A novel semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) optical gate with a graded strained bulk-like active structure is proposed. A fiber-to-fiber gain of 10 dB when the coupling loss reaches 7 dB/factet and a polarization insensitivity of less than 0.9 dB for multiwavelength and different power input signals over the whole operation current are obtained. Moreover, for our SOA optical gate, a no-loss current of 50 to 70 mA and an extinction ratio of more than 50 dB are realized when the injection current is more than no-loss current, and the maximum extinction ratio reaches 71 dB, which is critical for crosstalk suppression. (C) 2003 society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.
A thermo-optic variable optical attenuator based on a multimode interference coupler principle is fabricated. The propagation loss of the fabricated device is 1.6 to 3.8 dB at the wavelength range 1510 to 1610 nm, which is very near the calculated value (1.2 dB) by the finite difference beam propagation method. The maximum power consumption is 363 mW and the dynamic attenuation range is 0 to 26 dB. The response frequency of the fabricated attenuator is about 10 kHz. (C) 2003 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.
Size tolerance of a 4X4 general interference tapered multimode interference (MMI) coupler in a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) structure is investigated by means of a 2-D finite difference beam propagation method (2D-FDBPM), together with an effective refractive index method (EIM). The results show that the tapered multimode interference coupler exhibits relatively larger size tolerance when light is launched from the edgeport than from midport, though it has much better output power uniformity when light is launched from midport. Besides that, it can reduce the device length greatly. The 4X4 general interference tapered MMI coupler has a slightly larger size tolerance compared with a conventional straight multimode interference coupler. (C) 2003 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.
This paper proposes a new digital method to compensate for the aberration of an electron objective lens in electron holography. In this method, the object wavefront in the exit pupil plane is numerically reconstructed from a digitized electron hologram, and is corrected by multiplying it with the conjugated phase-error function. Then, an aberration-free image can be obtained by calculating the Fresnel integral of this corrected wavefront. In comparison with traditional methods, this method is much more convenient and accurate. Some verifying experiments are also presented in this paper. (C) 2003 Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers.
A Nd:glass regenerative amplifier has been set up to generate the pumping pulse with variable pulse width for an optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) laser system. Each pulse of the pulse train from a cw self-mode-locking femtosecond Ti:sapphire oscillator is stretched to approximate to300 ps at 1062 nm to be split equally and injected into a nonlinear crystal and the Nd:glass regenerative amplifier, as the chirped signal pulse train and the seed pulse train of the pumping laser system, respectively. By adjusting the cavity length of the regenerative amplifier directly, the width of amplified pulse could be varied continuously from approximate to300 ps to approximate to3 ns. The chirped signal pulse for the OPCPA laser system and the seed pulse for the pumping laser system come from the same oscillator, so that the time jitter between the signal pulse and the pumping pulse in optical parametric amplification stages could be <10 ps. (C) 2003 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.
For the purpose of human-computer interaction (HCI), a vision-based gesture segmentation approach is proposed. The technique essentially includes skin color detection and gesture segmentation. The skin color detection employs a skin-color artificial neural network (ANN). To merge and segment the region of interest, we propose a novel mountain algorithm. The details of the approach and experiment results are provided. The experimental segmentation accuracy is 96.25%. (C) 2003 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.
The refractive indices of crystalline phase-change films are usually obtained by thermal-induced crystallization. However, this is not accurate, because the crystallization of phase-change film in rewritable optical disks is laser induced. In this study, we use the initializer to crystallize the phase-change films. The dependence of the refractive index n and the extinction coefficient k of the phase-change films on the initialization conditions are studied. Remarkable changes of the refractive indices (especially k) are found when the initialization laser power density is 6.63 mW/mum(2) and the initialization velocity is 4.0 m/s. At the same time, the structure changes of the phase-change films are also studied. This dependence is explained by the structure change of the films. These results are significant in improving the accuracy of optical design and the thermal simulation of phase-change optical disks, as well as in the study of phase-change optical disks at shorter wavelengths. (C) 2003 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.
The time response of optical switching properties of Sb thin films under focused laser pulses is investigated. The results show that the response course can be divided into onset, opening, and closing stages. Formulas for their lengths are given. The onset and opening times decrease with increasing pumping light power density. The closing time is about 150 ns. For optical memory, if the power density of the readout and recording lasers changes from 5 x 10(9) to 15 x 10(9) W/m(2), the onset time changes from 2.5 to 0.30 mus, and the opening time is on the nanosecond scale. (C) 2003 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.
Examining classic theories, experimental methods, and practical formulas for exploration of the core topics in nonlinear optics, the second edition of this acclaimed text was extensively revised to reflect recent advances in the analysis and modification of material properties for application in frequency conversion, optical switching and limiting,