In the interim between the conception of this issue ofMRS Bulletinon transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) and its publication, the remarkable applications dependent on these materials have continued to make sweeping strides. These include the advent of larger flat-screen high-definition televisions (HDTVs), larger and higher-resolution screens on portable computers, the increasing importance of low emissivity (“low-e”) and electrochromic windows, a significant increase in the manufacturing of thin-film photovoltaics (PV), and a plethora of new hand-held and smart devices, all with smart displays.1-7Coupled with the increased importance of TCO materials to these application technologies has been a renaissance over the last two years in the science of these materials. This has included newn-type materials, the synthesis of truep-type materials, and the theoretical prediction and subsequent confirmation of the applicability of codoping to producep-type ZnO. Considering that over the last 20 years much of the work on TCOs was empirical and focused on ZnO and variants of InxSn1-xO2, it is quite remarkable how this field has exploded. This may be a function of not only the need to achieve higher performance levels for these devices, but also of the increasing importance of transition-metal-based oxides in electro-optical devices. This issue ofMRS Bulletinis thus well timed to provide an overview of this rapidly expanding area. Included are articles that cover the industrial perspective, newn-type materials, newp-type materials, novel deposition methods, and approaches to developing both an improved basic understanding of the materials themselves as well as models capable of predicting performance limits.