Based on RS, GIS and Apack software, the indices of landscape pattern such as landscape area index, landscape diversity index and landscape fragmentation index were chosen in order to describe changes in the spatial pattern of alpine wetland landscape on the Zoige Plateau during 1966–2000. Results showed that alpine wetland landscape was characteristic of marsh wetlands, which had the biggest patch number and the largest area. The alpine wetland landscape had higher spatial heterogeneity. The largest area appeared in Zoige County with the highest wetland ratio; comparatively, Aba County and Luqu County had much lower wetland ratio. The total area of alpine wetland landscape decreased rapidly during 1966–1986, but it began to increase after 1986. The wetland landscape area shrank by 59857.83 hm during 1966–2000. The alpine wetland landscape showed the characteristics of concentrated distribution in the past four decades, with higher convergence and dominance indices. The centroid of wetland landscape moved 12.54 km in the northwest direction firstly, 11.33 km in the southeast direction, and then 1.1 km in the north direction.
Deep soil desiccations are increasingly threatening artificial forests on the Loess Plateau of China. Soil moisture in 0–1000 cm soil layers of 23 kinds of tree and shrub forestlands was measured. Average soil moisture in 0–1000 cm soil profile of the forestlands was 10.84%, obviously lower than soil moisture in local natural grasslands and soil stable moisture. Average soil desic-cation intensity reached a medium level. Maximum soil water use depth was close to or over 1000 cm, and the thickness of desic-cated soil layers in forestlands reached or passed 800 cm.
The responses of to the environmental gradients of water table depth and soil salinity in the Yellow River Delta, China were analyzed from the aspect of ecological thresholds which were developed from the Gaussian model. Based on the correlation analysis of population biomass, density, height, coverage and abundance of population biomass was selected as the population index for further analysis. The results indicated that the optimum water table depth for the growth of was about −0.42 m, the ecological thresholds were from −0.92 m to 0.08 m, and the optimum ecological thresholds were from −0.67 m to −0.17 m. To the soil salinity gradient, the optimum was about 12.71 g/kg, the ecological thresholds were from 5.17 g/kg to 20.25 g/kg, and the optimum ecological thresholds were from 8.94 g/kg to 16.48 g/kg. However, the effect of water-salinity interaction seemed to be important to the growth of , which was discussed through analyzing the water table depth-soil salinity relationship and their interactions. By using Ward cluster analysis and Gamma distances, 69 sampling sites were classified into 7 kinds of communities. It was found that there was a remarkable response of the community structure of to the water table depth and soil salinity gradients, which can be a switchover from xeromorphic and saline-alkali plants to limnophytes, and vice versa.
Based on routine monitoring data in Xiangxi River and its main tributary Gaolan River from September 2000 to June 2005, this paper estimates the contribution of riverine nutrients, and analyzes the monthly dynamics of concentrations and fluxes of nutrients. The results show that Xiangxi Bay annually receives 1623.49 tons of total nitrogen (TN) and 331.85 tons of total phosphorus; Xiangxi River alone accounts for 68.50% of the total nitrogen fluxes and 91.74% of the total phosphorus fluxes. In these two rivers, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) is the dominating form of nitrogen; fluxes of DIN and TN are high during summer (July), mid-spring and autumn, and relatively low in winter; non-point source pollutants that flow into rivers are the most important pathway of nitrogen. Orthophosphate is the dominating form of phosphorus in Xiangxi River, relatively low in Gaolan River; fluxes of phosphorus are high during summer and late spring, relatively low during winter and late autumn in Gaolan River, but fluctuate irregularly in Xiangxi River; phosphorus in Gaolan River is mainly caused by non-point source pollutants, while point source pollutants of phosphorus play an important role in Xiangxi River. Soil erosion probably represents the major way of non-point source pollutants, while the drainages of phosphorus diggings and factory discharges play the most important role in the point source pollutants of phosphorus. This research suggests that measures must be taken to control the point source pollutants of phosphorus in Xiangxi River in order to protect Xiangxi Bay of the Three-Gorges Reservoir.
