One of the research direction of Horst Lippmann during his whole scientific career was devoted to the possibilities to explain complex material behavior by generalized continua models. A representative of such models is the Cosserat continuum. The basic idea of this model is the independence of translations and rotations (and by analogy, the independence of forces and moments). With the help of this model some additional effects in solid and fluid mechanics can be explained in a more satisfying manner. They are established in experiments, but not presented by the classical equations. In this paper the Cosserat-type theories of plates and shells are debated as a special application of the Cosserat theory.
The higher-order theory is extended to functionally graded beams (FGBs) with continuously varying material properties. For FGBs with shear deformation taken into account, a single governing equation for an auxiliary function F is derived from the basic equations of elasticity. It can be used to deal with forced and free vibrations as well as static behaviors of FGBs. A general solution is constructed, and all physical quantities including transverse deflection, longitudinal warping, bending moment, shear force, and internal stresses can be represented in terms of the derivatives of F. The static solution can be determined for different end conditions. Explicit expressions for cantilever, simply supported, and clamped-clamped FGBs for typical loading cases are given. A comparison of the present static solution with existing elasticity solutions indicates that the method is simple and efficient. Moreover, the gradient variation of Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio may be arbitrary functions of the thickness direction. Functionally graded Rayleigh and Euler–Bernoulli beams are two special cases when the shear modulus is sufficiently high. Moreover, the classical Levinson beam theory is recovered from the present theory when the material constants are unchanged. Numerical computations are performed for a functionally graded cantilever beam with a gradient index obeying power law and the results are displayed graphically to show the effects of the gradient index on the deflection and stress distribution, indicating that both stresses and deflection are sensitive to the gradient variation of material properties.
The paper discusses the bifurcation and stability behavior of (automotive) turbochargers with full-floating ring bearings. Turbocharger rotors exhibit a highly nonlinear behavior due to the nonlinearities introduced by the floating ring bearings. A flexible multibody model of the rotor/bearing system is presented. Numerical run-up simulations are compared with corresponding test rig measurements. The nonlinear oscillation effects are thoroughly investigated by means of simulated and measured rotor vibrations. The influence of various system parameters on the bifurcation behavior of the rotor/bearing system is analyzed. The article examines rotors supported in full-floating ring bearings with plain circular bearing geometry in the inner and outer oil gap. By recapitulating the well-known oil whirl and oil whip phenomena for single and double oil film bearings, the paper gives an overview on the fundamental dynamic effects occurring in turbocharger systems.
Acceleration waves in nonlinear thermoelastic micropolar media are considered. We establish the kinematic and dynamic compatibility relations for a singular surface of order 2 in the media. An analogy to the Fresnel–Hadamard–Duhem theorem and an expression for the acoustic tensor are derived. The condition for acceleration wave’s propagation is formulated as an algebraic spectral problem. It is shown that the condition coincides with the strong ellipticity of equilibrium equations. As an example, a quadratic form for the specific free energy is considered and the solutions of the corresponding spectral problem are presented.
This paper is to study the two-dimensional stress distribution of a functional graded material plate (FGMP) with a circular hole under arbitrary constant loads. With using the method of piece-wise homogeneous layers, the stress distribution of the functional graded material plate having radial arbitrary elastic properties is derived based on the theory of the complex variable functions. As examples, numerical results are presented for the FGMPs having given radial Young’s modulus or Poisson’s ratio. It is shown that the stress is greatly reduced as the radial Young’s modulus increased, but it is less influenced by the variation of the Poisson’s ratio. Moreover, it is also found that the stress level varies when the radial Young’s modulus increased in different ways. Thus, it can be concluded that the stress around the circular hole in the FGMP can be effectively reduced by choosing the proper change ways of the radial elastic properties.
In this paper transient thermal stresses in a thick hollow cylinder with finite length made of two-dimensional functionally graded material (2D-FGM) based on classical theory of thermoelasticity are considered. The volume fraction distribution of materials, geometry and thermal load are assumed to be axisymmetric but not uniform along the axial direction. The finite element method with graded material properties within each element is used to model the structure. Temperature, displacements and stress distributions through the cylinder at different times are investigated. Also the effects of variation of material distribution in two radial and axial directions on the thermal stress distribution and time responses are studied. The achieved results show that using 2D-FGM leads to a more flexible design so that time responses of structure, maximum amplitude of stresses and uniformity of stress distributions can be modified to a required manner by selecting suitable material distribution profiles in two directions.
