Spawned by stifling political authoritarianism and economic decay and triggered by the spectacle of the fall of the titans in Romania and elsewhere, a powerful backwash of popular demonstrations for "re-democratization" flooded all corners of Africa in 1990. The pro-democracy movement in Africa is discussed.
Although the major strategy for economic transformation in Nigeria has changed in recent years, it remains the case that policy makers must make decisions based on incomplete economic data. Nigeria's economic policy is examined.
Ghana's Economic Recovery Programme has been remarkably successful at a macroeconomic level. However, the program has helped rural rather than urban areas. Urban attitudes toward the program are examined.
The South African government's negotiating position with the African National Congress is compared to previous authoritarian regimes, such as in Brazil and Spain, that negotiated governmental transition. The South African government and the ANC's bilateral talks are traced from the mid-1980s to the talks' collapse in mid-1992.
IN THE YEARS following the Second World War, male farmers along the middle reaches of the Gambia river, spurred by a boom in groundnut prices, began to reorient their labour toward the greater production of groundnuts for export and away from coarse food grains. In the language of the colonial administration, the farmers began 'to neglect food production'. Female farmers, on the other hand, opened up a new ecozone and began to cultivate thousands of hectares of tidal river lowlands in order to grow swamp rice for local consumption. By the late 1970s this production system had come under increasing stress, and the independent government of the Gambia turned toward an ambitious plan to dam the Gambia river and to commit the state to a massive programme of industrial irrigated rice production. This paper examines processes of ecological and economic change along the middle reaches of the Gambia river in the period 1945 1985 and analyses constraints that have shaped the options for economic growth.
A description of social & economic change over the last 30 years in the Mgeta division of the Morogoro rural district in Tanzania's Uluguru mountains, drawing on published data, government census data, & a household survey (N not provided) of 9 rural neighborhoods conducted 1985-1987. Results indicate that the Mgeta division has changed from a mostly stable tribal society in the late 1950s to a population structure severely affected by the emigration of adult males to urban areas for wage labor, leaving a disproportionate number of women, children, & old people in the community, & creating a decline in the stability of marriages. These changes are not typical of the Morogoro district in general, but are a localized response to various economic pressures, most notably soil deterioration & a reduction in arable land, as well as outside pressures related to national development trends. However, noting that in other parts of Africa different social responses resulted from the same types of pressures, it is argued that social changes in the Mgeta division are rooted in specific local characteristics, especially local agronomy. Implications for government intervention are considered. 3 Tables, 1 Appendix. J. Taylor
In January 1945, strikes and rioting broke out in all of Uganda's major towns. The riots' origins and the colonial state's responses to them are examined regarding the government's dwindling grasp on reality and power.
Fieldwork conducted 1982/83 investigated the adaptation of the peasant farmers of Ayirebi, near Akyem Oda, in southeastern Ghana, to both economic & socioenvironmental stressors in the 1980s, including a contraction of the national economy following the global economic recession, drought, bush fires, & the return of Ghanaian nationals from Nigeria following their deportation by the Nigerian government. Here, results are presented from a 1989 follow-up examining the extent to which coping strategies have been continued after alleviation of the drought & other socioeconomic stresses. Data collected on a sample of 450 households via participant observation, unstructured interviews, questionnaires, & personal histories are used to describe socioeconomic differentiation among households in both coping strategies & in the control of & access to productive resources. Findings indicate that in spite of general economic stability & a greater level of imported goods available, the majority of rural dwellers rely more on local resources than on national inputs in order to reproduce their lives. The implications of such microlevel research findings for sustainable development programs in rural communities are considered. 7 Tables. Modified AA
French African policy is examined with particular attention to the features that have rendered obsolete many of the premises on which the policy is traditionally based. These obsolete ideas, which constitute major obstacles to reforms, are discussed.
Multicultural relations in post-apartheid South Africa are discussed with respect to the culture of violence, which seems to overwhelm reasonable hopes of building a peaceful, nonracial and democratic nation.
THE FALASHAS, or Judaic Ethiopians, today a tiny minority group living for the most part in North-Western Ethiopia, have long been a source of interest to foreign scholars, and in recent years have attracted considerable media interest as a result of Operations Moses and Solomon in which a large proportion of Ethiopia's age-old Falasha community were transported to Israel. Many authors have been so preoccupied with the Falashas' assumed similarities with world Jewry that they have too often failed to see them in their no less important Ethiopian historic and cultural context. The present article attempts to correct this imbalance.
In modern Africa there are many examples of the explicit use of religion to promote nationalism. An examination of the National Church of Nigeria and the Cameroons and its relationship to Nnamdi Azikiwe and his political movement is presented.