As one of the important ecosystem services of wetlands, carbon sequestration potential of lakes and swamps in China were investigated. Significant differences were found among the carbon sequestration potential of various lakes, determined by natural conditions and human disturbance. In this study, swamps had a carbon sequestration potential of 4.90 TgC, much higher than lakes in China. Mangrove and coastal marsh have the highest carbon sediment rate among swamps. Carbon sequestration potential in returning farms to lakes and swamps was 30.26 and 0.22 GgC. … a , respectively. Under the ongoing national wetland conservation action plan in China, the carbon sequestration potential of wetland restoration was 6.57 GgC. … a . Protection and restoration measurements can improve carbon sequestration potential of wetlands.
Despite lack of efficient physical protection in the highly competitive and hostile environment, the marine invertebrates including soft corals and gorgonians can survive, mainly relying on their chemical defensive system by a series of secondary metabolites accumulating in their bodies or releasing to their surroundings. The chemical defensive functions of these secondary metabolites were found to serve as antipredatory, antimicrobial, allelopathy and antifouling agents. Study on chemical defensive substances from corals and gorgonians is one of the most important topics in marine chemical ecology. The research results could help us to understand the chemical ecological relationships between corals and their surrounding organisms. The research strategy and methodology played an enlightening role in the discovery of bioactive natural products and the generation of new drug lead compounds from marine sources. The chemical defensive substances from soft corals and gorgonians were reviewed. This review focused on the structures of these secondary metabolites as well as their functions including antipredatory, allelopathy and antifouling activities.
Eutrophication and algal blooms are the most serious environmental problems in the world, and biological tools, especially the allelopathic inhibitory effects of aquatic macrophytes on phytoplankton growth have been receiving world-wide attention. In our experiments, the allelopathic inhibitory effect of culture water on and its eco-physiological mechanism were investigated by initial addition assays and continuous addition assays. The results showed that the growth of was markedly inhibited by culture water. Compared with initial addition assays, exhibited stronger inhibitory potential on by continuous addition assays, indicating that allelopathic compounds might be excreted continuously by , and the inhibitory effects would be cumulative. We also found that the relative content of chlorophyll a (Chl a), phycocyanin (PC) and allophycocyanin (APC) of decreased to 52.7%, 15.3% and 7.6% respectively after being treated by culture water for 5 days, and phycobiliprotein (especially APC) decreased more than Chl a. These results suggest that the phycobiliprotein would be the target of allelopathic inhibition of on , and a new macrophyte to control cyanobacterial blooms would be found.
Several nitrogen (N) field experiments were carried out in Nanjing and Anyang, China, to study the dynamic characteristics of biomass accumulation and N uptake, and to define the dilution curve for critical N concentration in cotton reproductive organ over the growth period. The results show that the total biomass and N accumulation were affected significantly by the rate of N application, exhibiting a sigmoid curve over time. The beginning time of fast N accumulation was 1–5 d earlier than that of biomass accumulation. The cotton lint yield was correlated with N concentration in the reproductive organ and fluctuated with varying N concentration, indicating the existence of luxurious N consumption in the cotton reproductive organ. The N concentration increased with increasing N application rates, and decreased gradually during the growth period. The relationship between biomass and N concentration can be described with a power equation. The patterns of the N concentration dilution model were consistent at both experimental sites, but the model parameter values of differed. The results presented in this paper indicate that a critical N concentration dilution curve for cotton reproductive organ is independent of ecological region and can be described with a power equation.
