In classical constitutive models such as the Navier-Stokes fluid model, and the Hookean or neo-Hookean solid models, the stress is given explicitly in terms of kinematical quantities. Models for viscoelastic and inelastic responses on the other hand are usually implicit relationships between the stress and the kinematical quantities. Another class of problems wherein it would be natural to develop implicit constitutive theories, though seldom resorted to, are models for bodies that are constrained. In general, for such materials the material moduli that characterize the extra stress could depend on the constraint reaction. (E.g., in an incompressible fluid, the viscosity could depend on the constraint reaction associated with the constraint of incompressibility. In the linear case, this would be the pressure.) Here we discuss such implicit constitutive theories. We also discuss a class of bodies described by an implicit constitutive relation for the specific Helmholtz potential that depends on both the stress and strain, and which does not dissipate in any admissible process. The stress in such a material is not derivable from a potential, i.e., the body is not hyperelastic (Green elastic).

In this paper we present several nonlinear models of suspension bridges; most of them have been introduced by Lazer and McKenna. We discuss some results which were obtained by the authors and other mathematicians for the boundary value problems and initial boundary value problems. Our intention is to point out the character of these results and to show which mathematical methods were used to prove them instead of giving precise proofs and statements.

We investigate the motion by mean curvature in relative geometry by means of the modified Allen-Cahn equation, where the anisotropy is incorporated. We obtain the existence result for the solution as well as a result concerning the asymptotical behaviour with respect to the thickness parameter. By means of a numerical scheme, we can approximate the original law, as shown in several computational examples.

In this paper we prove a maxmin principle for nonlinear nonoverdamped eigenvalue problems corresponding to the characterization of Courant, Fischer and Weyl for linear eigenproblems. We apply it to locate eigenvalues of a rational spectral problem in fluid-solid interaction.

We present a general numerical method for calculating effective elastic properties of periodic structures based on the homogenization method. Some concrete numerical examples are presented.

We study a mathematical model which was originally suggested by Greenhalgh and Das and takes into account the delay in the recruitment of infected persons. The stability of the equilibria are also discussed. In addition, we show that the introduction of a time delay in the transmission term can destabilize the system and periodic solutions can arise by Hopf bifurcation.

We consider a class of Volterra-type integral equations in a Hilbert space. The operators of the equation considered appear as time-dependent functions with values in the space of linear continuous operators mapping the Hilbert space into its dual. We are looking for maximal values of cost functionals with respect to the admissible set of operators. The existence of a solution in the continuous and the discretized form is verified. The convergence analysis is performed. The results are applied to a quasistationary problem for an anisotropic viscoelastic body made of a long memory material.

The Recursive Projection Method is a technique for continuation of both the steady states and the dominant invariant subspaces. In this paper a modified version of the RPM called projected RPM is proposed. The modification underlines the stabilization effect. In order to improve the poor update of the unstable invariant subspace we have applied subspace iterations preconditioned by Cayley transform. A statement concerning the local convergence of the resulting method is proved. Results of numerical tests are presented.

The convergence of Rothe's method in Hölder spaces is discussed. The obtained results are based on uniform boundedness of Rothe's approximate solutions in Hölder spaces recently achieved by the first author. The convergence and its rate are derived inside a parabolic cylinder assuming an additional compatibility conditions.

We assume that v is a weak solution to the non-steady Navier-Stokes initial-boundary value problem that satisfies the strong energy inequality in its domain and the Prodi-Serrin integrability condition in the neighborhood of the boundary. We show the consequences for the regularity of v near the boundary and the connection with the interior regularity of an associated pressure and the time derivative of v.

In the context of the weak solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations we study the regularity of the pressure and its derivatives in the space-time neighbourhood of regular points. We present some global and local conditions under which the regularity is further improved.

We consider a system of balance laws describing the motion of an ionized compressible fluid interacting with magnetic fields and radiation effects. The local-in-time existence of a unique smooth solution for the Cauchy problem is proven. The proof follows from the method of successive approximations.

When mathematical models describing various processes are analysed, the fact of existence of a positive solution is often among the basic features. In this paper, a general delayed discrete equation $$\Delta u(k + n) = f(k,u(k),u(k + 1),...,u(k + n))$$ is considered. Sufficient conditions concerning f are formulated in order to guarantee the existence of a positive solution for k → ∞. An upper estimate for it is given as well. The appearance of the positive solution takes its origin in the nature of the equation considered since the results hold only for delayed equations (i.e. for n > 0) and not for the case of an ordinary equation (with n = 0).

We prove that there exists a suitable weak solution of the Navier-Stokes equation, which satisfies the generalized energy inequality for every nonnegative test function. This improves the famous result on existence of a suitable weak solution which satisfies this inequality for smooth nonnegative test functions with compact support in the space-time.

Modelling of macroscopic behaviour of materials, consisting of several layers or components, cannot avoid their microstructural properties. This article demonstrates how the method of Rothe, described in the book of K. Rektorys The Method of Discretization in Time, together with the two-scale homogenization technique can be applied to the existence and convergence analysis of some strongly nonlinear time-dependent problems of this type.

In practice, input data entering a state problem are almost always uncertain to some extent. Thus it is natural to consider a set U ad of admissible input data instead of a fixed and unique input. The worst scenario method takes into account all states generated by U ad and maximizes a functional criterion reflecting a particular feature of the state solution, as local stress, displacement, or temperature, for instance. An increase in the criterion value indicates a deterioration in the featured quantity. The method takes all the elements of U ad as equally important though this can be unrealistic and can lead to too pessimistic conclusions. Often, however, additional information expressed through a membership function of U ad is available, i.e., U ad becomes a fuzzy set. In the article, infinite-dimensional U ad are considered, two ways of introducing fuzziness into U ad are suggested, and the worst scenario method operating on fuzzy admissible sets is proposed to obtain a fuzzy set of outputs.

In this paper we establish an upper and a lower bound for the f-divergence of two discrete random variables under likelihood ratio constraints in terms of the Kullback-Leibler distance. Some particular cases for Hellinger and triangular discrimination, χ2-distance and Rényi's divergences, etc. are also considered.

A modification of the Nikolskij extension theorem for functions from Sobolev spaces H k(Ω) is presented. This modification requires the boundary ∂Ω to be only Lipschitz continuous for an arbitrary k ∈ ℕ however, it is restricted to the case of two-dimensional bounded domains.

Numerical approximation schemes are discussed for the solution of contaminant transport with adsorption in dual-well flow. The method is based on time stepping and operator splitting for the transport with adsorption and diffusion. The nonlinear transport is solved by Godunov's method. The nonlinear diffusion is solved by a finite volume method and by Newton's type of linearization. The efficiency of the method is discussed.

Weak solutions of given problems are sometimes not necessarily unique. Relevant solutions are then picked out of the set of weak solutions by so-called entropy conditions. Connections between the original and the numerical entropy condition were often discussed in the particular case of scalar conservation laws, and also a general theory was presented in the literature for general scalar problems. The entropy conditions were realized by certain inequalities not generalizable to systems of equations in a trivial way. It is a concern of this article to extend the theory in such a way that inequalities can be replaced by general relations, and this not only in an abstract way but also realized by examples.