In this paper, the propagation and localization of elastic waves in randomly disordered layered three-component phononic crystals with thermal effects are studied. The transfer matrix is obtained by applying the continuity conditions between three consecutive sub-cells. Based on the transfer matrix method and Bloch theory, the expressions of the localization factor and dispersion relation are presented. The relation between the localization factors and dispersion curves is discussed. Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the influences of the incident angle on band structures of ordered phononic crystals. For the randomly disordered ones, disorders of structural thickness ratios and Lamé constants are considered. The incident angles, disorder degrees, thickness ratios, Lamé constants and temperature changes have prominent effects on wave localization phenomena in three-component systems. Furthermore, it can be observed that stopbands locate in very low-frequency regions. The localization factor is an effective way to investigate randomly disordered phononic crystals in which the band structure cannot be described.
In order to obtain the equations of motion of vibratory systems, we will need a mathematical description of the forces and moments involved, as function of displacement or velocity, solution of vibration models to predict system behavior requires solution of differential equations, the differential equations based on linear model of the forces and moments are much easier to solve than the ones based on nonlinear models, but sometimes a nonlinear model is unavoidable, this is the case when a system is designed with nonlinear spring and nonlinear damping. Homotopy perturbation method is an effective method to find a solution of a nonlinear differential equation. In this method, a nonlinear complex differential equation is transformed to a series of linear and nonlinear parts, almost simpler differential equations. These sets of equations are then solved iteratively. Finally, a linear series of the solutions completes the answer if the convergence is maintained; homotopy perturbation method (HPM) is enhanced by a preliminary assumption. The idea is to keep the inherent stability of nonlinear dynamic; the enhanced HPM is used to solve the nonlinear shock absorber and spring equations.
The recently proposed weak form quadrature element method (QEM) is extended to the analysis of planar frameworks which are characterized by C1 continuity. Weak form quadrature elements for planar frameworks are developed. Examples are presented and comparison with the results of the finite element method is made to demonstrate the effectiveness and high computational efficiency of the QEM.
This paper deals with longitudinal and flexural wave propagations in steel bars with structural discontinuities. Numerical simulations were performed using the spectral element method and compared with experimental studies conducted on an intact bar as well as on bars with an additional mass, a notch and a grooved weld. To model longitudinal wave propagation including lateral deformations, special rod spectral elements in time domain (based on Love and Mindlin–Herrmann theories) were formulated. The effect of the three discontinuities on wave propagation is discussed, and the applicability of longitudinal and flexural waves to non-destructive damage detection is investigated.
An interface crack with a frictionless contact zone at the right crack tip between two semi-infinite piezoelectric/piezomagnetic spaces under the action of a remote mechanical loading, magnetic and electric fluxes as well as concentrated forces at the crack faces is considered. Assuming that all fields are independent on the coordinate x 2 co-directed with the crack front, the stresses, the electrical and the magnetic fluxes as well as the derivatives of the jumps of the displacements, the electrical and magnetic potentials are presented via a set of analytic functions in the (x 1, x 3)-plane with a cut along the crack region. Two cases of magneto-electric conditions at the crack faces are considered. The first case assumes that the crack is electrically and magnetically permeable, and in the second case the crack is assumed electrically permeable while the open part of the crack is magnetically impermeable. For both these cases due to the above-mentioned representation the combined Dirichlet–Riemann boundary value problems have been formulated and solved exactly. Stress, electric and magnetic induction intensity factors are found in a simple analytical form. Transcendental equations and a closed form analytical formula for the determination of the real contact zone length have been derived for both cases of magnetic conditions in the crack region. For a numerical illustration of the obtained results a bimaterial BaTiO3–CoFe2O4 with different volume fractions of BaTiO3 has been used, and the influence of the mechanical loading and the intensity of the magnetic flux upon the contact zone length and the associated intensity factors as well as the energy release rate has been shown.
