In this article we survey r-adaptive (or moving grid) methods for solving time-dependent partial differential equations (PDEs). Although these methods have received much less attention than their h- and p-adaptive counterparts, particularly within the finite element community, we review the substantial progress that has been made in developing more robust and reliable algorithms and in understanding the basic principles behind these methods, and we give some numerical examples illustrative of the wide classes of problems for which these methods are suitable alternatives to the traditional ones.More specifically, we first examine the basic geometric properties of moving meshes in both one and higher spatial dimensions, and discuss the discretization process for PDEs on such moving meshes (both structured and unstructured). In particular, we consider the issues of mesh regularity, equidistribution, alignment, and associated variational methods. An overview is given of the general interpolation error analysis for a function or a truncation error on such an adaptive mesh. Guided by these principles, we show how to design effective moving mesh strategies. We then examine in more detail how these strategies can be implemented in practice. The first class of methods which we consider are based upon controlling mesh density and hence are called position-based methods. These make use of a so-called moving mesh PDE (MMPDE) approach and variational methods, as well as optimal transport methods. This is followed by an analysis of methods which have a more Lagrange-like interpretation, and due to this focus are called velocity-based methods. These include the moving finite element method (MFE), the geometric conservation law (GCL) methods, and the deformation map method. Finally, we present a number of specific types of examples for which the use of a moving mesh method is particularly effective in applications. These include scale-invariant problems, blow-up problems, problems with moving fronts and problems in meteorology. We conclude that, whilst r-adaptive methods are still in their relatively early stages of development, with many outstanding questions remaining, they have enormous potential and indeed can produce an optimal form of adaptivity for many problems.
Methods for the solution of boundary integral equations have changed significantly during the last two decades. This is due, in part, to improvements in computer hardware, but more importantly, to the development of fast algorithms which scale linearly or nearly linearly with the number of degrees of freedom required. These methods are typically iterative, based on coupling fast matrix-vector multiplication routines with conjugate-gradient-type schemes. Here, we discuss methods that are currently under development for the fast, direct solution of boundary integral equations in three dimensions. After reviewing the mathematical foundations of such schemes, we illustrate their performance with some numerical examples, and discuss the potential impact of the overall approach in a variety of settings.
Whether the 3D incompressible Euler and Navier–Stokes equations can develop a finite-time singularity from smooth initial data with finite energy has been one of the most long-standing open questions. We review some recent theoretical and computational studies which show that there is a subtle dynamic depletion of nonlinear vortex stretching due to local geometric regularity of vortex filaments. We also investigate the dynamic stability of the 3D Navier–Stokes equations and the stabilizing effect of convection. A unique feature of our approach is the interplay between computation and analysis. Guided by our local non-blow-up theory, we have performed large-scale computations of the 3D Euler equations using a novel pseudo-spectral method on some of the most promising blow-up candidates. Our results show that there is tremendous dynamic depletion of vortex stretching. Moreover, we observe that the support of maximum vorticity becomes severely flattened as the maximum vorticity increases and the direction of the vortex filaments near the support of maximum vorticity is very regular. Our numerical observations in turn provide valuable insight, which leads to further theoretical breakthrough. Finally, we present a new class of solutions for the 3D Euler and Navier–Stokes equations, which exhibit very interesting dynamic growth properties. By exploiting the special nonlinear structure of the equations, we prove nonlinear stability and the global regularity of this class of solutions.
Retarded functional differential equations (RFDEs) form a wide class of evolution equations which share the property that, at any point, the rate of the solution depends on a discrete or distributed set of values attained by the solution itself in the past. Thus the initial problem for RFDEs is an infinite-dimensional problem, taking its theoretical and numerical analysis beyond the classical schemes developed for differential equations with no functional elements. In particular, numerically solving initial problems for RFDEs is a diffcult task that cannot be founded on the mere adaptation of well-known methods for ordinary, partial or integro-differential equations to the presence of retarded arguments. Indeed, efficient codes for their numerical integration need speciffc approaches designed according to the nature of the equation and the behaviour of the solution.By defining the numerical method as a suitable approximation of the solution map of the given equation, we present an original and unifying theory for the convergence and accuracy analysis of the approximate solution. Two particular approaches, both inspired by Runge–Kutta methods, are described. Despite being apparently similar, they are intrinsically different. Indeed, in the presence of speciffc types of functionals on the right-hand side, only one of them can have an explicit character, whereas the other gives rise to an overall procedure which is implicit in any case, even for non-stiff problems.In the panorama of numerical RFDEs, some critical situations have been recently investigated in connection to speciffc classes of equations, such as the accurate location of discontinuity points, the termination and bifurcation of the solutions of neutral equations, with state-dependent delays, the regularization of the equation and the generalization of the solution behind possible termination points, and the treatment of equations stated in the implicit form, which include singularly perturbed problems and delay differential-algebraic equations as well. All these issues are tackled in the last three sections.In this paper we have not considered the important issue of stability, for which we refer the interested reader to the comprehensive book by Bellen and Zennaro (2003).