Sandy desertification is now the main ecological problem in the Otindag Sandy Land. In order to reveal the process of land degradation, especially the latest situation of sandy desertification, a method integrating remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS) and field survey was employed to build a sandy desertification dataset for analysis. Remote sensing images included the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) image in 1987, the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM ) image in 2000, and the image with the Charge-Coupled Device Camera (CCD) on the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) in 2006. Five land-cover classes, including active sand dunes, fixed sand dunes, semi-fixed sand dunes, inter-dune grassland and wetlands, were identified. Results showed that the Otindag Sandy Land has been suffering sandy desertification since 1987 with 2 different desertified stages. The first stage from 1987 to 2000 was a severe sandy desertification period, characterized by the fixed sand dunes decreasing at a high speed, and the semi-fixed and active sand dunes increasing remarkably. The second stage spanned from 2000 to 2006 and the sandy desertification was weakened greatly. Although a large area of fixed sand dunes were transformed to other types, fixed sand dunes were still the dominant type in the Ointdag region at 2006. Spatial change detection based on active sand dunes showed that the expansion area was much larger than the reversion area in the past two decades, and that several active sand belts had been formed, suggesting that sandy desertification controlling of the Otindag Sandy Land will be a long-term task.
Isolation, molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis were carried out to investigate the biodiversity of manganese bacteria in sediments which were collected from the Arctic Ocean during the 2 Chinese Arctic Scientific Expedition. 21 and 19 species of cultivable strains were isolated from sediments at Stations P11 and S11, respectively, according to their distinct morphological character on the screening plate of manganese medium. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis showed that the cultivable manganese bacteria from Station P11 were basically composed of γ-Proteobacteria (γ subgroup of the Proteobacteria branch of the domain Bacteria) and Actinobacteria, which accounted for 86% and 14%, respectively. The isolates of γ-Proteobacteria mainly included and , of which was the major genus, which accounted for 67% of the γ-Proteobacteria. The cultivable manganese bacteria from Station S11 included α-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria and Flavobacteria of Bacteroides. The γ-Proteobacteria mainly included and . The majority of α-Proteobacteria was . The phylogenetic analysis indicated that bacteria from sediments at Stations P11 and S11 had different cultivable manganese microbial communities. All tested strains had higher resistance to Mn , of which sp. S11-S-4 had the highest resistant ability.
Hirudinea in China were reviewed. The ecological distribution of Hirudinea, the population dynamics of , the adaptation of to temperature, soil humidity and pH, the response of to temperature, relative humidity and light, and the effects of human activities on populations were discussed. The land-leeches' behavior ecology, including (1) the locomotion of such as shortening, oscillating, rotating, sucking cleaning, rubbing and foraging behaviors; (2) the factors influencing these behaviors; (3) the ecological significance, was also discussed. The ecology of freshwater leeches including (1) behavior in paddy fields of Ninghsien, Zhejiang Province, China; (2) relationship between population dynamics of and chemical factors in paddy fields of Guangzhou, China; (3) chemical environment of blood-sucking in paddy fields of Guangzhou was described. The study also discussed the foraging, growth dynamics, life recycle and biology of reproduction of blood-sucking land-leech and freshwater leech , the taxonomy and the zoogeography. In addition, the morphology including histology and anatomy of the organic system of was described. The Hirudinea can be classified into 2 subclasses (Branchiobdellidea and Euhirudinea), 3 orders (Branchiobdellida, Rhynchobdellida and Arhynchobdellida), 9 families, 33 genera and 111 species. The response of leeches to pesticides, including toxicity (LD50, LD95) of different pesticides to , was presented. Medical usage of the leech Hirudin from salivary glands as anticoagulant material was discussed. Hirudin (from ), Haemadin (from land-leech), and hementi (from ) were identified and isolated.
