Geographic variations in the incidence of different congenital coronary anomalies are well known, but infrequently studied in the Indian population. Among 4100 adult patients who underwent diagnostic coronary arteriography, 39 (0.95%) patients (34 males, 5 females) had one or more anomalous coronary arteries. Their mean age was 46.4+/-8.2 years (range, 26-68 years). Thirty-five (89.74%) had anomalies of origin and distribution, while the remaining four (10.25%) had coronary artery fistulae. Right coronary artery was the commonest anomalous vessel, involved in 19 (48.74%) patients. It was originating from the left sinus of Valsalva in 15 and from the non-facing aortic sinus in four patients. Anomalous left circumflex artery was the second commonest anomaly, seen in 14 (35.89%) patients. Anomalous left anterior descending artery and anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery were: seen in one patient each. Among patients with coronary fistulae, two had fistulae between the left anterior descending artery and the main pulmonary artery, one between the conal artery and the right atrium, while the fourth patient had fistulae from the right coronary as well as from the left anterior descending artery to the left atrium. Atherosclerotic plaques in the anomalous arteries were seen in only 13 (33.33%) patients, much less than the overall incidence of coronary artery disease in patients with congenital coronary anomalies in this series (66.66%). In four (10.25%) patients, only the anomalous vessels were involved in coronary artery disease. Thus, in a small subgroup there does not appear to be an increased risk for development of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease in anomalous coronary arteries. Recognition of coronary anomalies is important in patients undergoing coronary arteriography, coronary interventions and cardiac surgery. Variations in the frequency of primary congenital coronary anomalies may possibly have a genetic background. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background: Hypertension is often insufficiently controlled in clinical practice, a prominent reason for this being poor patient adherence with therapy. Little is known about the underlying reasons for poor adherence. We set out to investigate hypertensive patients' self-reported reasons for adhering to or ignoring medical advice regarding antihypertensive medication. Methods: Qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews with 33 hypertensive patients in a general-practice centre and a specialist hypertension unit in Southern Sweden. Blood-pressure measurements and laboratory measurements of antihypertensive medication were performed. Results: Nineteen out of 33 patients were classified as adherent. Adherence was a function of faith in the physician, fear of complications of hypertension, and a desire to control blood pressure. Non-adherence was an active decision, partly based on misunderstandings of the condition and general disapproval of medication, but mostly taken in order to facilitate daily life or minimize adverse effects. Adherent patients gave less evidence of involvement in care than non-adherent patients. There was no obvious relation between reported adherence, laboratory markers of adherence and blood-pressure levels. Conclusions: The interview is a powerful tool for ascertaining patients' concepts and behaviour. To optimize treatment of hypertension, it is important to form a therapeutic alliance in which patients' doubts and difficulties with therapy can be detected and addressed. For this, effective patient-physician communication is of vital importance. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aims: We studied the clinical and immunological importance of fasting cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglycerides in patients with chronic heart failure in relation to plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), soluble TNF receptor-1 and -2 (sTNF-R1 and -R2), and a ratio potentially indicating recent endotoxin bioactivity (soluble [s] CD14/total cholesterol). Methods and results: Fifty-eight stable, non-oedematous patients with established heart failure and 19 controls were studied prospectively. Concentrations of sTNF-R1 and sCD14 were higher in patients than in controls (1238+/-96 vs. 632+/-72 pg/ml, P=0.005 and 3401+/-120 vs. 2775+/-139 pg/ml, P=0.007, respectively), whereas those of TNF alpha (9.3+/-1.1 vs. 6.7+/-0.6 pg/ml) and sTNF-R2 (2464+/-145 vs. 1920+/-303 pg/ml) were not. Cholesterol (5.6+/-0.1 vs. 5.5+/-0.2 mmol/l) and LDL (3.5+/-0.1 vs. 3.6+/-0.2 mmol/l) were not different (both P>0.75). Patients had lower HDL (1.10+/-0.04 vs. 1.4+/-0.06 mmol/l, P=0.0004) and higher triglycerides (2.1+/-0.1 vs. 1.1+/-0.1 mmol/l, P=0.0006). Aetiology and the presence of cardiac cachexia did not influence the lipid profile. Correlations in patients: cholesterol vs. TNF alpha (r=-0.40, P=0.003), vs. sTNF-R1 (r=-0.24, P=0.08), vs, sTNF-R2 (r=-0.29: P0.20, follow-up 12 months, event rate 26%). Conclusion: Our data supports previous findings that lower, rather than higher cholesterol levels are associated with poor clinical outcome in patients with chronic heart failure. This relationship is unrelated to heart failure aetiology, and suggests that the classic risk profile is not longer relevant in established heart failure. The Little-recognised ability of all lipoprotein fractions to bind endotoxin and to serve as natural buffer substances may explain this relationship between lower lipoprotein levels, higher cytokine concentrations and impaired prognosis. