To observe the photoprotective effect and possible mechanisms of resveratrol for ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiated HaCaT cells. HaCaT cells under UVA irradiation with 5J/cm(2) were interfered with 0.01 mmol/L and 0.1 mmol/L resveratrol. The testing objects were divided into a control and a UVA irradiation group, and then we detected the proliferation capacity with methylthiazdyl tetrazolium (MTT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, content of maleic dialdehyde (MDA) with hydroxylamine, colorimetric, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) methods. The ultrastructure was observed under electron microscope. Resveratrol could enhance the proliferation activity, SOD, GSH-Px activity of HaCaT cells under UVA irradiation, decrease the content of MDA in dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). The electron microscope revealed that resveratrol could relieve the injury of HaCaT cells' ultrastructure. Resveratrol can relieve the inhibition to HaCaT cell proliferation,injury of their ultrastructure and oxidation by UVA irradiation. The protection is dose-dependent. That resveratrol raises the oxidase activity and clears the oxyradical may account for these results.
Pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a complicate and chronic process that is secondary to acute cardiac responses to diabetes. One of the acute responses is cardiac cell death that plays a critical role in the initiation and development of DCM. Besides hyperglycemia, inflammatory response in the diabetic heart is also a major cause for cardiac cell death. Diabetes or obesity often causes systemic and cardiac increases in tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-18 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. However, how these cytokines cause cardiac cell death remains unclear. It has been considered to relate to oxidative and/or nitrosative stress. We have demonstrated that metallothionein as a potent antioxidant or stress protein significantly protected the heart from oxidative damage and cell death caused by these cytokines, leading to effective prevention of DCM. The direct link of the inhibition of oxidative stress and damage to the prevention of cardiac cell death was defined by addition of superoxide or peroxynitrite specific inhibitor to completely prevent cytokine-induced cardiac cell death. Cardiac cell death is induced by the inflammatory cytokines that is increased in response to diabetes. Inflammatory cytokine-induced cardiac cell death is mediated by oxidative stress and is also the major initiator for DCM development.
To investigate the effect of resveratrol on the proliferation and apoptosis of synoviocytes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in vitro and explore its mechanism. The levels of cell proliferation of synoviocytes in RA after 24 h treated with different concentrations of resveratrol were measured by monotetrazolium colourmetric assay method. The percentages of synoviocytes apoptosis in RA after 24 h treated with different concentrations of resveratrol were tested by TUNEL and flow cytometry. The relative activities of caspase-3 were determined by colorimetric assay after 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 h treated with resveratrol (200 micromol/L) and 12 h treated with different concentrations of resveratrol. The cleavages of pro-caspase-3 were analyzed by Western blot after 24 h treated with different concentrations of resveratrol. The levels of cell proliferation of synoviocytes with RA after 24 h treated with different concentrations of resveratrol were significantly decreased compared with the control group (P<0.01). The percentages of the apoptotic cells were increased of resveratrol-treated after 24 h, the apoptosis rates between the treated groups and the control group were significantly different (P<0.01). When the synoviocytes in RA were treated with 200 micromol/L resveratrol for different time respectively, the caspase-3 activity began to rise significantly at 4h, reaching the peak at 12 h, and was still much higher than that of the control group at 24 h (P<0.01). After the cells were treated with different concentrations of resveratrol for 12 h, caspase-3 activity increased in a concentration-dependent manner. After synoviocytes in RA were treated with different concentrations of resveratrol for 24 h, the expressions of pro-caspase-3 decreased as the concentration increased, the caspase-3 active fragment P11 (11 kD) appeared at 100 micromol/L and was increased at 400 micromol/L. Resveratrol inhibits the proliferation of synoviocytes and induces cell apoptosis in rheumatoid arthritis in vitro, which may relate to the activation of caspase-3.
