Employing a variety of available data and previous research, the authors examine issues related to Black lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people's parenting practices and experiences. Findings indicate that parenting may serve to more fully-integrate Black LGBT people into both White LGBT communities and Black heterosexual communities. Black LGBT parents may also be disproportionately harmed as a result of anti-gay parenting measures. In light of these findings, the authors discuss foster parenting and adoption, racial and economic justice, and the current same-sex marriage debate. In sum, although the intersection of race and sexuality creates circumstances unique to Black LGBT people that neither White LGBT people nor Black heterosexual people are required to confront, Black LGBT people's similarities with other groups should not be overlooked.
This study examines the salience of racial identity among white and black students at four American universities. Utilizing the Twenty Statements Test [Kuhn, M. H., & McPartland, T. S. (1954). An empirical investigation of self-attitudes. , 68–76], we measure racial identity salience among students at three predominantly white northeastern universities and one historically black southern university. As predicted, we found that racial identity salience for white students at the predominantly white universities (PWUs) was significantly lower than racial identity salience among black students in these university settings. Contrary to our expectations, racial identity salience among white students at the historically black university (HBCU) was lower than racial identity salience exhibited among black students at this university, and white students at the HBCU were not more likely to exhibit racial identity saliency than white students at the PWUs. These findings indicate that the “transparency phenomenon,” transcends context in that whites are generally far less likely to think of themselves in racial terms than are people of color. Thus, racial transparency among whites appears to supercede context. Racial salience is much higher among African-American students at the PWUs than at the HBCU; this finding suggests the importance of context for African-Americans. However, fully one-third of African-American students at the HBCU listed race on the TST, suggesting the transcendent power of a racialized identity in a dominantly white society.
In recent years concern about the black–white test score gap has grown. Yet, little attention has been given to the differential impact black and white families might have on academic achievement. The purpose of this paper is to fill this void by examining the impact of family sociodemographic and interpersonal process characteristics on the academic achievement of black and white youth. I address two questions: (1) do black and white families parent their children differently; and (2) does the size of the impact of family traits on academic achievement differ among these adolescents. Using data from Prince George's County, Maryland, as a case study, I find that black and white families employ different parenting strategies. Also, different family characteristics influence black and white achievement. I conclude with a discussion of the implications these findings have for lessening the black–white test score gap.
African American and Mexican American children are disproportionately overrepresented among children with learning disabilities. Once identified as learning disabled or having special needs, children of color encounter more deleterious effects in comparison with their White counterparts. The purpose of this study was to take a strength-based approach to examine the coping resources of African American ( = 149) and Mexican American ( = 100) parents of children with special needs. The results from this study demonstrated that there were more similarities than there were differences between the two ethnic groups. This study's findings lend support to an increasing focus on family-centered strength-based approaches to enhancing policy and providing services to families. The implications of the findings may be used to improve the development and implementation of interventions to improve the healthy development of children with special needs.
Youth of color are dramatically under-represented in California institutions of higher education. Conversely in California and nationwide, African American and Latino youth are disproportionately over-represented at every major decision point in the juvenile justice system [Leiber, M. (2002). Disproportionate Minority Confinement (DMC) of youth: An analysis of state and federal efforts to address the issue. , (1), 3–45]. We offer a conceptual framework seeking a deeper understanding of the connections between youth socialization and two major social control institutions in America: the juvenile justice system and the educational system. We suggest that in order to understand fully the interconnections between the under-representation of African Americans in higher education and their over-representation in the juvenile justice system, a broader exploration of the common macro- and micro-structural factors shared by these institutions is required. We argue that race-ethnic inequities result from discriminatory state policies, institutional practices and gatekeeper decision-making. This paper suggests that without key reforms, which financially reprioritize education, rehabilitation, and youth in general, the distorted representation of youth of color in public institutions will persist. The conclusion offers several measures that if implemented will help achieve realistic change within institutions of higher education and criminal justice.
Frederick Douglass brought an extraordinarily logical mind, breadth of historical and social science knowledge, commitment to discovery and expression of truth, and keen observation to analysis of race and gender relations and scientific racism in the United States. Douglass's social psychology of racism and liberation is more insightful and modern than that of his American contemporaries, and not equaled until the middle of the 20th century. Similarities between the major turn-of-the-century African American sociologists and “students of sociology,” Anna Julia Cooper, W.E.B. DuBois, Kelly Miller, Mary Church Terrell, and Ida B. Wells and other evidence strongly suggests that Frederick Douglass had a strong influence upon certain aspects of their thought, that Douglass may be considered to be the anchor of the White racism emphasis in Afro-American sociological thought. Based upon this analysis it is recommended that Afro-Americanists take several steps to appropriately review and evaluate Douglass's thought in planning research and teaching.
This study explores the social construction of whiteness using 193 racial/ethnic autobiographies of young white students. The narrative analysis of the data shows how in response to a collective identity crisis, brought on mainly by demographic changes, whiteness is constructed as a liability. Specifically, I show how in coping with their perceived status as victims, my respondents presented their white identities as: (1) being unfairly accused of racism; (2) having no special niche set aside for them in the popular culture; and (3) being forced to accept other cultures. I argue that these adaptation techniques in turn legitimize the racial inequality by presenting whites as victims rather than beneficiaries of the status quo. The paper ends by addressing how anti-racism efforts could be strengthened through a better understanding of young whites’ racial identities.