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Percutaneous balloon angioplasty (PTBA) is a universally accepted mode of therapy for stenotic coronary and peripheral arterial lesions. To establish the role of PTBA and stent placement in patients with Takayasu's arteritis (TA), these procedures were performed in 20 patients with TA. All patients received steroids, aspirin and ticlodipine (for stent placement) prior to procedure. Angioplasty was carried in patients with symptomatic stenotic vessel of more than 70% of normal diameter or a peak systolic gradient of more than 50 mm across stenotic aortic lesion. Stenting was performed for ostial lesion, long segment lesion or incomplete relief of stenosis and dissection following angioplasty. Carotid angioplasty and stenting was performed in five: patients, aortic angioplasty in nine patients, aortic angioplasty and stenting in four patients, renal angioplasty in three patients, renal angioplasty and stenting in two patients and subclavian angioplasty in two patients, subclavian, angioplasty and stenting in three patients and coronary angioplasty and stent placement in one patient. The procedure was successful in all but one patient. On following up, two patients with carotid stent placement had restenosis. A saccular aneurysm developed at the lower end of stent in one patient with aortic stent placement. The PTBA with or without stent placement is a safe and effective method for relief of stenotic lesion in patients with TA. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Discontinuation of chronic aspirin therapy in stable coronary artery disease patients may lead to acute myocardial infarction within 10 days of withdrawal as a consequence of the progressive recovery of the platelet cyclooxygenase activity which exposes to a rebound effect leading to acute coronary thrombosis. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
To test the hypothesis that the activity of enzymes degrading the extracellular matrix in hypertensive patients are abnormal, and that the treatment of hypertension will normalise these abnormalities, we measured the serum levels of metalloproteinase MMP-9, and its inhibitor, tissue metalloproteinase inhibitor (TIMP-1). Thirty-two patients with untreated hypertension (BP 168/96) had significantly lower levels of both MMP-9 and TIMP-1 when compared to 24 matched normotensive controls (BP 123/80) (P0.2). In the patients, there were no significant correlations observed between left ventricular mass, Doppler V-E/V-A ratio (an index of diastolic function), blood pressure, left ventricular mass index and either MMP-9 or TIMP-1 levels (all P=NS). Levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were not significantly altered after 2 months of antihypertensive treatment of 29 patients despite mean blood pressure falling from 170/96 to 143/85 mm Hg (P<0.001). Correspondingly, there were also no significant alterations in indices of diastolic function and left ventricular mass. Our study suggests that the proteolytic activities of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 are depressed in hypertensive patients and were not significantly affected by short-term antihypertensive treatment. The relationship between collagen metabolism in hypertensive subjects, especially in those with cardiac hypertrophy, and the effects of treatment needs to be further explored in larger trials over a longer period of time. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Takayasu arteritis, Buerger's diseases, temporal arteritis, vascular Bechet disease and inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm are classified in Japan as intractable vasculitides involving mainly large vessels, because their etiologies are not yet elucidated and, therefore, treatments for them were not yet established. Recent experimental and vascular biological studies, however, have focussed on the roles of virus infection in vasa vasorum (vasa vasoritis) and on the subsequent inflammatory vascular changes through HLA and/or other autoimmune mechanisms. Several studies including ours have demonstrated that these vascular inflammatory changes progress from the adventitial side to the intimal side of the vessel, finally complicating atherosclerotic changes in the intima. These vascular inflammatory changes are also recognized during progression of atherosclerosis and these observations strongly suggest that inflammation is a serious risk factor of atherosclerosis. