A thermo-optic Mach-Zehnder (MZ) variable optical attenuator based on silicon waveguides with a large cross section was designed and fabricated on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. Multimode interferometers were used as power splitters and combiners in the MZ structure. In order to achieve a smooth interface, anisotropic chemical etching of silicon was used to fabricate the waveguides. Isolating grooves were introduced to reduce power consumption and device length. The device has a low power consumption of 210 mW and a response time of 50 mus. (C) 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.
A novel wideband polarization-insensitive semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) gate containing compressively strained InGaAs quantum wells and tensile-strained InGaAs quasi-bulk layers is developed. The fabricated SOA gates have a wide 3-dB optical bandwidth of 102 nm, less than 0.8-dB polarization sensitivity, more than 50-dB extinction ratio, and less than 75-mA fiber-to-fiber lossless operating current. (C) 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.
The single-mode condition for silicon rib waveguides with large cross sections is obtained using a numerical method based on the finite-difference beam propagation method (FD-BPM). An ultrawide computation window is used to contain the wide mode profile near cutoff. Comparison with previous results shows that the formula predicted by the mode-matching technique is in a better agreement with our results. (C) 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.
The internal reflection of the multimode-interference (MMI)-type device is calculated with the bidirectional beam propagation method. The calculated results indicate that the difference of the effective refractive indices between the core region and the surrounding region has a determining effect on the internal reflection of the MMI-type device. The output taper for the MMI-type combiner and splitter has a more evident effect on the internal reflection than the input taper. The internal reflection decreases with increasing the end width of the taper. For the MMI-type device with appropriate tapers, the internal reflection does not show evident degradation with the deviation of the length of the MMI region from its optimal value. (C) 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.
A thermo-optic variable optical attenuator (VOA) based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and multimode-interference coupler is fabricated. Not a single-mode but a multimode waveguide is used as the input and output structures of the optical field, which greatly reduces the coupling loss of the VOA with a normal single-mode fiber. The insertion loss of the fabricated VOA is 2.52 to 2.82 dB at the wavelength of 1520 to 1570 nm. The polarization dependent loss is 0.28 to 0.45 dB at the same wavelength range. Its maximum attenuation range is up to 26.3 dB when its power consumption is 369 mW. The response frequency of the fabricated VOA is about 10 kHz. (C) 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.
In this article, single- and multi-mode polymer optical waveguides doped with 2.5 wt% Eu(DBM)(3)Phen are prepared and measured by using scanning near-field optical microscopy and in-line method. The mode structure, near-field topography and near-field fluorescence are obtained, respectively. This may have potential applications in the study of polymer waveguide laser and amplifier. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A laser beam automatic alignment system is applied in a multipass amplifier of the SG-III prototype laser. Considering the requirements of the SG-III prototype facility, by combining the general techniques of the laser beam automatic alignment system, according to the image relayed of the pinholes in the spatial filter, and utilizing the optical position and the spatial distribution of the four pinholes of the main spatial filter in the multipass amplifier of the SG-III prototype, a reasonable and optimized scheme for automatic aligning multipass beam paths is presented. It is demonstrated on the multipass amplifier experimental system. (C) 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.
We propose a sinusoidal phase-modulating laser diode interferometer for measuring small angular displacement. The interferometer is based on a Fabry-Perot plate. It has a simple structure and is insensitive to external disturbance. Sinusoidal phase-modulating interferometry is used for improving the measurement accuracy. A charge-coupled device (CCD) image sensor is used for measuring the distance between the reflected beams from two faces of the Fabry-Perot plate. From the distance, the initial angle of incidence is calculated. Compared with Michelson interferometers and autocollimators, this interferometer has the advantage of compact size and simple structure. The numerical calculation and experimental results verify the usefulness of this novel interferometer. (C) 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.