This manuscript proposes a novel, efficient finite element solution technique for the computational simulation of cardiac electrophysiology. We apply a two-parameter model that is characterized through a fast action potential and a slow recovery variable. The former is introduced globally as a nodal degree of freedom, whereas the latter is treated locally as internal variable on the integration point level. This particular discretization is extremely efficient and highly modular since different cardiac cell models can be incorporated straightforwardly through only minor local modifications on the integration point level. In this manuscript, we illustrate the algorithm in terms of the Aliev-Panfilov model for cardiomyocytes. To ensure unconditional stability, a backward Euler scheme is applied to discretize the evolution equation for both the action potential and the recovery variable in time. To increase robustness and guarantee optimal quadratic convergence, we suggest an incremental iterative Newton-Raphson scheme and illustrate the consistent linearization of the weak form of the excitation problem. The proposed algorithm is illustrated by means of two- and three-dimensional examples of re-entrant spiral and scroll waves characteristic of cardiac arrhythmias in atrial and ventricular fibrillation.
In this research, the fluid and thermal characteristics of a rectangular turbulent jet flow is studied numerically. The results of three-dimensional jet issued from a rectangular nozzle are presented. A numerical method employing control volume approach with collocated grid arrangement was employed. Velocity and pressure fields are coupled with SIMPLEC algorithm. The turbulent stresses are approximated using k-epsilon model with two different inlet conditions. The velocity and temperature fields are presented and the rates of their decay at the jet centerline are noted. The velocity vectors of the main flow and the secondary flow are illustrated. Also, effect of aspect ratio on mixing in rectangular cross-section jets is considered. The aspect ratios that were considered for this work were 1:1 to 1:4. The results showed that the jet entrains more with smaller AR. Special attention has been drawn to the influence of the Reynolds number ( based on hydraulic diameter) as well as the inflow conditions on the evolution of the rectangular jet. An influence on the jet evolution is found for smaller Re, but the jet is close to a converged state for higher Reynolds numbers. The inflow conditions have considerable influence on the jet characteristics.
In this paper, an analytical solution for the free vibration of rotating composite conical shells with axial stiffeners (stringers) and circumferential stiffener (rings), is presented using an energy-based approach. Ritz method is applied while stiffeners are treated as discrete elements. The conical shells are stiffened with uniform interval and it is assumed that the stiffeners have the same material and geometric properties. The study includes the effects of the coriolis and centrifugal accelerations, and the initial hoop tension. The results obtained include the relationship between frequency parameter and circumferential wave number as well as rotating speed at various angles. Influences of geometric properties on the frequency parameter are also discussed. In order to validate the present analysis, it is compared with other published works for a non-stiffened conical shell; other comparison is made in the special case where the angle of the stiffened conical shell goes to zero, i.e., stiffened cylindrical shell. Good agreement is observed and a new range of results is presented for rotating stiffened conical shells which can be used as a benchmark to approximate solutions.
In this note we extend the results of Akyildiz et al. [Similarity solutions of the boundary layer equations for a nonlinearly stretching sheet. Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences (www.interscience.wiley.com). doi: 10.1002/mma.1181] for any n > 0, where n is a nonlinear stretching parameter. Thus, the proof presented for the existence of the similarity solutions for the boundary layer equation for a nonlinearly stretching sheet presented in Akyildiz et al. hold not only for positive odd integer values of n, but also for any real value of it > 0: That is, n can be any positive real. We accomplish this by defining the stretching velocity of the sheet as u = csgn(x)vertical bar x vertical bar(n), -infinity < x < infinity, at y = 0 (instead of u = cx '', 0 < x < infinity, y = 0) and accordingly modifying the similarity variables. This definition for u at the stretching surface eliminates the restrictions on n in all future research results related to flow and heat transfer over nonlinear stretching surfaces.