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Atrial fibrillation is associated with a prothrombotic state and endothelial dysfunction. To understand whether the prothrombotic state was correlated with endothelial dysfunction and whether the latter was related to atrial dimension (endocardial damage), we studied systemic hemocoagulative activity and markers of endothelial dysfunction in 45 patients with chronic nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation and in 35 controls. We assessed fibrinogen, antithrombin III, protein C, markers of platelet activation (platelet factor 4 and beta -thromboglobulin) as markers of fibrinolysis, and D-dimer, tissue plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor, von Willebrand's factor and soluble thrombomodulin as endothelial dysfunction. Plasma fibrinogen (P < 0.005), platelet factor 4 (P < 0.001), thromboglobulin (P < 0.001), D-dimer (P < 0.03), tissue plasminogen activator (P < 0.006), plasminogen activator inhibitor (P < 0.04) and both von Willebrand's factor (P < 0.0001) and soluble thrombomodulin (P < 0.03) were significantly higher in the patients than in the controls. Positive significant linear correlations were found between fibrinogen and markers of endothelial dysfunction and left atrial volume and fibrinogen or markers of endothelial dysfunction. These findings confirm that chronic nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation is associated with a prothrombotic state but also suggest that there is a correlation between endothelial dysfunction, coagulation factors and left atrial dimension. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Of 124 patients with Takayasu arteritis studied over a period of 20 years (1979-1999), 12 female patients experienced 24 pregnancies. The mean age was 23.6+/-3.6 years. The presenting features during pregnancy were severe hypertension (11 patients), congestive heart failure (two patients) and unequal pulses (one patient). Aortography revealed that abdominal aorta was involved in 11 patients and renal arteries in nine patients. Of 17 live babies born, intrauterine growth retardation was present in five babies and premature deliveries were encountered in four patients. Pregnancies resulted in abortion in two patients and intrauterine death in five patients. Maternal complications included superimposed pre-eclampsia in four patients, congestive heart failure and progression of renal insufficiency in two patients each and post partum sepsis in one patient. All patients with poor perinatal outcome had abdominal aortic involvement and a significant delay in seeking medical attention. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Low concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) even when the total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels are not elevated. The mechanism by which HDL confers protection against atherosclerosis remains speculative. Using high-resolution ultrasound, we measured the dilatation changes of brachial arteries during reactive hyperemia and after sublingual glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) in 63 patients with established (CHD) and 45 controls, in which the serum TC level was normal. The results showed that both flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and GTN-induced dilatation of brachial arteries in patients with CHD were much reduced compared with control group (2.3 1+2.46% vs. 7.43+/-4.10% and 16.41+/-6.15% vs. 22.44+/-8.63%, respectively, P<0.001 for all). Univariate analysis indicated that FMD of brachial arteries was inversely related to age (r=-0.226, P<0.05), hypertension (r=-0.229, P<0.05), baseline diameter (r=-0.299, P<0.01) and LDL-C (r= -0.237, P<0.05) and positively related to HDL-C (r=0.491, P<0.01). GTN induced vasodilatation was inversely related to age (r=-0.216, P<0.05) and baseline diameter (-0.476, P<0.01). Multiple stepwise regression analyses in two groups taken together showed that HDL-C and age were the independent predictors of the FMD of brachial arteries (beta=0.466, P=0.000 and beta=-0.184, P=0.020, respectively). Baseline diameter was significant predictor of GTN-induced vasodilatation (beta=-0.390, P=0.000). The analysis in the group of CHD patients showed that only HDL-C was significantly relate to the FMD of brachial arteries (beta=0.295, beta=0.018) and in controls that hypertension and HDL-C were significantly relate to the FMD of brachial arteries (beta=-0.395, P=0.004 and beta=0.344, P=0.011, respectively). These finding suggest that endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilatation are impaired in the patients with CHD. HDL exerts a protective effect on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in TC being relatively normal population. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Twenty four patients of Takayasu arteritis (TA) aged less than 18 years were studied over a period of 20 years (1978-98). There were 4 males and 20 females with a male:female ratio of 1:5. The mean age of presentation was 14 years and the disease had a mean onset of time 4+/-1.5 months prior to admission to the hospital. Hypertension was the commonest mode of presentation seen in 83% of patients. 