To investigate the occurrence of ectopic pregnancy among women who received in vitro fertilization and assess the influential factors. The indications, methods of assisted conception and ectopic types were analyzed retrospectively after the patients received in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), or freezing-thawing embryo transfer (FET). A total of 6007 embryo transfers were performed, and 2322 (38.7%) clinical pregnancies were obtained. Ninety-four (4.05%) of them were ectopic pregnancies; and 92 were tubal pregnancies. The occurrence rate was 3.96%, which constituted 97.87% (92/94) of all ectopic pregnancies. There were 2 cases of other parts: one in abdominal cavity and the other in cornual pregnancy with the occurrence rate of 0.86%, constituting 2.32% (2/94). Twenty heterotopic pregnancies occurred (0.86%), constituting 21.28% (20/94). Among all ectopic pregnancies, the assisted conception of 86 cases was tubal pathology and/or pelvic adherence (91.49%), and 24 patients had a history of ectopic pregnancy (25.53%). The differences of clinical pregnancy rates between IVF-ET, ICSI and FET were not significant (P>0.05). The ectopic rate of IVF-ET group was significantly higher than that of ICSI or FET group (P<0.05), respectively. The ectopic rate in FET group was also higher than that in ICSI group (P<0.05). The occurrence rate of ectopic pregnancy after IVF is higher than that of spontaneous pregnancy, and the main cause for ectopic pregnancy is the tubal pathological changes.
To evaluate the therapeutic effects of intraarticular injection of ligustrazine on knee osteoarthritis (OA). Seventy-one cases of knee osteoarthritis (82 knees) were randomly divided into ligustrazine (LI) group and sodium hyaluronate (SH) group. The patients were intraarticularly injected ligustrazine or sodium hyaluronate once a week for 5 consecutive weeks, and were followed-up for 3 months. Lequesneos protocol for the evaluation of OA severity and activity was used. The therapeutic effects and changes of Lequesneos index were observed after the treatment. There was significant decrease in Lequesneos index in SH group after the treatment (P0.05). Three weeks later, there was significant decrease in Lequesneos index in both groups after the treatment (P0.05). After the 5-week treatment, the efficacy rate of the LI group was 82.1%, and that of the SH group was 87.2%. No serious toxic or side effect was observed during the treatment and the follow-up. Intraarticular injection of ligustrazine has a therapeutic effect on knee OA. No adverse effect is observed, but it needs long time to take effect.
To determine the association between asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, with atherosclerosis in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). One hundred thirty-eight CKD patients were enrolled in this study. Serum levels of L-arginine, ADMA, and SDMA were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Common carotid arteries intimae-medial thickness (CCA-IMT), cross-sectional calculated intimae-medial thickness (cIM area) and atherosclerotic plaque were detected by noninvasive high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Serum levels of ADMA and SDMA were significantly increased in CKD patients (n=138) compared with age matched healthy subjects (n=42, P<0.01). ADMA and SDMA levels increased with the progression of renal dysfunction and were negatively related to creatinine clearance (Ccr) in pre-dialysis patients (r=-0.315, P<0.05; r=-0.426, P<0.01). Serum levels of ADMA and SDMA in dialysis patients (n=74) were significantly higher than those in pre-dialysis patients (P<0.05). Patients with carotid artery plaques showed significantly higher levels of ADMA compared with those without plaques. Serum levels of ADMA closely correlated with the mean IMT (r=0.471, P<0.01) and cIM area value (r=0.430, P<0.01). These correlations remained significant even after adjusting GFR, age, gender ,and other risk factors for atherosclerosis in the multiple regression analysis. Serum levels of ADMA increased with the progression of CKD and may play a role in the pathogenesis of accelerated atherosclerosis in CKD patients.
investigate and compare the effect of valsartan and indapamide on inflammatory cytokines in hypertension. Forty-one untreated patients with mild to moderate hypertension and 20 age and sex-matched normotensives were enrolled in this study. Hypertensives were treated with indapamide 1.5 mg/d (n=20) or valsartan 80 mg/d (n=21) for 4 weeks, and blood samples for determining monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1alpha), sP-selectin, asymmetric dimethylarginin (ADMA), angiotensin II (Ang II), and 6-keto-PGF1alpha were collected before the treatment and 4 weeks after the treatment. Hypertensives exhibited significantly higher blood pressure, as well as elevated plasma levels of MCP-1, MIP-1alpha, sP-selectin and serum level of ADMA compared with the normotensives. Nevertheless, there was no significant difference in serum 6-keto-PGF1alpha and Ang II between the hypertensives and the normotensives. After the treatment with indapamide or valsartan for 4 weeks, both the systolic and diastolic blood pressures, though still higher than those of the normotensives, decreased markedly. After the treatment with indapamide for 4 weeks, MCP-1, MIP-1alpha and sP-selectin slightly decreased, but not statistically significant (P>0.05). Those cytokines decreased significantly after being treated with valsartan for 4 weeks [(19.16+/-3.11) pg/mL vs (16.08+/-2.67) pg/mL, P0.05). The levels of MCP-1, MIP-1alpha, sP-selectin and ADMA were elevated in mild to moderate hypertensives. Valsartan and indapamide have similar blood pressure lowering effect. Valasartan exerts more significant effect on cytokines than indapamide does.