A field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of a rainwater-harvesting furrow/ridge system (RHFRS) on water use efficiency ( ) and grain yield of spring com in different simulated rainfall treatments. Our results showed that when rainfall supply ranged between 230 and 440 mm, the rainwater-harvesting furrow/ridge system increased surface temperature by 0.7–1°C at the depth of 10 cm and increased soil water storage by 5%–12% in the soil layer of 0–120 cm compared with the control. Emergence was also more rapid in the furrow-ridge system. Spring corn yield in the rainwater-harvesting furrow/ridge system was 83% higher in the 230 mm rainfall treatment, 43% higher in the 340 mm rainfall treatment, and 11% higher in the 440 mm rainfall treatment compared with the control. Similarly, was 77% higher in the 230 mm rainfall treatment, 43% higher in the 340 mm treatment, and 10% higher in the 440 mm treatment than those of the control under the corresponding rainfalls. In summary, results from this study indicate that 440 mm rainfall during the spring corn growing season is the upper limit for which the rainwater-harvesting furrow/ridge system should be adopted.
Soil microbial community structure and function are commonly used as indicators for soil quality and fertility. In this paper, the bacterial community structure and function in a black soil of Dehui region influenced by fertilization were investigated by Biolog and PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) methods. Biolog examination showed that substrate richness and catabolic diversities of bacterial communities were the highest in the treatment of farm yard manure, and the lowest in the chemical fertilizer treatment. DGGE fingerprint showed that the majority of bands were similar among all treatments, suggesting that microbial communities with those bands were stable, and not influenced by fertilization. In general, chemical fertilizer decreased the diversity of soil bacterial communities. The PCA (principal component analysis) plots of Biolog and DGGE revealed that the structure and function of bacterial communities were similar in the non-fertilized control and the treatment of farm yard manure alone, which inferred that the application of farm yard manure increased the quantity of soil microbes but had less effect on the changes of community structure. The catabolic function was similar, but the composition structure differed between the treatments of chemical fertilizer alone and combined application of farm yard manure with chemical fertilizer. These results suggest that the use of chemical fertilizer mainly decreased the catabolic activity of the fast growth bacteria or eutrophic bacteria.
To develop benthic macroinvertebrate-based multimetrics for the bioassessment of the water quality of Taihu Lake, benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were sampled at 60 sites in 8 subareas of Taihu Lake. A total of 24 species of benthic macroinvertebrates were obtained: 14 species of Mollusca, 5 species of Arthropoda and 5 species of Annelida. A comprehensive evaluation of the metrics was carried out. The results showed that 7 metrics ( , total number of taxa, the number of Mollusca & Crustacea taxa, % Mollusca & Crustacea, % Gastropoda, Goodnight-Whitley index, Hilsenhoff biotic index and % Collector-gatherers) were sensitive. A score of 5, 3 or 1 was assigned to every metric for standardization of the metrics, and a multimetric on a scale ranging from 7 to 35 for bioassessment was developed. Four-level discriminatory biocriteria for water quality were eventually proposed by quartation: 7–14, very poor; 15–21, poor; 22–28, fair; 29–35, good. The re-scored results from the 60 sites showed that the water quality of southeastern Taihu Lake was relatively good, whereas that of northwestern Taihu Lake was relatively poor. Basically, the discriminatory biocriteria are suitable for the assessment of the water quality of Taihu Lake.
Microbial communities were obtained from the surface sediments of the Xisha Trough using the culture-independent technique. The characteristics of the 16S rDNA gene amplified from the sediments indicated that archaeal clones could be grouped into Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota, respectively. Two archaeal groups, Marine Crenarchaeotic Group and Terrestrial Miscellaneous Euryarchaeotal Group, were the most dominant archaeal 16S rDNA gene components in the sediments. The remaining components were related to the members of Marine Benthic Group B, Marine Benthic Group A, Marine Benthic Group D, Novel Euryarchaeotic Group and C3. The bacterial clones exhibited greater diversity than the archaeal clones with the 16S rDNA gene sequences from the members of Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, candidate division OP8, Bacterioidetes/Chlorobi and Verrucomicrobia. Most of these lineages represented uncultured microorganisms. The result suggests that a vast amount of microbial resource in the surface sediments of the South China Sea has not been known.