16% patients had congestive heart failure. Left ventricular hypertrophy was present in 54% patients. Angiographic findings showed that abdominal aorta was the commonest segment of aorta that was involved (71% cases). Renal artery was involved in 75% cases. Treatment modalities included antihypertensive drugs in 19 patients, antitubercular drugs in 7 patients and steroids in 7 patients. Renal angioplasty was performed in 2 patients with excellent results. On follow up 2 patients died. The causes of mortality were renal failure and heart failure in one patient each. The clinical profile of young patients with TA is similar to that of adults with this disease. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Objective: To define occurrence, lesions and clinical characteristics of grown-up congenital heart (GUCH) patients who develop atrial flutter (AFL). Design: All GUCH patients who presented as inpatients or outpatients with documented sustained AFL between 1996 and 1998 were studied prospectively. Retrospective review of case notes for basic data relating to underlying anomaly, prior surgery and age at onset of AFL, enquiry into events before the first attack. Clinical state was assessed by Ability Index before AFL and at last visit. Setting: Designated quaternary service for GUC in a tertiary referral centre. Results: From October 1996 to April 1998, 100 consecutive patients (49 female) aged 17-77 (mean 35) years, who presented to the GUCH Unit at Royal Brompton Hospital with a sustained attack of AEL documented by a 12 lead electrocardiogram were studied. Four basic cardiac anomalies accounted for 75% patients: one ventricle (26), atrial septal defect (ASD) (19), transposition of great arteries (TGA) (17) and Tetralogy of Fallot (13). AFL occurred occasionally in small ventricular septal defect (VSD), congenital corrected TGA (CC-TGA), pulmonary stenosis and pulmonary atresia with or without VSD. 86/100 patients had undergone cardiac surgery: Fontan 19 (22%), reconstruction of right ventricular outflow tract 17 (20%), closure of ASD 15 (17%), Mustard for TGA 13 (15%), and other palliative surgery 22 (26%). AFL occurred in 'natural history' (unoperated) in 14 (14%) mostly in CC-TGA, ASD and Fallot. Age at first attack was 6-64 (mean 28) years with the first attack occurring at younger age after Mustard (22 +/- 7 years) and Fontan (24 +/- 7), than in un-operated ASD (46 +/- 13) and CCTGA (31 +/- 10). Haemodynamic abnormalities from anatomical causes were present in 62/74 (84%) patients who had undergone reparative surgery and included venous pathway obstruction, pulmonary regurgitation and pulmonary hypertension. Additional factors which could have precipitated AFL in prone patients were present in 63. New symptoms appeared in 96 patients with the first attack of AFL. Ability Index prior to onset in 90 patients who have been followed-up for more than 1 year since the first onset was 1 in 52, 2 in 31, 3 in 6 and 4 in 1 patients. At the last visit (mean time from the first onset 6.6 +/- 4.7 years), only 9 patients remained with Ability Index 1, 43 in 2, 20 in 3 and Is in 4 despite return to sinus rhythm. Conclusion: One ventricle heart, ASD, transposition of great arteries and Tetrology of Fallot are the most common underlying anomalies in GUCH patients who develop AFL. It is less commonly seen in unoperated patients. When occurs AFL compromises patients' activities and deteriorates the clinical condition. Residual or developed haemodynamic abnormalities and precipitating factor are often present in this patients, hence full investigation and close follow up are necessary once AFL develops. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
In the present report we investigated the differential expression of three types of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the left ventricle after myocardial infarction in rats. One, 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days (n=6-12 for each group) after ligation of a coronary artery, tissue samples were obtained from infarcted and non-infarcted tissues. The mRNA and protein levels of neuronal (n) NOS, endothelial (e) NOS and inducible (i) NOS were sequentially determined by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Progressive left ventricular dilatation and gradual reduction in fractional shortening were confirmed by echocardiography. The expression levels of nNOS were significantly increased 1, 3 and 7 days post-infarct compared to those of sham-operated rats in both the infarcted (P<0.01) and non-infarcted regions (P<0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis showed that nNOS was localized in nerve fibers in the left ventricle and that the number of positive fibers after myocardial infarction had increased compared to that in sham-operated rats. With regard to eNOS, no significant changes in expression levels were detected between infarcted hearts and sham-operated controls. The level of iNOS expression peaked three days post-infarct and then decreased in the infarcted tissue, whereas it increased one day post-infarct, peaked at 14 and 28 days post-infarct and was still elevated in the chronic stage in the ventricular septum. iNOS immunoreactivity was detected in spared cardiomyocytes and macrophages in the infarcted region, and in cardiomyocytes in the ventricular septum. The expressions of three types of NOS were differentially regulated and iNOS produced in the non-infarcted region may contribute to the progression of heart failure after myocardial infarction in rats. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
