deliberate global dispersal and even destruction of a substantial portion of the printed word in university, college and research libraries. This Fahrenheit 451-equivalent event would be carefully planned not by ruthless despots and capricious censors riding roughshod over the bodies of librarians to re-write historical records, but by ... the librarians themselves. This is not just "bibliobabble" - defined here as the reactionary ravings of the bibliophile against a tidal wave of e-books and digital content. Given librarians' innate professional ability for organized thoroughness, a series of small local projects, largely unremarked in the wider world, would be very speedily executed, leading to global and possibly uncoordinated weeding. This sustained dispersal or destruction of printed material from the protective walls of universities and colleges, without the usual finesse or adequate time or resources, will re-classify "ordinary" works into titles of "relative" or even "absolute" rarity worldwide. Academic librarians will have created a new profession for themselves - "rare book engineers" - by massively reducing the number of copies held in the world's libraries and relying on private book collectors (if they still exist in 2060) to acquire any of the millions of discarded titles and preserve them for posterity.Practical implications - Librarians need to consider carefully how and where lesser-used printed materials will be disposed of and sent.Originality value - Using practical examples from many years of experience in librarianship, the author states some strong personal opinions on this matter.
Purpose - This article aims to describe two methods - critical incident and return on investment - that can be used to measure and demonstrate explicit and derived value of academic libraries. Results from several studies that use these methods are described in the context of the Lib-Value project, funded by the US Institute of Museum and Library Services.Design methodology approach - A series of surveys using the critical incident of the last article reading by faculty are used to gather information on the purpose, outcomes, and the value of scholarly article readings and access to collections through the library. Both qualitative and quantitative data are collected through web-based surveys.Findings - Over half of scholarly article readings by faculty are for research purposes and readings for research purposes were more likely to be obtained from the library's electronic collections and are valued more highly than readings for other purposes or from other sources. In a study of ROI to grants from the library's journal collections, results show that for every dollar invested in the library faculty attribute many more dollars returned in grant income through more successful grant proposals.Research limitations implications - Return on investment is one method for measuring the value of a library's collections and services; others include measuring outcomes through critical incident and qualitative "stories". Ongoing studies will examine how the library's products and services help faculty be successful, help students be successful, and generate both immediate and downstream income that provides good return on investment.Originality value - This paper highlights methods to measure the value of academic libraries as well as reporting findings from several studies that reflect changes in scholarly article readings over time. This type of research helps libraries demonstrate their value and gather evidence to choose from among alternatives.
Purpose - This paper aims to provide an overview of the current situation regarding ebooks in both academic and public librariesDesign methodology approach - The approach takes the form of a review of the literature, drawing together findings from various published ebook surveys conducted over the past three yearsFindings - It was found that there is a need for libraries to raise awareness about the ebooks they offer and how they offer them.Practical implications - The paper points up the importance of librarians having accurate knowledge about their users' concerns, which can be complex over the spectrum of ebooks, in order to obtain the "best deal".Originality value - The paper draws together viewpoints from academic libraries, public libraries and ebook suppliers.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to argue the case for libraries to develop a more holistic and strategic approach to their innovation activities, with a view to enhancing their innovation performance, and innovation capabilities.Design methodology approach - Whilst libraries need to and do innovate, there is little evidence of discussion of innovation and its processes in the library and information management literature. This paper commences with a review of the nature of innovation, and then proceeds to briefly discuss seven aspects of innovation that could usefully be facets of an innovation strategy. These include: innovation capabilities and culture; the innovation portfolio; innovation processes; innovation leadership; innovative and creative teams; open innovation and collaboration; and, user engagement in innovation.Findings - A model showing the seven facets of an innovation strategy is proposed. Planning and ongoing reflection on all of these would be a sound basis for a more holistic, and dynamic approach to innovation activities within libraries.Originality value - The paper is one of very few to mention innovation processes and management (as opposed to specific innovations) in the library and information management field, and the first to propose the facets of an holistic and strategic approach.
Purpose - This paper intends to throw light on major challenges and opportunities the twenty-first century has brought to librarianship due to the emerging academic culture, and growing use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in Pakistan.Design methodology approach - The content is based on the literature, personal communication with national and foreign peers, the writer's 25 years' experience, observation and research in the field of librarianship.Findings - Libraries in developing countries are being significantly affected by the ongoing ICT developments from basic infrastructure to collections to services to needed human resources. All quarters of the community need vision and preparedness to turn challenges into opportunities, and instead of being chaotic make change that is productive for society and themselves. It appeared that the overall growth in librarianship is much better since the dawn of the twenty-first century.Originality value - The new aspects discussed in the context of Pakistan may provide guidelines for future planning, and growth of professional and libraries. It is assumed that the situation is similar to other developing countries. So, the work will be useful in creating awareness among professionals of other countries.
