A method for numerical simulation of a nonstationary potential flow of incompressible fluid with a free surface was presented. The method was based on the combination of conformal mapping and Fourier transform. The method was found to be efficient for the study of strongly nonlinear effects in gravity waves including wave breaking and the formation of rogue waves.

Various versions of Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) methods have been used successfully for the numerical simulation of gas-liquid flows with an explicit tracking of the phase interface. Of these, Piecewise-Linear Interface Construction (PLIC-VOF) appears as a fairly accurate, although somewhat more involved variant. Including effects due to surface tension remains a problem, however. The most prominent methods, Continuum Surface Force (CSF) of Brackbill et al. and the method of Zaleski and co-workers (both referenced later), both induce spurious or 'parasitic' currents, and only moderate accuracy in regards to determining the curvature. We present here a new method to determine curvature accurately using an estimator function, which is tuned with a least-squares-fit against reference data. Furthermore, we show how spurious currents may be drastically reduced using the reconstructed interfaces from the PLIC-VOF method.

A numerical algorithm for the linear equation of state is developed for the volume-of-fluid interface-tracking code SURFER++, using the continuous surface stress formulation for the description of interfacial tension. This is applied to deformation under simple shear for a liquid drop in a much more viscous matrix liquid. We choose a Reynolds number and capillary number at which the drop settles to an ellipsoidal steady state, when there is no surfactant. The viscosity ratio is selected in a range where experiments have shown tip streaming when surfactants are added. Our calculations show that surfactant is advected by the flow and moves to the tips of the drop. There is a threshold surfactant level, above which the drop develops pointed tips, which are due to surfactant accumulating at the ends of the drop. Fragments emitted from these tips are on the scale of the mesh size, pointing to a shortcoming of the linear equation of state, namely that it does not provide a lower bound on interfacial tension. One outcome is the possibility of an unphysical negative surface tension on the emitted drops.

The Cercignani-Lampis scattering kernel of the gas-surface interaction was applied to numerical calculations of the plane Poiseuille flow, thermal creep, mechanocaloric flux and heat flux. The S model of the Boltzmann equation was numerically solved by the discrete velocity method. The calculations have been carried out in wide ranges of the rarefaction parameter and of the accommodation coefficients of momentum and energy. Comparing the present results with experimental data the value of the accommodation coefficients can be calculated.

The Cercignani-Lampis scattering kernel of the gas-surface interaction was applied to numerical calculations of the plane Poiseuille flow, thermal creep, mechanocaloric flux and heat flux. The S model of the Boltzmann equation was numerically solved by the discrete velocity method. The calculations have been carried out in wide ranges of the rarefaction parameter and of the accommodation coefficients of momentum and energy. Comparing the present results with experimental data the value of the accommodation coefficients can be calculated. (C) 2002 Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

A theoretical model of harmonic perturbations in a turbulent mixing layer is proposed. The model based on the triple decomposition method. It is assumed that the instantaneous velocities and pressure consist of three distinctive components: the mean (time average), the coherent (phase average), and the random (turbulent) motion. The interaction between incoherent turbulent fluctuations and large-scale coherent disturbances is incorporated by the Newtonian eddy viscosity model. A slight divergence of the flow is also taken into account, and the results are compared with experimental data. For a high amplitude of the perturbations, the nonlinear feedback to the mean flow is taken into account by means of the coherent Reynolds stresses. The results reveal the possibility of a negative spreading rate of the mixing layer. A simultaneous consideration of the mean flow divergence and nonlinear self-interaction results in Landau-like amplitude equations. It is observed that the nonlinear term in the amplitude equation is not significant at the levels of amplitude considered. The velocity disturbance profiles of the second harmonic are also presented and, at low-level amplitude, they are in good agreement with experiments.

Interfacial symmetric solitary waves propagating horizontally in a three-layer fluid with constant density of each layer are investigated. A fully nonlinear numerical scheme based on integral equations is presented. The method allows for steep and overhanging waves. Equations for three-layer conjugate flows and integral properties like mass, momentum and kinetic energy are derived in parallel. In three-layer fluids the wave amplitude becomes larger than in corresponding two-layer fluids where the thickness of a pycnocline is neglected, while the opposite is true for the propagation velocity. Waves of limiting form are particularly investigated. Extreme overhanging solitary waves of elevation are found in three-layer fluids with large density differences and a thick upper layer. Surprisingly we find that the limiting waves of depression are always broad and flat, satisfying the conjugate flow equations. Mode-two waves, obtained with a periodic version of the numerical method, are accompanied by a train of small mode-one waves. Large amplitude mode-two waves, obtained with the full method, are close to one of the conjugate flow solutions.

The numerical simulation using a boundary element method is presented for a gas bubble bursting at a free surface in a potential flow with a viscous fluid assumption. Systematic comparisons are given with experimental data on the first "jet drop" size in relation with the parent bubble size, and on the critical bubble radius above which no jet drop forms. The computations were made for different liquids. It is pointed out that an exact description of the jet formation and break up requires the complete Navier-Stokes equations only in the final phase of the evolution.

Natural convection in a liquid metal heated locally at its upper surface and affected by a vertical magnetic field is investigated both experimentally and numerically. The experiments are conducted in a cylindrical test cell of large aspect ratio which is typical for application. The cell is filled with the liquid alloy GaInSn in eutectic composition. Temperature and velocity are measured using thermocouples and an electric potential probe, respectively. In the absence of the magnetic field the experimental results indicate a dependence of the Nusselt number on the Rayleigh number according to the law Nu ∝ Ra . The particular value of the scaling exponent is in excellent agreement with the prediction of a scaling analysis for laminar, boundary layer-type flow in a low-Prandtl number fluid. Furthermore the experiments demonstrate that the Nusselt number and therefore the convective heat losses can be decreased by about 20% when a magnetic field of moderate strength (B = 0.1 T) is present. The numerical simulations solve the Boussinesq equations in an axisymmetric geometry using a finite element method. The results of the simulations are both quantitatively and qualitatively in good agreement with the experimental observations. Deviations are attributed to the three-dimensional characteristics of the flow.