We prospectively analysed the potential usefulness of a symptom-limited walk test: the shuttle walk test (SWT), in the prediction of major cardiac events in 46 consecutive patients with chronic heart failure (NYHA class II-IV, ejection fraction <0.40) and compared it with that of a time-limited walk test, the six-minute walk test (6-MT). After a mean follow-up of 17 months (range, 8-28 months), 15 of 46 patients (33%) experienced a major cardiac event, defined as a cardiac death, urgent transplantation, or hospital admission for continuous inotropic or mechanical support. Distance walked in the SWT was shown to be a predictor of outcome at one year of follow-up (P=0.03), but distance ambulated in the 6-MT was not (P=0.07). In multivariate analysis, percentage of age-gender predicted peak oxygen uptake was the best predictor of major cardiac events. When patients were divided into tertiles according to performance in both walk tests, there was an overall difference in event-free survival at 12 months among SWT tertiles (P=0.004), but not among 6-MT tertiles (P=0.09). A low performance in the SWT (distance ambulated <450 m) allowed identification of a subgroup of patients with a high risk for major cardiac events at short-term. We conclude that, in patients with chronic heart failure, distance ambulated in the SWT predicts event-free survival at one year better than that in the 6-MT. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cachexia is a strong predictor for mortality in patients with congestive heart failure. To investigate the role of leptin and regulators of apoptosis in cardiac cachexia we compared leptin concentrations and their relation to the TNF system, interleukin 1-beta (TL-1b), and soluble Fas in patients with heart failure with and without cachexia. Patients with cardiac cachexia have increased levels of interleukin-1b compared to non-cachectic heart failure patients [mean(S.E.)=1.11(0.62) vs. 0.02(0.02), P=0.01] and decreased concentrations of leptin [10.79(3.93) vs. 23.24 (8.35), P=0.1]. Leptin levels correlate with TNF-RI in cachectic heart failure patients (r=0.58, P=0.018). The TNF-RI levels were also correlated with Fas, both in all the patients taken together (r=0.5, P=0.006) and in those with cachexia (r=0.52, P=0.036). Our data indicate that more prospective studies are needed to clarify the role of leptin in the pathophysiology of heart failure cachexia. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background: The non-invasive determination of the endothelial dysfunction (ED) of the brachial artery is a widely used method in clinical research. It remained, however, unclear, whether the test-results are influenced by the anatomical vessel size, the patients age, body mass index (BMI) or gender. Methods: The flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD%) of the brachial artery was determined in 122 consecutive (88 male, 34 female) patients. FMD% was measured using high resolution ultrasound (13 Mhz) at rest, during reactive hyperaemia and after the sublingual administration of glycerolnitrate (GTN%). Results: Lumen diameters at rest varied from 2.48 mm to 6.33 mm (4.46+/-0.74 mm). The extent of FMD% as well as of GTN% showed an inverse correlation to the resting lumen diameters (r=-0.33, P<0.001/r=-0.51, P<0.001). This correlation was even more distinct in females (females: FMD% r=-0.54, P<0.001; GTN% r=-0.64, P<0.001 vs. males: FMD% -0.23, P<0.001; GTN% -0.59, P<0.001). No significant influence of age (61+/-9 years, FMD%: r=-0.04, P=0.68, GTN%: r=-0.18, P=0.05) and BMI (27.03=/-3.43 kg/m(2), FMD%: r=0.16, P=0.08, GTN%: r=0.09, P=0.3) on the test results were found. Conclusions: FMD% was found to be rather independent of age or BMI. The anatomical vessel size had an influence on the test results, which was more obvious in female patients. Our data indicate the necessity of further methodological studies, in larger, community-based populations. In particular, it needs to be clarified, whether vessel size or even gender-specific correction factors are required when using this technique in routine clinical practice. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