To determine the diagnostic value of the expression of survivin mRNA in sputum samples and pleural effusions in lung cancer. The sputum samples of 104 patients with lung cancer and 30 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the pleural effusion of 56 patients with lung cancer and 30 patients with tuberculosis pleural effusions were detected.Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to detect the survivin mRNA expression in the specimens. The results were compared with their cytological examinations. The sensitivity of the cytological examinations combined with the detection of survivin mRNA in sputum samples was higher than that of either cytological examination or survivin mRNA detection of sputum samples alone (P<0.01). The sensitivity of the diagnosis for lung cancer increased from 37.5% (sputum cytology alone) to 78.8% (sputum survivin mRNA detection combined with sputum cytology) (P<0.01), and the negative predictive value increased from 31.6% (sputum cytology alone) to 43.5% (sputum survivin mRNA detection combined with sputum cytology) (P<0.01). The sensitivity of the cytological examinations combined with the detection of survivin mRNA in pleural effusion samples was higher than that of cytological examination of pleural effusion samples alone (P<0.01). The sensitivity of the diagnosis for lung cancer increased from 42.9% (pleural effusion cytology alone) to 80.4% (pleural effusion survivin mRNA detection combined with cytology) (P<0.01), and the negative predictive value increased from 48.4% (pleural effusion cytology alone) to 77.8% (pleural effusion survivin mRNA detection combined with cytology) (P<0.01). The detection of survivin mRNA from sputum samples and pleural effusions samples is a new diagnostic method for lung cancer.
To investigate the toxicology and biodynamics of silica nanoparticle. The silica nanoparticles were injected into mice through tail vein, and the mice were amphimixised, the urine was collected in different time, variations of pathology in organs and tissues of the mice were detected. At the same time, the silica nanoparticles' distribution in the tissues was observed through electron microscope. The silica nanoparticles were detected in all tissues and urine of the mice. The injected mice can reproduce as normal. The silica nanoparticles do not have toxicity and can be used in vivo.
To investigate the anti-arthritic effect of bee venom in adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA) in rats. Thirty-two male SD rats were enrolled in the experiment. Six were treated as negative controls and 20 AIA models were randomly divided into 3 groups: model controls (n=6), sodium chloride treatment group (n=6), and bee venom treatment group (n=8). The rats in the model control were killed before the treatment and the peripheral blood and synovium samples were collected for pre-treatment controls. The rats in the bee venom treatment group were injected hypodermically with bee venom for 14 days, while those in the sodium chloride treatment group were treated with the same volume of sodium chloride. During this period, the circumference of the affected joints and the total scores of the joints in all groups were measured every 2 days and X ray examinations were performed before and after the treatment. At the end of the treatment, all the rats were killed and their peripheral blood and synovium samples were collected for measurements of tumor necrosis factor TNF-alpha and interleukin IL-1 beta and histological studies, respectively. Compared with the sodium chloride group, the rats in the bee venom treatment group were less swollen in joints and circumference of joints and lower joint scores decreased (P<0.05). At the same time, the bone erosion and the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the synovium were also significantly reduced in the bee venom treatment group. In addition, the serum concentrations of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta were significantly lower in rats of the bee venom treatment group than those of the sodium chloride group (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). Bee venom is effective in treating AIA by reducing synovitis, downregulating the serum concentrations of cytokine TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta and alleviating the bone erosion.