The precise failure mechanisms of bone implants are still incompletely understood. Micro-computed tomography in combination with finite element analysis appears to be a potent methodology to determine the mechanical stability of bone-implant constructs. To assess this microstructural finite element (mu FE) analysis approach, pull-out tests were designed and conducted on ten sheep vertebral bodies into which orthopedic screws were inserted. mu FE models of the same bone-implant constructs were then built and solved, using a large-scale linear FE-solver. mu FE calculated pull-out strength correlated highly with the experimentally measured pull-out strength (r (2) = 0.87) thereby statistically supporting the mu FE approach. These results suggest that bone-implant constructs can be analyzed using mu FE in a detailed and unprecedented way. This could potentially facilitate the development of future implant designs leading to novel and improved fracture fixation methods.
Contact stresses are identified as normal and tangential forces between contacting solids. The normal stresses are modeled using unilateral and complementary conditions, elastic response and normal compliance. Friction laws describe the tangential traction. Friction of materials depends on pressure, sliding velocity, surface temperature, time of contact, surface roughness and presence of wear debris. Phenomenological, micro-mechanical and atomic-scale models as well as non-classical models of anisotropic and heterogeneous friction are important steps in the development of friction modeling. Sophisticated friction models are desirable in vibrating systems, materials processing, rolling contacts, rubber and polymers, geomechanics, bioengineering and living systems. Main numerical methods in contact mechanics are: finite element method, boundary element method and discrete element method. To include specific contact constraints, the following computing techniques are applied: Lagrange multipliers, penalty function, perturbated and augmented Lagrangian methods, mathematical programming methods. The advances of adhesion and impact modeling are outlined in this paper.
Flapping wings are promising lift and thrust generators, especially for very low Reynolds numbers. To investigate aeroelastic effects of flexible wings (specifically, wing's twisting stiffness) on hovering and cruising aerodynamic performance, a flapping-wing system and an experimental setup were designed and built. This system measures the unsteady aerodynamic and inertial forces, power usage, and angular speed of the flapping wing motion for different flapping frequencies and for various wings with different chordwise flexibility. Aerodynamic performance of the vehicle for both no wind (hovering) and cruise condition was investigated. Results show how elastic deformations caused by interaction of inertial and aerodynamic forces with the flexible structure may affect specific power consumption. This information was used here to find a more suitable structural design. The best selected design in our tests performs up to 30% better than others (i.e., less energy consumption for the same lift or thrust generation). This measured aerodynamic information could also be used as a benchmarking data for unsteady flow solvers.
The wrinkling of a stiff thin film bonded on a soft elastic layer and subjected to an applied or residual compressive stress is investigated in the present paper. A three-dimensional theoretical model is presented to predict the buckling and postbuckling behavior of the film. We obtained the analytical solutions for the critical buckling condition and the postbuckling morphology of the film. The effects of the thicknesses and elastic properties of the film and the soft layer on the characteristic wrinkling wavelength are examined. It is found that the critical wrinkling condition of the thin film is sensitive to the compressibility and thickness of the soft layer, and its wrinkling amplitude depends on the magnitude of the applied or residual in-plane stress. The bonding condition between the soft layer and the rigid substrate has a considerable influence on the buckling of the thin film, and the relative sliding at the interface tends to destabilize the system.
A continuum triphase model (i.e., a solid filled with fluid containing nutrients) based on the theory of porous media (TPM) is proposed for the phenomenological description of growth and remodeling phenomena in isotropic and transversely isotropic biological tissues. In this study, particular attention is paid on the description of the mass exchange during the stress-strain- and/or nutrient-driven phase transition of the nutrient phase to the solid phase. In order to define thermodynamically consistent constitutive relations, the entropy inequality of the mixture is evaluated in analogy to Coleman and Noll (Arch Ration Mech Anal 13:167-178, 1963). Thereby, the choose of independent process variables is motivated by the fact that the resulting phenomenological description derives both a physical interpretability and a comprehensive description of the coupled processes. Based on the developed thermodynamical restrictions constitutive relations for stress, mass supply and permeability are proposed. The resulting system of equation is implemented into a mixed finite element scheme. Thus, we obtain a coupled calculation concept to determine the solid motion, inner pressure as well as the solid, fluid and nutrient volume fractions.