To further define the HLA-linked genes controlling the susceptibility to Takayasu's arteritis, polymorphisms in five microsatellites around the HLA-B and MICA genes, C1-2-A, MIB, C1-4-1, C1-2-5, and C1-3-1, were investigated in 91 Japanese patients with Takayasu's arteritis and 248 healthy Japanese controls. It was found that allele 238 of C1-2-A [60.4% in patients vs. 29.8% in controls, odds ratio (OR) = 3.59, P-c < 0.000004], allele 332 of MIB (22.0% vs. 6.1%, OR = 4.32, P-c < 0.0003), allele 208 of C1-2-5 (47.3% vs. 24.6%, OR = 2.75, P-c = 0.001), and allele 291 of C1-3-1 (62.6% vs. 44.8%, OR = 2.07, P-c < 0.02) were significantly associated with the disease. Combined analyses of polymorphisms in the HLA-B and MICA genes with those in the microsatellites suggest that there are two different disease-susceptible loci for Takayasu's arteritis; one is mapped near the C1-2-A locus and the other is more closely linked to the HLA-B gene than to the MICA gene, because there are at least two different disease-associated HLA-B haplotypes, HLA-B*52 and -B*39.2 haplotypes, in which the disease-associated C1-2-A allele is shared in common. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aims: The purpose of this study was to analyse time trends in first acute myocardial infarction (AMI) incidence in Stockholm County during 1984-1996. Methods and results: The study base consisted of the population of Stockholm County 30-89 years old 1984-1996. New cases of first AMI in the study base were identified by combining information regarding hospital discharges and deaths. The diagnostic quality was evaluated for 2403 First-AMI cases 45-70 years old that occurred during 1992-1994. The evaluation indicated a very high agreement with diagnostic criteria of AMI among hospital treated cases. Among fatal cases outside hospital, the autopsy rate was nearly 70%. The incidence of first AMI declined during the study period for both men and women. In men, the age-adjusted incidence of first AMI was 18% lower in 1994-1996 than in 1984-1987 and in women it was 13% lower. The average yearly decline was 2% for men and 1.4% for women. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest a continued decline in AMI incidence in Stockholm. A reduction in the proportion of regular smokers has probably contributed to this decline. Future trends in AMI incidence are difficult to predict in view of diverging trends in risk factors. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background: A number of haemostatic devices are available to facilitate early haemostasis following transfemoral interventional procedures. Methods and results: We have prospectively compared 150 patients (age: 57+/-12 years, mean+/-S.D.) who were randomly assigned to either external compression using the FemoStop device or direct closure of the arterial puncture using the Angio-Seal device. The Angio-Seal was deployed in the catheter laboratory after the conclusion of the procedure. Patients, randomised to FemoStop, had their sheath removed when the activated clotting time (ACT) was less than 100 s before applying the device. The primary endpoint was the composite of bleeding, haematoma formation, bruise, requirement for blood transfusion, clinical indication for ultrasound examination at 2 h and 24 h following the procedure and crossover to either method at 2 and 24 h after the device deployment. The 95% of the Angio-Seal and 96% of FemoStop patients were discharged on the day following the procedure. An increased number of patients in the Angio-Seal group reached a clinical end-point within the first 2 h (45% vs. 3%, P<0.0001). This difference became insignificant at 24 h (25% vs. 30%, P=0.6). Conclusion: Although less comfortable, the overall efficacy of the FemoStop appeared to be higher than that of the Angio-Seal device. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Non-invasive imaging techniques for the detection of graft patency after multivessel coronary revascularisation may be useful for follow-up after surgery. Forty consecutive asymptomatic patients (38 men, age 59.9+/-1.3 years) who had undergone coronary bypass surgery with at least three grafts were examined by spiral computed tomography or magnetic resonance angiography 24.9+/-0.3 months after surgery, using conventional angiography as reference. In total, 133 grafts (37 internal mammary artery, 96 venous grafts) were analysed. Spiral computed tomography studies were performed with a subsecond scanner; for magnetic resonance angiography, a three-dimensional contrast-enhanced gradient echo technique with ultrashort echo time during breath holding was used. For spiral computed tomography, sensitivities were 76% (internal mammary artery) and 100% (venous graft). This was compared with 100% (internal mammary artery) and 92% (venous graft) assessed by magnetic resonance angiography (P=ns). The positive predictive values were 100% for internal mammary artery and venous graft (spiral computed tomography) and 100% (internal mammary artery), 92% for venous grafts studied by magnetic resonance angiography (P=ns). Both subsecond spiral computed tomography and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography are highly accurate and relatively non-invasive approaches of assessing coronary graft patency after multivessel revascularisation and have potential for follow-up assessment in the long term. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.