To investigate the relationship between the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) and angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Seventy-two PTC cases were divided into 3 groups according to the level of invasion: papillary microcarcinoma group (PMC group), intrathyroid carcinoma group (IPC group), and extrathyroid carcinoma group (EPC group). They were again divided into 2 groups according to lymph node metastasis: lymph node metastasis group and lymph node no-metastasis group. The expressions of VEGF-C, CD105 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) were detected by SP method of immunohistochemical staining. The expression of VEGF-C was analyzed quantitatively by image analysis system, and the PI of VEGF-C (VEGF-C-PI), the number of MVD (microvessel density), and LVD (lymphaticvessel density) were obtained. The VEGF-C-PI of lymph node metastasis group (23.15 +/- 3.75) was higher than that of lymph node non-metastasis group (14.54 +/- 2.93) (P <0.01). MVD was 35.25 +/- 2.06 in the PMC group, 41.75 +/- 5.46 in the IPC group, and 52.58 +/- 4.16 in the EPC group, which showed the elevatory tendency with the increase of invasion (P < 00.5). LVD was 6.00 +/- 0.81 in the PMC group, 13.80 +/- 1.81 in the IPC group, and 19.17 +/- 2.96 in the EPC group, which again showed the elevatory tendency with the increase of invasion (P <0.05). The LVD of lymph node metastasis group (19.56 +/- 2.45) was significantly higher than that of lymph node non-metastasis group (12.48 +/- 2.84) (P < 0.05). VEGF-C was positively correlated with MVD and LVD (r = 0.743, 0.90, P <0.01). The expressions of VEGF-C and LVD are related to lymph node metastasis of PTC. MVD and LVD are related to the invasion of PTC. VEGF-C may play an important role in the angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis.
To observe the influences of metoprolol on hemodynamics and myocardial ischaemia in elderly patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. Thrity patients (60 approximately 75 years) undergoing elective noncardiac surgery were randomly divided into a metoprolol group (n = 15) and a control group (n = 15). In the metoprolol group, metoprolol (0. 5 mg and 1.5 mg) was slowly injected into the vein of patients before the induction of intravenous anesthesia and after the tracheal intubation. The hemodynamic indice (invasive BP, HR and rate pressure product-RPP), the myocardial ischaemia indice (reversible ST segment depression of ECG II, V5 leads more than 0.1 mv or reversible ST segment elevation more than 0.2 mv from the baseline, ST segment depression or elevation over 1 min), the myocardial damage indice (serum cardiac troponin I, cTn I), and the indice of metoprolol cardiac and the respiratory adverse effects (incidence of HR below 50 beats/min, average doses of atropine, airway peak pressure) were observed intraoperatively. The HR and RPP were lower before the tracheal induction than the baseline (before anesthesia) in all patients, but there is no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). During the tracheal intubation, the HR and RPP of the control group significantly increased, compared with the baseline (P 0.05). Intravenous administration of 0.5 mg and 1. 5 mg metoprolol before the induction of anesthesia and after the tracheal intubation has several advantages, including the decrease of myocardial oxygen consumption, the improvement of hemodynamic stability, and the lowering perioperative incidence of myocardial ischeamia and damage, but the tendency of high bradycardia incidence caused by peritoneal traction should be noticed.
To express the recombinant SPLUNC1 protein in HNE1 cells and to study its function of bactericidal and binding to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Full length of SPLUNC1 gene was cloned into pCMV-tag4A vector and stably transfected into HNE1 cell lines, the supernatant of cell cultures was collected. After being treated with the supernatant, the Pseudomonas aeruginosa was seeded to LB soft agar plate, and the bacteria clones were counted and analyzed. For in vitro LPS binding assay, LPS was coated to 96-well plates. We incubated in the plate with SPLUNC1 protein, and detected the binded SPLUNC1 protein by ELISA. Incubating the FITC-LPS with the SPLUNC1 stably transfected or control cells, the intracellular intensity of fluorescence was observed under the fluorescence microscope. SPLUNC1 inhibited the bacteria clone formation obviously. Although the binding efficiency of LPS and SPLUNC1 in vitro was very low, more FITC-LPS entered into the SPLUNC1 stably transfected cells. SPLUNC1 can inhibit the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and bind LPS, and play an important defensive role in innate immunity of the upper airway.
To evaluate the curative effects of AO clavicular hook plate in the treatment of dislocation of acromioclavicular joint and fracture of distal clavicle. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 39 patients with acromioclavicular joint dislocation or distal clavicle fractures treated with clavicular hook plate: 16 suffered from dislocation of acromioclaviculr joint, 18 suffered from far end collarbone fractures, and 5 patients had both symptoms. The 39 patients were followed up for 12 months averagely. All patients got good reduction and fixation. The acromioclavicular joint subluxation, breakage, and loosening of the clavicular hook plate were not observed. The acromioclavicular joint recovered quickly. AO clavicular hook plate is a good choice for acromioclavicular joint dislocation and distal clavicular fracture.