In an ageing society, families may have an important role in the caretaking and well-being of the elderly. Demographic changes have an impact on the size and structure of families; one aspect is how intergenerational support is distributed when there is a need for support to both older and younger generations at the same time. Another vital aspect of the provision of care for the elderly is geographic proximity. This study is oriented towards the potential “both-end carers” i.e. persons who have grandchildren in potential need of care while still having living ageing parents. The incidence of having grandchildren and having living parents at age 55 and the proximity between generations is described using Swedish register data. The results show that the share of 55-year-olds who are grandparents decreased dramatically from 70% to 35% between 1990 and 2005. As expected, more 55-year-olds have living parents—a proportion that increased from 37% to 47% during this period. As a result of delayed childbearing among the children of these cohorts, the likelihood of belonging to a four-generation family among 55-year-olds has not increased, despite increased longevity. Furthermore, most individuals live within daily reach of their kin and no evidence was found of a trend of increasing geographic distances between generations.
This study investigates the relationship between depression and labor force participation by examining whether retirement induces depression or depression discourages labor force participation. The sample is drawn from newly available, nationally representative data of those 50–64 years old using the 2006 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. We model two possibly inter-related outcomes; depression and work. We first examine whether retirement influences depression, using the mandatory retirement provisions of the Korean labor force to identify a pathway to retirement that is not a consequence of depression. We then estimate the determinants of current work using instrumental variables for depression. We find that mandatory retirement is not associated with subsequent depression but find evidence that depression leads to reduced labor force participation, after using instrumental variables to predict the existence of depressive symptoms among respondents. We find strong evidence that depression leads to reduced labor force participation. Although retirees are often more depressed than workers, the causes that induce retirement, such as poor health, care-giving responsibilities, and inability to find a job, are also associated with depression.
New models for evolutionary processes of mutation accumulation allow hypotheses about the age-specificity of mutational effects to be translated into predictions of heterogeneous population hazard functions. We apply these models to questions in the biodemography of longevity, including proposed explanations of Gompertz hazards and mortality plateaus.
Canada is an aging society; with over 13% of the population 65 and over in 2008 and with this population growing at a rate more than double the overall population. Moreover, the aging of the Canada population varies geographically across the nation. Using data drawn from the 2001 Census of Canada Master files (20% sample), the objectives of this analysis are twofold. First, the analysis examines the internal migration behavior of the older population, distinguishing between the native-born and foreign-born. Second, the analysis examines how residential attributes at the census subdivision (CSD) and census metropolitan levels influence the migration decision. This analysis examines the later-life migrations of Canada’s older population at the census subdivision level in 2001.
This paper investigates whether the houses of Australian elderly home owners appreciate at below the market rate and examines the issues this may raise for the use of reverse mortgages as a retirement funding strategy in Australia. The viability of reverse mortgages where elderly home owners effectively borrow against their housing equity depends strongly on house prices appreciating enough to offset the outstanding loan balance at the end of the loan tenure. This paper’s findings indicate that after controlling for other influences, being aged 75 years or over lowers annual house price appreciation rate by almost 1.4 percentage points. Being aged 75 years or over also lowers home improvement expenditure by over AUD3,000 per year and this is found to be attributable to a decline in income during old age. The majority of elderly home owners want to protect at least half of their housing equity when considering participating in reverse mortgage programs, but given below-average house price appreciation rates during old age, the propensity of a 50% equity protection declines sharply with age. In particular, single females aged 75 years or over are least able to protect at least half of their housing equity, with only around 15% able to do so by the end of a reverse mortgage loan tenure. The paper also finds that, worryingly, elderly home owners with characteristics associated with slower house price appreciation rates are over-represented among reverse mortgage borrowers in Australia, namely, those aged 75 years or over, single, living in apartments or residing in states with relatively slow house price growth.
Due to ageing populations and a future shortage of labour active people, there is a political ambition to prolong people’s work force activities in Europe. The question of this paper is to what degree policy changes aimed at prolonging people’s working lives have been successful in influencing peoples’ commitment to paid work during the studied period of time? The age patterns of non-financial employment commitment (EC) and organisational Commitment (OC) are examined from the perspective of policy changes in four European countries, using ISSP-data collected in 1997 and 2005 from Denmark, Great Britain, Hungary and Sweden. Because of hypothesised country and group differences in visibility and proximity of policy measures taken to increase labour market participation among older workers, Danish and Swedish people were expected to display some degree of general and intended attitudinal response to the policy changes and that the British and Hungarian response would be more gender divided. The results showed that policy changes overall had little intended effect on people’s attitudes to work. Instead, EC dropped dramatically in Hungary for all men from the age of 30 and over, and for Swedish men and Danish women in the 45–53 age group. OC decreased for Swedish men in the age 54 and over, and for Danish women in the 45–53 age group. The main exceptions were British and Hungarian women that displayed unchanged or even an increase in EC in the age group 54 and over.
The process of demographic ageing in Sri Lanka is striking in comparison to the experience of other countries in South Asia, and in comparison to many developing countries more generally. The proportion of the population older than 60 years in Sri Lanka was much higher—almost double—than in any other country in the region in 2000, and by 2030, it is expected that nearly one of every five Sri Lankans will be elderly. The rapid ageing of the Sri Lankan population is contributing to the emergence of several policy issues that will undoubtedly become more acute in the years to come. The primary aim of this paper is to examine the magnitude, characteristics and determinants of demographic ageing in Sri Lanka, a country whose demography has received little international attention, and discuss some of the implications of this ageing process for selected policy issues.
This paper examines the quality of care provided by old age homes in developing countries. It draws attention to the growing demand for such services and the emergence of a largely unregulated private sector. The paper reviews the findings of a survey of 101 private old age homes conducted in Buenos Aires, Argentina during 2004 and 2005. This reveals that the quality of care leaves much to be desired, and that the rights, autonomy and dignity of older people are often neglected. Particular issues of concern are the repressive managerial structures (including the use of restraints and medication), questionable processes of admission, and limited support for dependent residents. The paper calls for long-term care to be given a higher policy profile in developing countries than is currently the case.
Commonly used aging measures such as the proportion of older people, the proportion of people aged less than 15 years, and the aging index (aged-child ratio) are based on a simple head count ratio (HCR). The HCR is a crude measure as it fails to give any idea about the tail distribution of the population age. Here an attempt has been made to develop new aging indices (age gap, age distribution sensitive and generalized) taking into account both tails of the population age distribution i.e., distribution of the population aged under fifteen and over sixty. These new indices have been applied to the Bangladesh population based on data collected from secondary sources: the international data base, US Census Bureau and Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS), for the years 1961, 1981 and 2001 and for some selected Asian countries for 1960, 1980 and 2000 using data from the international UN data base. Conventional aging indices have also been calculated and compared with new ones. Cross-country analysis has also been performed to study the sensitivity of aging indices. Analysis shows an increasing in the speed of aging and new indices indicate the process is faster than conventional ones. For example, relative increases in the speed of aging in 2001 compared to 1981 for conventional and new aging indices (aged-young age gap and aged-young distribution sensitive) are 28.97, 39.19 and 42.04% respectively. The findings also indicate that population aging at the peak is not clear but at the base it is evident. Again the aging process with respect to sex and urban-rural dwelling is also different. From cross-country analysis it is found that the new indices are more sensitive than conventional ones.