Vegetation degradation is one of the key subjects in the study of global environmental changes, and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is generally recognized as a good indicator of terrestrial vegetation productivity and growth status. To evaluate the vegetation dynamic changes in the Jinghe watershed on Loess plateau from 1982 to 2003, major methods of change slope, principal component analysis and correlation analysis were employed with 8 km resolution NOAA-NDVI time series data. Based on these analyses, the relationship between precipitation and NDVI was discussed. Results show that there has been little change in both amplitude and variety of NDVI during the past 22 years. Vegetation in the upper stream areas, typically the watershed marginal mountain areas, changes significantly. A trend analysis shows that the similar finding on vegetation dynamics in different areas tends to be induced by climate changes and human land use transformation. A standardized principal component analysis indicates that the first two components, PC1 and PC2, are closely related to vegetation and climate changes, while PC3 and PC4 are connected with floodwater in flooding seasons, and PC5 and PC6 reflect the effects of human activities. Finally, the correlation analysis shows that there is a close positive relationship in this region between NDVI and precipitation. The rainfall sensitivity threshold reaches 550 mm or even higher.
The measurement of total soil organic matter (SOM) is not sensitive enough to detect short and medium term changes, and thus meaningful fractions of SOM should be measured. The carbon management index (CMI) was shown to be a useful technique for describing soil fertility. Soil samples were collected from natural evergreen broadleaved forest and its artificial regeneration forests of and in southern Sichuan Province, China, to determine soil carbon fractions, available nutrients, enzyme activity and CMI. Regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between soil carbon fractions, CMI and fertility. The results showed that the contents of soil organic carbon, water-soluble carbon, microbial biomass carbon, labile carbon, non-labile carbon, hydrolysis-N, available-P and available-K, the activity of invertase, phosphatase and catalase, and CMI were ranked with different seasons and followed the order: natural evergreen broadleaved forest > plantation > plantation > plantation. The soil carbon fractions and CMI were significantly positively ( < 0.05) correlated with available nutrients and enzyme activity. The results indicate that soil carbon fractions and CMI could be used to evaluate the soil fertility for natural evergreen broadleaved forest and its artificial regeneration forests.
The influence of small hydropower plants (SHPs) on the spatial distribution of macroinvertebrate assemblages was investigated in 5 cascade SHPs along the Xiangxi River in October 2005. 5 sites were sampled at each SHP. A total of 4656 macroinvertebrates belonging to 69 genera were collected. The characteristics of macroinvertebrate community structures were analyzed by using richness, abundance, dominant species and functional feeding groups. The results suggested that construction of SHPs had no significant impact on water chemistry, but on physical variables (such as current velocity and water depth) which varied significantly among the 5 sites. All the characteristics of the macroinvertebrate community were more or less affected by the construction, especially by the abundance, filter-collector percentage, predator percentage, and the stations. The results also suggested that the sites beneath the dam had the most different community structures, indicating that diverting the water current completely is harmful to the protection of macroinvertebrate diversity of the river.
We investigated the morphological characteristics of in the desert-oasis ecotones that were located in Jinta County and Ejin, China. Also, we quantitatively analyzed the relationships among the morphological parameters, spatial pattern and spatial heterogeneity. The results indicate that (1) Most of is of independent type. The average values of height, volume and plant canopy diameter in the Gobi are smaller than those in the desert, whereas the average values of plant height and coverage are on the contrary. All parameter values in Ejin are larger than those in Jinta. (2) There are linear relationships between the long and the short axes, and the volume and the plant canopy diameter of the . The regression curve of height and area is parabolic, and that of the plant height and canopy diameter is parabolic in the Gobi while linear in the desert. (3) The spatial pattern shows a mosaic pattern in the Gobi, while it forms chain distribution along the wind orientation in the desert. (4) The spatial heterogeneity is mostly caused by the non-stochastic reason, and it is higher in Ejin than in Jinta. In addition, the conclusions indicate that the stimulative action of deep sand bury, caused by high strength aeolian accumulation, to the growth of and the feedback effect between and are the adaptability mechanisms of