Purpose - As libraries move their focus from print collections to digital resources residing in the "cloud", the library-user relationship has also changed dramatically. Power has clearly shifted from the library to the user and the dependence relationship has been inverted. The library-user relationship is fundamental and defines what libraries are, and therefore their future. It is therefore important to think about how to ensure that users continue to use and value libraries. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the changing relationship between libraries and their users and to suggest critical factors to consider when designing and planning library services in order to sustain a viable library-user relationship.Design methodology approach - The paper sets the context for discussing the importance of maintaining high levels of library use by considering key changes in the information environment and the behavior of users. It is argued that the abundant choices available to information users today cause them to make usage decisions that are not based only on the usefulness and quality of information resources and services, but more on expediency and other factors.Findings - It is not sufficient to provide useful, high quality and innovative library resources and services. The acid test for their success is whether they will be used frequently. Four factors are suggested - convenience, attention, awareness, and perception of value, that are likely to influence future use of libraries.Originality value - The paper serves as a reminder for librarians to pay attention to the common sense factors when designing, planning, implementing and reviewing library facilities, resources and services.
Purpose - Research productivity is often counted as a major factor in evaluations and promotion. Librarians have had to find a way to pursue research along with performing job duties and professional service. Collaborative research can provide an effective solution for busy librarians who need to show a record of research. Additionally, it can be a cost-effective means for library administrators to promote library faculty output in the face of reduced travel and research budgets. This paper seeks to address these issues.Design methodology approach - In developing their research group, the authors began with a small, informal collaboration on an article describing new staffing models for library outreach. As the writing of the article proceeded, the group developed a more formal structure. As that article reached completion, the purpose of the group expanded to that of fostering creativity and following creative leads to a publishable (or presentable) conclusion.Findings - In the two years during which the writing group has been working together, it has produced four articles and nine presentations, with several in-progress efforts. In addition, the writing group has encouraged members to develop individual projects for presentation and publication outside of the group's scope.Practical implications - The authors offer recommendations to other professionals interested in forming collaborative writing groups and to library administrators interested in encouraging their staffs to develop productive working relationships.Originality value - Few articles have been written about collaboration among librarians to promote their own research and publication. The authors describe in this paper an informal, yet highly effective means to foster faculty research productivity.
Purpose - This paper aims to present a critical review of "Web 2.0" and "Library 2.0" applications and proposal of a redirection of resources towards semantic web developments.Design methodology approach - This paper is based on a historical review of library development and new technology.Findings - The paper finds that acceptance by the public of "Library 2.0" applications has been low and that social networking tools do not contribute to the core mission of libraries.Originality value - The paper proposes that the concept of a second era of libarianship and the term "Library II" should apply to the revolution in library services that occurred with the development of the MARC format in the 1960s and that librarians should be looking towards "Library III" by developing new linkages with semantic web tools.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of using online advertising on the social networking site Facebook in encouraging university students to connect with their library's Facebook page.Design methodology approach - A two-month paid Facebook advertising campaign was conducted. Using the tools provided by Facebook Adverts, the campaign was targeted only at current students at the university who were not already connected with the library's Facebook page. At the conclusion of the campaign, the statistics recorded by Facebook Adverts were used to assess how effective the advertisement had been in attracting new connections.Findings - The campaign statistics showed that the advertisement was shown frequently to the targeted user group, and that the click through rate for the advertisement was high. Furthermore, the advertisement accounted for over half of the new connections made to the library's Facebook page during the campaign period.Research limitations implications - As the findings are based on the results of one campaign at a single institution, they cannot be used to make generalizations. However, the results may prompt further inquiry into the use of social network advertising in marketing academic libraries.Originality value - While previous studies have examined using Facebook as a free tool for marketing libraries, this paper explores the potentials of paid advertising on social networks. Given the finding that such advertising can have a significant positive impact for a relatively small financial outlay, practitioners could consider this as another means to build their own library's brand in a cost-effective manner.