The Talbot effect is one of the most basic optical phenomena that has received extensive investigations both because its new results provide us more understanding of the fundamental Fresnel diffraction and also because of its wide applications. We summarize our recent results on this subject. Symmetry of the Talbot effect, which was reported in Optics Communications in 1995, is now realized as the key to reveal other rules for explanation of the Talbot effect for array illumination. The regularly rearranged-neighboring-phase-differences (RRNPD) rule, a completely new set of analytic phase equations (Applied Optics, 1999), and the prime-number decomposing rule (Applied Optics, 2001) are the newly obtained results that reflect the symmetry of the Talbot effect in essence. We also reported our results on the applications of the Talbot effect. Talbot phase codes are the orthogonal codes that can be used for phase coding of holographic storage. A new optical scanner based on the phase codes for Talbot array illumination has unique advantages. Furthermore, a novel two-layered multifunctional computer-generated hologram based on the fractional Talbot effect was proposed and implemented (Optics Letters, 2003). We believe that these new results should bring us more new understanding of the Talbot effect and help us to design novel optical devices that should benefit practical applications. (C) 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.
A novel fiber Bragg grating temperature sensor is proposed and experimentally demonstrated with a long-period grating as a linear response edge filter to convert wavelength into intensity-encoded information for interrogation. The sensor is embedded into an aluminum substrate with a larger coefficient of thermal expansion to enhance its temperature sensitivity. A large dynamic range of 110 degreesC and a high resolution of 0.02 degreesC are obtained in the experiments. The technique can be used for multiplexed measurements with one broadband source and one long-period grating, and therefore is low Cost. (C) 2004 Society of PhotoOptical Instrumentation Engineers.
Ultrafast temporal pattern generation and recognition with femtosecond laser technology is presented, analyzed, and experimentally implemented. Ultrafast temporal pattern generation and recognition are realized by taking advantage of two well-known techniques: the space-time conversion technique and the ultrafast pulse measurement technique. Here the temporal pattern for the designed multiple pulses, optimized with a preassumed Gaussian spectral distribution of an ultrashort pulse, is described. With the simulation of a Gaussian spectral distribution, we realize that the uniformity of the generated multiple ultrafast temporal pulses is relevant to the repeated number of modulation periods in the mask in the spectral plane. Moreover, the change of Gaussian spectral phases with the wavelengths in the modulated phase plate is considered. Experiments of ultrafast temporal pattern recognition by the frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) characterization technique are also given. (C) 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.
The effect of temporal synchronization between the chirped signal pulse and the pumping pulse in an optical parametric chirped pulse amplification laser system is researched theoretically and experimentally. The results show that the gain of optical parametric amplification is sensitive to the temporal synchronization. Therefore, accurate temporal synchronization between the chirped signal pulse and the pumping pulse is essential to obtain high optical parametric amplification gain and stable output from an optical parametric chirped pulse amplification laser. Based on our 16.7-TW/120-fs optical parametric chirped pulse amplification laser system with similar to1-ns pumping pulse duration and <10-ps time jitter between the signal and pumping pulse, the effect of the temporal synchronization on optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is demonstrated. The experimental results agree with the calculation. (C) 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.
Coatings with layer structures of Ag/glass, Ag/Cr/glass, and Ag/Cr-Ag/Cr/glass deposited with magnetron sputtering are investigated. The results indicate that the performance for reflectance, hardness, adherence, and humidity durability of the silver coatings with Ag/Cr/glass and Ag/Cr-Ag/Cr/glass structures are better than pure silver film. In addition, the silver coatings with an Ag/Cr-Ag/glass structure present more advantages than that of the Ag/Cr/glass. Reasons are analyzed accordingly. (C) 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.
The laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) and damage morphology of antireflection (AR) coatings on quartz and sapphire are investigated. A very interesting phenomena is found in the measurement. In the case of a single pulse laser, the LIDT of the AIR coatings on quartz is higher than that of sapphire. On the contrary, for a free-pulse laser, the LIDT of AIR coatings on sapphire is higher than that of quartz. (C) 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.