Purpose - This paper aims to identify which marketing activities libraries are using to promote electronic resources and to examine how libraries are measuring the successes or failures of their marketing plans.Design methodology approach - The research analyzes the literature published in library science on marketing techniques for electronic resources in use at libraries; the corpus is composed of 24 documents published from 1994-2009. The literature is qualitatively analyzed to determine the techniques in use, the libraries' goals, targeted groups, budgets, and assessments of their marketing plans.Findings - A total of 38 unique marketing techniques were discovered in the 24 documents consulted for this research. The four most popular techniques were patron training in a group setting, flyers brochures, e-mails to patrons, and surveys. Libraries were generally unclear about stating the goals for their marketing plans but were able to easily identify the target of their marketing efforts. Budgeting was inconsistent among libraries included in this research; nine libraries reported having either no budget for marketing or did not mention budgeting in the article. Assessment was the weakest part of the marketing plans, with four libraries not documenting an awareness of the need for assessment and seven libraries noting an understanding of the need to evaluate their plan but unsure how to do so.Originality value - Based on the analysis the paper makes it clear that as libraries engage in marketing activities, they should make themselves aware of general principles before beginning their plan. Special focus should be given to selecting activities that match the goals of the marketing plan and choosing an appropriate evaluation technique before beginning the marketing activities.
Purpose - Although issues on disaster prevention have extensively been studied in the literature and have been embedded in everyday library practices all over the world, the vast majority of Greek libraries have not developed any specific measures. This paper seeks to review several disaster management approaches for academic libraries and to make suggestions for Greek academic libraries by analyzing the results of a nationwide survey.Design methodology approach - The literature regarding disaster management approaches for academic libraries is reviewed and accompanied by a survey conducted in July 2010 in order to study the level of risk and disaster preparedness in Greek academic libraries.Findings - In Greece, disaster management within academic libraries seems to be dealt with inefficiently, if not completely neglected. The fearsome economic crisis is further degrading the level of disaster preparedness due to a number of side effects, including the lack of personnel and equipment maintenance activities, inadequate buildings and insufficient funding.Originality value - While the literature is flooded with risk and disaster preparedness approaches based on the work undertaken in most Western countries, this is the only study presenting evidence on the level of preparedness for Greek academic libraries.
Purpose - This paper seeks to document the strategies and initiatives developed in a major Asian academic library, aiming to enhance the library's role in promoting knowledge exchange and community wellbeing.Design methodology approach - The paper examines the library's role in knowledge exchange at the university. It highlights a series of initiatives undertaken by the library that serve to promote community access to collections, services and special events. It also introduces ways in which the library has reached out to the local, regional and international communities.Findings - The success of the initiatives is demonstrated in many ways including the devoted commitment to making information available to the public at both university and library level, extended access to the library resources and services, active public participation in the special events and the library's increased visibility and leadership in the local, regional and international communities.Research limitations implications - While many of the initiatives have been innovative and well received, the reality remains that the true emphasis of knowledge exchange within the university lies with the faculties. Licensing agreements also impose restrictions on access to the electronic resources by a larger user group. The traditional "closed door" policy due to the space shortage inevitably limits the library's ability to engage a wider community. Further studies need to be done on the investment and return of the book talks.Practical implications - While it is often cited that public libraries are those that serve the community at large, this paper provides the perspective from an academic library viewpoint and emphasizes the view that such service should not be limited to public libraries alone and that academic libraries must play a role in community wellbeing.Originality value - The paper provides a practical example for academic libraries in attempting to play an active role in knowledge exchange and community engagement.
Purpose - Online open access (OA) to research publications comes to scholarship as a vision that makes sense and is congruent with the aims of science and scholarship. It is argued that research, often funded out of the public purse, should be a public good. Given its visionary characteristics and its congruence with the aims of scholarship, the purpose of this paper is to examine why OA is not practiced by all researchers, all the time, or more encouraged by library managers.Design methodology approach - The findings reported in the paper are built upon analyses of the literature, the current discussion occurring in e-lists and other public forums, and upon qualitative research using observation, document analysis, interview techniques and thematic analysis conducted as part of a PhD study in two Australian universities.Findings - One of the universities had a long-standing institutional mandate to encourage OA and the other did not. In terms of findings, of the universities studied, the institution with the mandate not only had a far greater proportion of its research output in its OA institutional repository but also the researchers and authors interviewed there had a deep understanding of, and engagement with, issues surrounding not just scholarly publishing but also OA and other publishing options. Further, OA and the mandate policy were reported by university executives as providing benefits both to individual researchers and to the institution as a whole.Originality value - In analyzing the relationships and entanglements that exist between authors, universities, publishers and other actors we see how these reinforce the current publishing paradigm. While proposals for mandates are not new, this paper illustrates how one is acting in practice. It proposes that despite reservations among academic library managers a mandate can work in practice. Sometimes, a new actor, such as a mandate or deposit policy is required, to assist library and repository managers, to encourage authors to look beyond their existing frames and embrace OA.